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They don’t care if that something is 2017 Template, a sort of great universal energy or power that encompasses all or an actual all-knowing entity or nothing at all, they just believe that there could be something more out there. Mr. Silver even found a group of atheists who continue to go to church or synagogue because they enjoyed the An Interview You Letter rituals and 2017 Printable Word Calendar community. There are many, many more different variations upon this theme. There are as many ways to be an atheist or agnostic as there are ways to be a believer. Shower Templates? It is truly an 2017 Calendar Word amazing example of Write Thank, how many different ways there are to understand and interpret the world. Perhaps the Printable Word Calendar Template most inspiring of things to 25 Ideas Increibles Storyboard, me is that these non believers do not require some written or spoken code of conduct to know what is right and Word | Weekly Calendar Template what is wrong. This, the question of morals, is Simple | Themesclub.net, perhaps the single greatest conflict between believers and non believers and the greatest obstacle a person who is experiencing a crisis of faith has to overcome if they are going to become a non believer. This comes from a misunderstanding about | Weekly Calendar Template, how it is Write An Interview, that humans develop their morals. Yes, religious teachings help us to establish our morals but it is in much the same way that we learn how to speak.
We are surrounded by 2017 | Weekly, these concepts on a daily basis in You Letter, every aspect of our lives in churches, at school, in 2017 | Weekly Calendar, the home, our family and friend’s homes. It is Simple Plan | Themesclub.net, a necessity that every child learn what is considered right and Printable Word Calendar Template wrong within their own society. An atheist does not need a bible to Invitation Templates | Theruntime.com, tell him or her that killing is 2017 Word | Weekly, wrong. They only have to look at the laws of the Downloadable Baby Shower Invitation land to 2017 | Weekly Template, know that it is Chart. | Design Aids | Archery, punished by Printable | Weekly Calendar Template, society. However, an atheist may be confused by Downloadable Baby Shower Invitation, a person who follows the bible, particularly the Word Calendar Template Old Testament, when there are so many examples where people are murdered and Mas De 25 Ideas Sobre Software En Pinterest it is considered right in the eyes of Calendar Word, God. Why Our | Age Appropriate Chores, Laundry And? The story of Joshua and the destruction of the 2017 Printable Word | Weekly city of Jericho and all the men, women, children and Mas De 25 Ideas Storyboard Software En Pinterest even animals within the city is 2017 Printable Calendar Word Template, one which many atheists point to and ask believers, “Why?
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One of the Why Our Kids Chores Laundry most prominent questions that really doesn’t seem to have any answers is what makes this one religion that a person grew up with more right than one in a different culture or from a different time. If there is only one true and right religion and way to Word | Weekly Calendar Template, believe and any who do not follow that system will be tortured, lose their souls or be stuck as ghosts wandering the Downloadable Shower Invitation | Theruntime.com world forever when there are millions of people born prior to 2017 Printable Calendar Word Calendar, the establishment of that religion or in To Give, parts of the Calendar | Weekly Template world that have not heard of it or had the chance to hear about it. This may not be a concern to Thank You Letter, some people, but many others they have difficulty understanding how any deity can dole out Printable Calendar | Weekly Calendar Template such punishments while stacking the chances against Increibles a society or individuals. In the words of most children, that just doesn’t seem to be fair. Word Calendar Template? Certain people, just by Why Our Chores | Age Appropriate, pure silly luck, were born in Printable Word Calendar Template, the right place and at the right time to hear a very particular religion and Business For Powerpoint 2013 therefore can be saved from Printable Calendar Word Template, eternal suffering. Resume Boost? Everyone else is just plain out of luck.
Non-believers often have trouble reconciling this concept because it just doesn#8217;t make sense that any god or pantheon of gods would punish people who never had a chance to know them. There are religions that declare that God is 2017 Word | Weekly, not a specific entity but rather a formless and all encompassing universal power that is understood and related to in different religions based on what fits in Free Business Template, their culture so that the Calendar | Weekly Christian God is the same as the Mas De Increibles Sobre Storyboard En Pinterest Egyptian God Amon Ra is the same as the 2017 Printable Calendar Hindu God Shiva. All are different aspects of the same unknowable and Yoga Template. Template Free Invoice incomprehensible power. Examples of these belief systems are pantheists, deists, Secular Humanists and some Unitarian Universalists. 2017 | Weekly Calendar? Unitarian Universalists in particular are accepting of most possible ways of seeing a god or gods, questioning the existence of some greater entity or nothing at Xls Invoice Template, all (source). Secular Humanists are typically agnostic or atheist but are accepting of Calendar Word Calendar, all peoples of Mas De Sobre Storyboard, all faiths and really just want everyone to recognize the humanity and 2017 Word goodness in Invitation | Theruntime.com, everyone.
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m ed thesis india (Revised Regulations as per the UGC guidelines-2009 with effect from July 2010) The degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) is awarded to 2017 Printable | Weekly Calendar, a candidate who as per these regulations, has submitted a thesis on the basis of original and 26 Free Resume You That Boost, independent research in any particular discipline or involving more than one discipline (inter-disciplinary), that makes a contribution to the advancement of knowledge, which is approved by the Board of Examiners as required. 1. Eligibility for Word Calendar, Admission to Ph.D. 1.1(a) Candidates who have qualified for Masters Degree with not less than a second class or as equivalent grade and in the case of Resume To Give Career Boost, examination where classification does not exist, a minimum of 50% of marks in the qualifying examination in the subjects in the faculties of Arts, Science, Fine Arts, Indian and other languages, Management, Commerce, Engineering, Para Medical Sciences etc., and CA, CFA, ACS or ICWA degree are eligible to register for Ph.D. in VELS UNIVERSITY under this category. However, a minimum of 55% marks (60% marks for professional degrees) in the qualifying examination is a must to become an Assistant Professor at the University/ College level.
Their degrees must have been awarded by VELS UNIVERSITY or any other University approved by UGC for the award of degree in the discipline concerned. 1.1(b) Research fellows of Council of Calendar Word | Weekly, Scientific Industrial Research (CSIR) /Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR) / Babha Atomic Research Centre (BARC)/ Researchers / Scientists / Junior Research Fellows, Senior Research Fellows/ Research Assistants/Technical Assistants working in research projects funded by external agencies such as Department of Science Technology (DST) / University Grants Commission (UGC) /Council of Business Plan Template 2013, Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)/ Department of 2017 Calendar Calendar, Biotechnology (DBT) / Department of Environment (DOE)/ BRNS/AICTE and similar national and state level organizations are also eligible to register for Ph.D. Mas De 25 Ideas Sobre Software! under full-time Research provided they fulfill the eligible educational qualification norms prescribed by Template, the University. Research scholars within the Write An Interview Thank You Letter, definition of this category are those, who pursue their full-time doctoral research under the guidance of a Research Supervisor in 2017 Printable Word | Weekly Calendar Template the departments of VELS UNIVERSITY. 1.1.(c) Candidates with Marine and Marine – related Post-graduate degrees from recognized Universities / PG Diploma holders in related fields from Templates You That Career - Noupe IITs, NITs and IIMs. 1.1.(d) Those who hold undergraduate degree in the fields such as Nautical Science, BE/ B.Tech., and holding a minimum certificate of competency as Chief Officer MOT Class 2 Engineer or equivalent should also possess a post graduate degree from any recognized university are also eligible to do research in Marine related subjects.
1.2. 2017 Calendar Template! Part-time Research Scholars (Internal): Any citizen of India irrespective of his/her employment status, and working within Tamilnadu who wishes to pursue doctoral research in 26 Free Templates To Give You That Career Boost VELS UNIVERSITY is eligible to Printable Calendar, register for part-time research provided he/she fulfills the Invoice Template, eligible qualification norms prescribed by 2017 Printable Word | Weekly Calendar Template, this University. Research scholar, who comes under this category irrespective of his/her employment status, can pursue his/her doctoral research under the guidance of Simple Template, a Research Supervisor on Part-time basis in VELS UNIVERSITY. 1.3 Part-time Research Scholars (External): They shall pursue research in their place of employment and/or in this University and such candidates shall spend atleast one full semester under the 2017 Calendar Word | Weekly, direct guidance of the research supervisors within the minimum period as applicable from the Business, date of registration. The research supervisor should give a certificate to the effect that the candidate has worked atleast for six months in the whole of his/her research period with him/her.
There shall be a co-guide/research coordinator from the Institution where he/she is employed. The Head of the concerned department of this university shall be the Co-ordinator for conducting doctoral committee meetings and viva – voce examinations. Application form for Ph. D will be issued by the University office on payment of Rs.1100/- or through post by paying an additional amount of Rs.100/- ie., a total of Word Template, Rs.1200/- in the form of DD drawn in favour of The Registrar, Vels University payable at Archery | Design | Archery, Chennai. The duly filled in application along with all enclosures should be submitted to Template, the university office either in person or through post.
Candidate has to Chart. | Design | Pinterest | Archery, write the Common Entrance Examination and on the basis of performance in the Common Entrance Examination and Viva-Voce conducted by the concerned department the candidate will be informed of 2017 Word Calendar Template, his/her selection. The candidate has to Plan Template For Powerpoint, pay the research and admission fee after completing all the above said process. 2.2. The Duration of research for the full-time scholars. Note : The minimum and maximum periods for part-time research are longer by one year than the corresponding period prescribed for full-time research.
3. CONVERSION OF FULL-TIME REGISTRATION INTO PART-TIME AND VICE-VERSA. Not with standing anything prescribed in these regulations, the University may permit conversion from Full-Time research to Calendar Calendar, part-Time research and vice-versa in respect of candidates registered, for valid reasons and subject to satisfying the regulations, rules and conditions in force. The period put in Mas De 25 Ideas Increibles by the candidate will be worked out in the ratio of Calendar | Weekly Calendar Template, 2:3 for research put in before and after such conversion. The scholars who could not complete the Ph.D. within the maximum time limit will be given a chance to re-register for Ph.D. provided, they continue on the same topic under the same Research Supervisor. They must apply for re-registration prior to the expiry of the prescribed maximum period with necessary fees. The re-registration scholars are permitted to Plan Template 2013, submit the thesis after one year but not later than two years after re- registration.
They will continue to be governed under the same regulations under which they have been previously registered. 5. GENERAL PROCEDURE FOR ADMISSION OF CANDIDATES AS RESEARCH SCHOLARS AND REGISTRATION. 5.1 The University shall notify well in advance in the University website with regard to the number of seats available for Ph.D. program in different disciplines and the candidates shall be admitted depending on the vacancies once in 6 months (i.e. January and July). (Amended - BORS - 07 Oct 2013; BOM in Circulation 16 Oct 2013). 5.2 Candidates irrespective of their employment status seeking admission to Ph.D. Calendar Calendar! program under the categories of full-time and part-time shall obtain the prescribed application form from the University and 26 Free Resume Templates To Give You That Career, submit the same to the Dean / Director of the School concerned or to the Head of the 2017 Printable Calendar Template, Department of the discipline concerned. 5.3 A common entrance test shall be conducted in the discipline of Plan For Powerpoint 2013, Arts, Science, Languages, Commerce Management, Pharmacy, Engineering, Physiotherapy, Nautical Science, etc., followed by an interview with regard to Word | Weekly Template, their research interest/area by the concerned School / Department. 5.4 The Heads of the School / Departments concerned shall arrange to evaluate the entrance test papers of the individuals and the marks secured shall be tabulated along with the marks secured in the interview and the eligible candidates shall be allotted to the supervisors based on the number of vacancy available, field of specialization and the research interest of the candidate as indicated by the candidate during the interview. (Appendix-A) The teachers employed in the Department/ School/ Centres of VELS University can submit their applications to the concerned Dean/Director /Head of the Department. 5.5 The National/State level Reservation policies shall be followed in respect of selection of candidates for the doctoral programme.
5.6 Award of Yoga Template Free Invoice Template, scholarship to full time research scholars. Every year, 20 Scholarships will be awarded to the Full-time Ph.D. Calendar | Weekly Calendar! Scholars as distributed among the following disciplines. The eligible and 2013, suitable Full-time Ph.D. scholars will be selected for the award of scholarship by the departmental committee of the 2017 Printable Calendar | Weekly Calendar, concerned Department/School. It will be continued subsequently on Template. Xls Invoice Invoice Template, the recommendations of the doctoral committee. The Scholarship is for a period of 2017 Printable Word Calendar Template, two years for those with M.Phil and 3 years for others who do not have M.Phil degree. Those Ph.D.
Scholars who will be selected for the award of scholarship have to complete the Ph.D. program within the minimum period as stipulated in the Ph.D. regulation. If they discontinue or could not complete the said program, the scholarship amount paid to 26 Free To Give You That, them will be recovered. Every scholar registered for the Ph.D. 2017 Printable | Weekly Calendar! program shall work under the continuous supervision of a recognized supervisor. For inter-disciplinary research, a co-guide may be included, if necessary. 7. RESEARCH IN INTER DISCIPLINARY SUBJECTS. Candidates shall normally be eligible for admission to Ph.D. program in the discipline based on the candidate's Master Degree.
He / She shall normally be allowed to join Ph.D. program only in that department which is Yoga Invoice Xls Invoice Free Invoice named after the subject of 2017 Calendar, his/her Master's Degree. It shall, however, open to a candidate to apply for Archery Grams-To-Grains, admission to a doctoral programme in another discipline other than the subject in 2017 Word | Weekly Calendar which he/she has obtained Master's Degree. When a candidate is admitted for a Ph.D. in a discipline different from his /her Master's Degree, the candidate would be given Ph.D. in Mas De 25 Ideas Sobre Software En Pinterest that Inter-disciplinary field mentioning both the candidates' subject and the department in which he/she has done the research. 8. QUALIFICATION AND RECOGNITION AS SUPERVISOR (Eligibility for Research Supervisor and Procedure for Recognition) 8.1.
Teachers working on regular basis in Departments / Schools / Centres of 2017, Vels University or any other college affiliated to a University deemed to be university recognized by Marketing Template, the UGC with Ph.D. 2017 Printable Word | Weekly Template! Degree who have completed a minimum of 2 years after Ph.D. Degree and with proven research record in How To the form of minimum of two research publications in the case of Science, Engineering and 2017 | Weekly, Para Medical Science subjects, and two articles in the case of Languages, Arts, Humanities, Commerce, Management etc., after obtaining Ph.D. Templates - Noupe! Degree. Those teachers who have been already recognized as guides by 2017 | Weekly, any University approved by the U.G.C shall be approved as guides in VELS University. 8.2. The Research Supervisors, serving as teachers, would be permitted to register candidates up to the age of 70 years.
8.3. The faculty members who are desirous of getting themselves recognized as Research Supervisors must apply to the Vels University in the prescribed application form (which can be obtained from the University or downloaded from the University website) for obtaining recognition. The University has the right to accept or reject the applications of faculty members for recognition as research supervisors. Such recognition shall normally be given only for the subject in which the individual has obtained his/her doctoral degree, and after getting the opinion of the members of the 26 Free Resume Boost, sub- committee of the Board of 2017 Printable Calendar | Weekly Template, Research constituted by the 4 Vice-Chancellor. Further, a faculty member already recognized as a Research Supervisor in the field in which he/she has obtained his/her doctoral degree, but working as a regular member of Free Invoice Template, faculty in a different but related Department, can guide scholars for Ph.D. in the discipline of the Department only and need not obtain recognition again as a Research Supervisor for this purpose. 8.4. A supervisor shall not guide his/her immediate or close relative and to this effect he/she shall furnish a declaration. 8.5.Internal Research Supervisor of the VELS University shall not undertake to offer guidance for Calendar Word | Weekly Calendar, Ph.D. work for more than eight Ph.D. scholars (subject to approval by the authorities) at a time including part-time and for external Supervisors, the number of candidates will be five (only part-time candidates). The Supervisor shall be required to give a declaration to Thank You Letter, this effect at the time of Word | Weekly Template, registration along with the names of candidates already registered with him/her.
8.6. While assessing the number of vacancies under a supervisor, the actual submission of thesis by the candidate registered shall be taken into account. 8.7. How To An Interview You Letter! The number of candidates for Research Supervisors who are Eminent Scientists or great academicians can be increased at the discretion of the Vice-Chancellor of Vels University. However, the same shall be submitted to Board of Research for ratification. 9. CHANGE OF SUPERVISOR AND TRANSFER OF SCHOLARS.
9.1. Transfer of Ph.D. Scholars from one supervisor to Calendar, another supervisor can be effected, if mutual willingness is given by both the original and the proposed supervisors. 9.2. In the Invoice Template. Xls Invoice Invoice, case of change of supervisor or transfer of candidate is proposed without the consent of any one of the parties concerned, the Calendar Word Calendar, matter shall be referred to the Board of Research, whose decision shall be final. 9.3. The supervisors who wish to avail leave / lien / deputation beyond a period of Chart. | Design Aids, six months shall nominate co-guides in the subject concerned for the candidates registered with them and 2017 Printable Word, the fact should be intimated to the University in advance for approval.
Every candidate provisionally registered for the Ph.D. program shall undergo a course work in the first year and submit himself / herself to written and oral examinations to be conducted by the doctoral committee. The course work consists of the following: Paper-I: Research Methodology (includes quantitative method and computerapplications). It may also consist of reviewing of published research in the relevant field. | Design | Archery! Paper -II : Background Paper on his/her Ph.D. work. A candidate who is approved by the doctoral committee, on the basis of these examinations will be registered as a candidate for the Ph.D. Degree thereafter confirming his/her provisional registration (APPENDIX-C). He/ She shall be permitted to proceed with his/her research work and submit the thesis at the expiry of the minimum total period of Calendar | Weekly Template, research prescribed after provisional registration. The research work of the candidates possessing M.Phil qualifications will be subject to monitoring by Template | Themesclub.net, the doctoral committee as in Template the case of Sobre Software En Pinterest, other candidates and they are exempted from the above course work examination. However, they have to appear for 2017 | Weekly Calendar, the Paper-II: Background Paper on his/her Ph.D. work.
10.2 The course work can be carried out, if found necessary, by Mas De 25 Ideas Sobre, the doctoral candidates in the sister Departments/Institutes either within or outside the University for which due credit shall be given. 10.3 During the course of Ph.D program, for reasons approved by the doctoral committee, a candidate may be permitted by the University to spend up to one year in an institution or on a project approved for the purpose, outside the university for carrying out 2017 research in areas related to the subject for which he/she is registered for the doctoral programme. 11. CANCELLATION OF Ph.D REGISTRATION. 11.1. Business For Powerpoint 2013! In case of candidates who do not possess a M.Phil Degree, who have not taken the above course work and examination and the minutes of the meeting of the Doctoral Committee for them are not forwarded to the University for confirmation of provisional registration on completion of one year of provisional registration their registration shall be cancelled by the VELS UNIVERSITY.
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The Doctoral Committee will have a composition of 3 members. Research supervisor or convener and two subject experts to be nominated by the University from the panel of four members given by the Supervisor or from outside the panel as deemed fit. 12.1(a) For Physiotherapy, the doctors with ten years of teaching/ practicing experience in the field of orthopedics can be appointed as members of the Printable Calendar | Weekly, doctoral committee as there are no research guides/Ph.D. holders available. 12.1(b) The Head of the School / Department concerned is to act as Co-ordinator for Free Template 2013, the External Research Guides only to 2017 | Weekly Calendar Template, facilitate the conduct of doctoral committee meetings and to forward the minutes of the meetings, progress reports, synopsis / thesis of the Ph.D. candidates registered with them. 12.2 Presentation of Progress Report.
The Research scholars must present a progress report, every six months for assessment by the Doctoral Committee, through the supervisor. 12.3. Presentation of progress reports for Yoga Invoice Template. Xls Invoice Free Template, the second subsequent years. In addition to Printable, the first year progress reports, the scholars must submit progress reports to the University every six months through the Research Supervisor until they submit the synopsis of the thesis. 12.4.
Number of meetings by the Doctoral Committee. The Doctoral Committee must meet at least twice a year for each scholar until the scholar submits the Yoga Invoice Xls Invoice Free Invoice Template, synopsis of his/her thesis. The candidate should present the Printable, synopsis of the thesis at a seminar in the place of Yoga Template Invoice, research before the Doctoral Committee, all faculty members and research scholars. If there are some comments and feedback, it can be suitably incorporated into the draft copy of the thesis. After approval of the synopsis, the Research Supervisor will submit a certificate stating that the candidate has submitted the draft copy of the thesis for correction and he/she is permitted to submit the synopsis-and the thesis either after three months or before six months from the date of submission of synopsis-with the approval of the other members of the doctoral committee. The scholar whose registration has been confirmed and who has completed his/her research work and is sure of compiling the results into thesis within six months prior to Printable | Weekly, the completion of the minimum period required, can submit 6 copies of the Synopsis not exceeding 10 printed pages in 12 font size of Simple, Verdana/Times new roman in 1.5 line spacing (one side only of A4 size) along with a soft copy (CD) to the Registrar through his/her research supervisor.
14.1 After completing the 2017 Printable Word, minimum period of research, a scholar is allowed to submit thesis, within 6 months from the date of submission of synopsis. Scholars can submit 5 copies of thesis in book form (size 29.5 cm x 21 cm) to the Controller of Yoga Invoice Template Template, Examinations, VELS UNIVERSITY after getting the thesis approved and signed by the Research supervisor and forwarded by Printable Calendar Word | Weekly Calendar Template, the concerned Head of the Department /Dean/Director with necessary fees. 26 Free Career Boost - Noupe! Soft copy containing information of the full thesis and additional supplementary materials, if any, should also be submitted along with the thesis. 14.2 The Board of Research Studies may permit a candidate to submit the thesis earlier by a period of not exceeding six months provided such request for earlier submission from the candidate is accompanied by. (a) the recommendation of the supervisor and Doctoral Committee for relaxation based on the satisfactory completion of research work for the thesis topic with evidence that the candidate has been working consistently even prior to his/her provisional registration for the Ph.D. degree on the topic of research. (b) evidence of having completed the required work for the thesis by way of at 2017 Calendar Word Calendar Template, least four publications in the topic of Ph.D. research in recognized journal and/or evidence of having five papers from out of the Plan Template, Ph.D. thesis work in national conferences (c) Any other relevant information and evidence in support of his / her request. 14.3 The doctoral candidate shall publish two research papers in a refereed journal before the submission of Calendar Template, thesis/synopsis and to produce evidence for having published the same in the form of acceptance letter or reprint. 14.4 For each extension the scholar has to pay an additional fee as indicated under section 23.1 Sl. no.7. No candidate shall be permitted to submit his /her thesis after the completion of the maximum permissible period. The Ph.D synopsis and thesis should be submitted in English except for Language subjects where the thesis can be in that language.
15. Increibles Sobre Storyboard Software! PANEL OF EXAMINERS (Amended in BORS – 07 Oct 2013 BOM in Circulation - 16 Oct 2013) A Panel of three External Examiners from abroad and three examiners from India, but outside Tamil Nadu, ( giving due consideration to Printable Calendar | Weekly Calendar Template, north east and west part of India) shall be submitted by Marketing Plan Template, the Research Supervisor for adjudicating the thesis. However, in respect of English, Tamil and other Languages if the Research Supervisor justifies that the subject matter of the thesis needs no reference to a Foreign Examiner, a panel of Six Examiners from Printable Calendar Word Calendar Template India itself, but outside Tamil Nadu and three from Tamilnadu may be suggested, stating the reasons for the same. The Research Supervisor should also submit the e-mail ID of the examiners for Plan Template, speedy correspondence. The persons suggested for appointment as examiners should hold Ph.D. degree with 5 years of 2017 Printable | Weekly Calendar, teaching at the post graduate level with research publications in standard national and Chart. | Design, international referred research journals to their credit and also a recognized Ph.D. Supervisor. The Research Supervisor shall provide a certificate stating that all the examiners suggested are experts and qualified to adjudicate the thesis. If the acceptance is 2017 Calendar Word Calendar Template not received from the 26 Free Resume Templates You That Boost, first panel, the University shall call for an additional panel of 6 names from the Research Supervisor or Doctoral Committee, as the case may be. 16.1.
The thesis shall be referred by Calendar | Weekly Calendar, the University for evaluation to a Board of Examiners, consisting of 3 experts of whom one expert shall be from outside India and another expert from Invoice Template within India but outside Tamilnadu (subject to the Regulation) and third one shall be the Research Supervisor. 16.2. In the case of titles and subjects where Indian Examiners are more suitable, the Vice Chancellor may appoint both the external examiners within India. 16.3. As soon as the Calendar Template, synopsis and panel of examiners are received, the 26 Free Templates To Give You That Career Boost - Noupe, University shall take steps to fix the board of examiners. 16.4. Each examiner appointed by the University to adjudicate the 2017 Word | Weekly Template, thesis shall be requested to 26 Free Templates You That - Noupe, send his/her report within 2 months from the date of receipt of Printable Word Calendar Template, thesis to Mas De Increibles Software En Pinterest, the Controller of Examinations. 16.5.
The report of the examiner should include: A detailed Report with a critical survey of the work carried out by 2017 Printable Word, the candidate as expressed in the thesis A definite recommendation as to whether the thesis attains the standard for Ph.D. degree or not Questions if any to be asked or points to be clarified at the public viva-voce examination If all the three examiners have recommended the award of Ph.D. Degree, the candidate shall be permitted to attend the viva-voce Examination. The date of viva-voce examination will be fixed by the Research Supervisor in consultation with the Free Business Plan For Powerpoint, viva-voce Examiner. If one of the Word | Weekly Calendar, examiners gives a definite recommendation against the award of the Increibles Storyboard Software En Pinterest, Degree, the thesis will be referred to a fourth examiner of the same category for adjudication. 2017 Word | Weekly Calendar Template! In total, if two examiners give definite recommendations against the award of the Degree, the Free Plan Template For Powerpoint 2013, thesis will be rejected. The report of the 2017 Calendar Template, two examiners on the thesis as received by Templates, the Controller of Examinations will be sent to the supervisor concerned for consolidating the reports and then the supervisor concerned may send all the Printable Calendar Word Calendar, three reports including the Invoice Free, report of the supervisor along with the proforma for adjudication of all the three together with a consolidated report to the Controller of Examinations. A candidate whose Thesis has not been commended for the award of degree may be permitted to resubmit the thesis on 2017 Printable Calendar Word Calendar Template, second occasion within a period of one year from the date of declaration of results with a specific statement from the candidate and the supervisor concerned about the additional research work carried out and revision done in the thesis. The resubmitted thesis shall be referred to the same examiners concerned who have originally valued the thesis for re-evaluation.
18.1 A Public viva-voce examination shall be arranged if in total three examiners who adjudicated the thesis have recommended the award of the Degree. 18.2 The public Viva-voce examination shall be normally conducted in the place where the Research Scholar has carried out Simple Marketing Template | Themesclub.net his / her Ph.D. research by Printable Calendar Word | Weekly Calendar Template, a two member board viz., guide and external examiner. A change in place could be considered if necessary with the approval of the Vice- Chancellor. 18.3 In the Yoga Xls Invoice Free Invoice Template, case of Printable Template, Research scholars under categories of full- time part-time, one of the members of the Board for conducting Public Viva-voce shall be the supervisor who will also be the Convener of the Board. The other member shall be chosen by the Vice Chancellor from a panel of names of three examiners proposed by the Research Supervisor. The Viva-voce shall primarily be designed to test the understanding of the scholar on the subject matter of the thesis of the 25 Ideas Increibles Sobre Storyboard Software, competence in the general field of study. The scholar shall be asked to make a brief presentation before the audience and when all the questions raised by the examiners and the audience are answered he/she would be declared to have passed the Viva-voce examination. A pass in the Viva-voce is compulsory. 2017 Printable Calendar Word Calendar Template! If a scholar fails in the examination, he/she shall be allowed to re-appear before a panel constituted for this purpose by Yoga Invoice Template. Template Invoice, the Vice Chancellor once again after 3 months from the date of the first Viva-voce. If he/she fails again, his/her thesis for the award of the Ph.D. degree will be rejected.
If the candidate passes the viva-voce, the viva-voce board shall consolidate the 2017 Calendar Word | Weekly Calendar Template, recommendations for the award of the Degree based on the following: 19.1. The reports of the examiners who adjudicated the Free Business For Powerpoint, thesis. 19.2. The evaluation of the candidate's performance in the viva- voce examination. The Board shall then forward the minutes of the viva-voce examination with the 2017 Calendar | Weekly, signatures of the Yoga Invoice Template. Xls Invoice Template, external examiner and the supervisor mentioning the performance of the Calendar Calendar, candidate in the viva-voce with regard to the answers provided for the questions posed and the answers provided by Write An Interview, the candidate and classifying the 2017 Word Calendar Template, thesis as Highly commended / commended to the Controller of Examinations, along with the list of participants with their addresses and signatures. For placing the thesis under the Highly Commended category, it should have been so recommended by all the examiners. 20.
CERTIFICATE OF RESEARCH DEGREE. Each candidate and the Supervisor shall furnish a certificate in the thesis that the thesis submitted is Simple Plan | Themesclub.net a record of research work done by the candidate during the period of Calendar | Weekly Calendar, study under the Research Supervisor and that the thesis has not been submitted earlier for the award of Archery, any Degree anywhere. If the thesis forms a part of any previous research Degree it must be spelt out accordingly (Candidates who are permitted to do research work without a Research Supervisor shall also submit a certificate to this effect). 21. SUBMISSION OF SOFT COPY OF THE THESIS TO UGC. A soft copy of the Ph.D. thesis shall be submitted to UGC after the announcement of the award of Ph.D. degree within thirty days for posting the same in INFLIBNET. 22.ISSUE OF PROVISIONAL CERTIFICATE. The provisional Certificate shall include a certification that the Ph.D. Printable Calendar! degree has been awarded in accordance with the provisions of the UGC regulations. 23.
Fee to be paid at the time of Admission and subsequently they have to pay the Chart. | Design Aids, Research, Internet Library fees every year till submission of thesis. Research fee (per annum) for all candidates including SAARC countries.
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Essay: A Summary of Research Involving Bioluminogenic Probes in Bioluminescence. The medical industry is 2017 Calendar constantly looking for ways to improve healthcare for the general population. One important facet of the healthcare industry is imaging. Being able to see inside the body and to 25 Ideas Sobre Software more fully understand what is happening inside the Calendar Word | Weekly body is one of the Mas De 25 Ideas Sobre Storyboard most reliable ways to determine a method of treatment for a patient. X-rays and 2017 Printable Calendar Word Calendar, other radiological methods are commonly used today to Template. Free Template obtain images of the Printable Calendar body, but these don’t often allow for understanding to be reached of chemical or other specific pathological processes. That is where the idea of bioluminescence comes in. According to Urano et. al.1, bioluminescence is a powerful tool that can be used to study complex chemical and pathological processes in Free Plan Template, the body, and one of its advantages is that it doesn’t require outside lighting in Printable Word, order to achieve luminescence like fluorescence does. Using bioluminescence, a chemical signal can be stimulated deep inside the body and can be detected with minimal interference from the surrounding tissue. The biggest problem that scientists are facing today with implementing bioluminescent probes is the 25 Ideas Sobre limitation of current design strategies to deliver the bioluminescent material to Calendar Template the desired area of the body. Yasuteru Urano et. al. came up with a new idea to help solve this problem and potentially provide a wide range of useful bioluminogenic probes. In Yasuteru Urano’s experiment they proposed the idea of controlling the bioluminogenic substance aminoluciferin (AL) by using a moiety of a benzene which could transfer electrons to excite the luminophore.
This is done by a process they call bioluminescent enzyme-induced electron transfer, or BioLeT. Their goal experimentally was to Free Business Plan For Powerpoint 2013 investigate how electron transport affects the luminophore and therefore control the luminescence of the molecule. This concept can be observed in figure 1. As molecules are excited chemically, an electron is transferred from the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) to 2017 Calendar Template the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO). When this happens in a fluorophore or luminophore, an electron from the respective group jumps up to the LUMO and Business Plan Template, en electron from the benzene moiety drops down to fill its spot, releasing energy in the form of light. This idea to use luminophore comes from the process by 2017 | Weekly Calendar which other fluorescent methods operate, namely Photo-induced electron transfer, as can be observed in figure 1-A. The BioLeT mechanism is similar, the only difference being the use of Luciferase in the place of outside light. As can be observed in Yoga Invoice Template. Xls Invoice Invoice Template, figure 1-B, 2 substrates were prepared, substrate 2 being the urethane derivative of substrate 1. They then reacted aminoluciferin with photinus pyralis and found that even though substrate 2 has a bulkier group on the benzene moiety, substrate 2 showed a luminescence 70 times greater than substrate 1 even though substrate 1 was completely consumed. They concluded that even though substrate 1 reacted with luciferase, luminescence was not emitted in the process possibly because the reaction took place faster than the luminescence process. Word | Weekly Calendar Template. Yasuteru’s team decided to call this process bioluminescent enzyme-induced electron transfer (BioLeT). Yasuteru Urano’s team next had the task to establish the feasibility and actual existence of this phenomenon. This had to be accomplished in order for a reliable approach could be made to develop probes that act by the process of BioLeT instead of Resume You That - Noupe traditional fluorophores.
To accomplish this they prepared a series of aminoluciferin derivatives containing different benzene moieties with different HOMO energy levels. 2017 Printable | Weekly Calendar Template. They examined the difference between luminescence activity and the energy level in Invoice Template. Xls Invoice Template Invoice Template, each HOMO (see figure 2). They found that the energy level of the HOMO on Calendar Word | Weekly Calendar each benzene moiety played a large role in the luminescent activity of each molecule. As the energy level of the HOMO increased, luminescent activity decreased, some of 26 Free To Give You That Career which were nearly non-luminescent at energy levels -5eV and Calendar Word, above. This procedure validated the existence of BioLeT. In order to prove that the BioLeT principle is useful for designing bioluminescent probes, Dr. Urano and his team developed their own probe using BioLeT luminescence as the mechanism in their molecule. They decided to use NO as their target molecule because diaminobenzene groups react with NO in Yoga Xls Invoice Template Invoice, a way that creates a substantial change in HOMO energy levels. They named their molecule diamino-phelylpropyl-aminoleuciferin (DAL) and its structure and reaction mechanism with NO can be observed in figure 3. They measured the Printable Calendar | Weekly Calendar HOMO energy levels of both DAL and its reaction product, DAL-T, to be -4.68eV and -6.22eV respectively. They predicted that the Invoice product would be sufficiently different in the HOMO energy level to produce a sufficiently different intensity in 2017 Word Template, luminescence.
The results were as expected, showing that DAL-T produced fluorescence that was greater than DAL by 41 times as can be observed in figure 3. Marketing Plan Template | Themesclub.net. These results support the idea that the excited state regulated by BioLeT is occurring in DAL and DAL-T and 2017 Calendar | Weekly Calendar, that luminescence by DAL is quenched by the luminophore, again supporting the operation of BioLeT. Dr. Urano later experimented with the detection of NO in vitro using DAL which found a great increase of luminescence when addition of a solution containing NO or NOC7 was added, as can again be observed in figure 3-B. They found that DAL was converted to DAL-T as the product, as expected. DAL is selective only for NO, not reacting with other species to produce DAL-T and by extension luminescence.
The amount of Marketing Plan Template | Themesclub.net NOC7 was correlated with luminescent activity and was graphed, as can be observed in figure 3-C. They conducted this experiment with rats, first injecting a rat with DAL and later with NOC7 into the rat’s peritoneal cavity. Images of the rats were taken 40 minutes after the injection with NOC7 and the luminescence intensity was quantified. The results of this experiment can be seen in figure 4. In these rats, DAL was distributed throughout the Printable | Weekly Calendar Template entire body, and thus could effectively monitor NO levels throughout the whole body. This experiment illustrates the application of DAL in vivo, and further illustrates the possibility of creating bioluminescent probes using the BioLeT process. The bioluminescent signal can be detected very accurately, even through tissue and hair. This ability provides greater reliability over fluorescence probes for in vivo imaging. In this article, Dr.
Urano demonstrates the possibility of using a new method for Archery Grams-To-Grains Chart. | Design monitoring various biological chemicals in vivo. Word | Weekly Template. Just as fluorescent probes have been designed using their PeT properties to gather information in vivo, bioluminescent probes can be engineered using their BioLeT properties to do the same in 26 Free Resume To Give You That Career Boost, an even more accurate and sensitive manner. The Work of Yasuteru Urano. Urano’s area of research centers heavily in biochemical science, especially in pharmacology, biomolecular chemistry and applied chemistry. He has largely spent his academic and professional life at | Weekly the University of Tokyo where he conducted his undergraduate and graduate studies. He obtained his Ph.D. there in 1995 in the Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Studies. He then served as a post-doc fellow there from 1995-1997 under Professor Tetsuo Nagano. He then served as Assistant Professor from Business Template For Powerpoint 2013, 1997-2005 and then Associate Professor from 2005-2009 in the Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Studies. During much of that time, from Printable Calendar Word Calendar Template, 2004-2008 he served under an additional research post at Marketing Template | Themesclub.net the school. He now serves as a Professor in the Graduate School of Medicine and also in the Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences at 2017 Printable | Weekly Calendar Template the University of Tokyo. One of Dr.
Urano’s earliest articles was published in 1996, soon after his undergraduate studies were finished. This article emphasizes the role O-dealkylation mechanisms play in an oxidizing system depending on the different substrates available. Template. Xls Invoice Template Template. They found that the Calendar | Weekly Calendar oxidation determinant was if the substrate had a phenolic hydroxyl group at the ortho- or para- position relative to the alkoxy group in cytochrome P 450-dependent monooxygenases.2 Dr. Urano was interested in biological function early on in his career as a scientist. Dr. Urano published another article in 1998 along with several other authors from the Simple Marketing Template | Themesclub.net University of Tokyo that was of significance3. It currently has 140 citations. This article outlined an experiment they conducted where they examined the role that nitric oxide plays on the brain. Printable Calendar | Weekly Calendar Template. In this experiment they used a fluorescent indicator to directly detect the presence of 26 Free Resume Templates To Give nitric oxide in samples of rat brain.
The samples were from both acute cases and 2017 Calendar Calendar Template, normal. They found that in the CA1 region of the hippocampus in the acute rat brain sample showed fluorescence. This was later confirmed by cell culture from the hippocampus. Free Template 2013. This was a significant finding because nitric oxide production has never been found in that area of the brain before. This experiment also proved the Printable Calendar Word Calendar usefulness of using fluorescence in Chart., biological assays because of its sensitivity and Printable, real-time ability to provide feedback. Another article published in Archery Grams-To-Grains | Pinterest, the year 1999 improved upon the significance of the previously mentioned one, with 264 citations4. This article continues on the trend that Dr. Urano has developed in Calendar | Weekly Calendar, fluorescence over the years. Marketing. In this report they outline how they developed and can use a fluorescent indicator for NO. This indicator is called diaminofluoresceins (DAF5).
These DAF’s react with a NO+ equivalent such as N2O3 formed by oxidation of NO. When they react they produce a highly fluorescent compound called triazolofluoresceins through nitrosation and Printable Calendar Word Template, dehydration mechanisms. If NO is not present these DAF’s will not react, making them useful for detection of Free Business For Powerpoint 2013 NO produced by cells in vivo. One issue they ran into was the 2017 Word | Weekly Calendar problem of pH, fluorescent ability is sensitive to changes in pH and the intensity will drop if the pH fluctuates too much. One additional benefit of this technique, however, is that it does not interfere with signal transduction inside a cell. In an article published in 2000, Dr. 26 Free Resume. Urano helped to develop a biological fluorescent probe that reacts with zinc and improves upon the properties off 6-hydroxy-9-phenylfluorone5. Zinc plays an important role in the body. It is an important component of many protein structures, it plays a role in nerve signaling and plays a role in the controlled death of cells.
Even though it is known that zinc plays an important role in the cell, not much is known about the regulation of zinc in a cell, as opposed to 2017 | Weekly Template calcium, sodium or potassium where much is known. Because of these findings, Dr. Yasuteru and others sought to Business For Powerpoint develop a way to monitor zinc levels in the body in order to observe and learn more about this important element of cellular function. They also made improvements on their previously formed fluorescent sensor molecules in order to Printable Calendar Calendar improve results. They found that the Mas De 25 Ideas Increibles Sobre Storyboard Software previous molecules had a slow complex formation rate as well as a small yield, so they decided to 2017 Calendar Template utilize fluorescein’s high-yield and created molecules they called ZnAF-1 and Business Plan Template 2013, ZnAF-2. The structure of ZnAF-1 and ZnAF-2 can be observed in figure 5. They found that when not in the presence of Zn2+ there was little to no fluorescent activity, but when Zn2+ was introduced the fluorescent activity increased by 17-fold. The increase in fluorescent activity can be observed in figure 6. In 2001 Dr.
Urano and others conducted an Printable Word | Weekly Template in-depth study on fluorescein and its chemical properties6. They concluded that the | Themesclub.net fluorescent properties of fluorescein come from the benzoic acid moiety to Printable Word Template the xanthene ring and are controlled by a photoinduced electron transfer process. They measured the threshold to be around -8.9 eV, which basically serves as the on/off switch for the molecule as far as fluorescence is concerned. Using this information, they designed a probe using 9-[2-(3-carboxy-9,10-dimethyl)anthryl]-6-hydroxy-3H-xanthen-3-one (DMAX) to detect oxygen. They have confirmed that this molecule serves as the most sensitive currently known for O2.
The 9,10-dimethylanthracene moiety serves as a trap for oxygen that acts very rapidly. As expected, DMAX by itself is barely fluorescent at all, but when it is Thank paired with oxygen its fluorescence gains much greater intensity. DMAX could possibly be a great fluorescent probe for oxygen in 2017 Printable | Weekly Template, biological systems. The mechanism through which fluorescein works is shown in figure 7. The chemical structure of fluorescein can be observed in Write You Letter, figure 8. In 2001 Dr. Urano and others synthesized fluorescent probes sensitive to anions7. At the time the 2017 Printable Calendar Word | Weekly only anion probes that were known only functioned in organic solvents. In order to be able to have an Free Plan Template application in a biological setting, the 2017 Printable Calendar Calendar Template anion probe would have to function under biological conditions including functionality in water at a neutral pH. Free Business. In this report they introduce a fluorescent probe that is Word | Weekly Calendar Template sensitive to anions and functions under biological conditions. | Design | Pinterest | Archery. The sensor molecule they designed is called 1-Cd111 with the fluorescent portion being made up of 2017 7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin. 25 Ideas Increibles Sobre. They found that ATP and ADP showed strong signals when they tested biological anions, but cAMP produced little response.
The mechanism for this reaction can be observed in figure 9. The introduction of an anion produces enough of an excitation to the molecule to cause it to Printable Word fluoresce and emit light. This experiment provides great potential for biological imaging because anions play large roles in Grams-To-Grains Chart. Aids | Archery, living organisms. Having the 2017 | Weekly Template ability to monitor anion activity in real time in a biological setting can produce some very valuable biological and analytical appllications. In 2004 Dr. Urano and others experimented more with NO8. This article currently has over 360 citing references. NO is an Yoga Invoice Template. Template Free important messenger molecule both inside and 2017 Printable Calendar | Weekly Template, outside of cells. Unfortunately, it is released in very small amounts and it is very reactive with certain molecules, especially thiols.
These facts have made it difficult to measure NO accurately in vivo with the tools currently available today. Even fluorescein moieties have been lacking enough sensitivity to Plan actively measure NO. In this report, a molecule called boron dipyrromethene is used and compared with fluorescein as a fluorescent probe for NO. The molecule they developed based off of boron dipyrromethene is called DAMBO-PH, short for 8-(3,4-diaminophenyl)-2,6-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-4,4-difluoro-1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene, which they found to be a highly sensitive probe for Word | Weekly NO. It initially has a very low fluorescence measurement, but when exposed to NO it fluoresced strongly due to a photo-induced electron transfer mechanism. You That Career. The development of Printable Word | Weekly this molecule was significant because they had to do some fine tuning of the molecule in order for it to function well independent of How To Write You Letter pH and to 2017 Word Calendar Template avoid probe stacking. It was found that DAMBO was more specific to react only with NO and had higher reactivity at the same time. Dr. Urano conducted even more research regarding NO. Free Business Plan Template. One notable article of his from November 2004 was again about improving upon the imaging techniques used to monitor NO activity. The techniques that have been discussed thus far regarding NO activity monitoring are limited by 2017 Calendar | Weekly Calendar the fact that fluorescent probes emit a wavelength of Template. Invoice light in the visible spectrum.
This area of wavelengths is absorbed readily by body tissues and prevents observation in deeper tissues because the light is absorbed too quickly by tissue. Fluorescent probes that emit light in Calendar | Weekly Calendar Template, the near-infrared on wavelength spectrum9 would be much more useful in this regard, and so Dr. Template. Urano developed fluorescent probes that are highly reactive to NO and emit light in the IR spectrum of light. He created the probes with two parts. Word Calendar Template. The first is tricarbocyanine, an IR emitting fluorophore, and Business Plan 2013, o-phenylenediamine as the NO reactive portion. They called the 2017 | Weekly chemical group diaminocyanines (DAC’s) which are classified into two types: DAC-P’s which are DAC’s with two propyl groups attached to allow the DAC through a cell membrane easily and DAC-S’s with sulfonate groups to make them highly soluble in water. The chemical scheme of Yoga Template. Template Invoice these molecules is shown in figure 10. The absorbance spectra and emittance spectra of DAC-S is shown in figure 11 with the presence of varying amounts of NO. These spectra findings indicate that the photo-induced electron transfer process is regulated successfully in these molecules to produce light in the IR spectrum. This finding is significant because at 2017 Calendar Word Calendar that time only one other probe was reported to produce IR wavelengths through regulation by Free Template For Powerpoint photo-induced electron transfer. The ability of DAC to produce IR wavelengths has been observed to produce clearer results because of less interference from light absorbance in surrounding tissue.
Figure 12 shows the results of Calendar Word | Weekly Calendar Template administration of NOC13 in the presence of DAC-P in a rat kidney. The administration was given at increasing concentrations in order to You That Career Boost - Noupe allow for good comparison of fluorescence between doses. This new technique can allow for 2017 | Weekly Calendar many future applications, especially accurate fluorescent imaging in deep tissues using infrared wavelengths. More research on fluorescein and developments on creating finely tunable fluorescent probes10 was shown in an article published in October 2004 by Dr. Urano. In this article he shows how he isn’t afraid to think outside the box and Thank, challenge other people’s ideas.
Up until this point it was basically understood that the carboxyl group of fluorescein was indispensable to the function of the molecule, so nobody really messed with it. This was a mistake, however, because fluorescent probes have to be modified to fit different substrates in order to observe specific chemical activities in 2017 Printable Word | Weekly Template, the body. Being able to modify the fluorescein molecule to fit your need was essential in order to achieve the Simple Plan Template | Themesclub.net desired goal. This is the main reason fluorescein was limited, because of the lack of design strategies to fit the variety of needs. In this article, Dr. Printable Calendar | Weekly Calendar Template. Urano breaks through the traditional form of Plan | Themesclub.net fluorescein to achieve a new approach to fluorescein probes based on a photochemical basis. He shows that it is possible to replace the carboxyl group with a different substituent and still have a functional fluorescent probe. He illustrates the feasibility of this idea by using this method to create a probe that is Printable Calendar | Weekly Template sensitive to beta-galactosidase which is the most widely used reporter enzyme. As can be observed in figure 13, he first replaced the carboxyl group with a methyl group and fluorescence was still achieved. The same principle works with other substituents placed on the top benzene group, which adds much greater flexibility to future fluorescein moieties. In an article published in December of Write You Letter 200611 Dr.
Urano discusses further the Calendar greater options that become available when the carboxyl group is replaced on the benzene moiety of fluorescene. Archery | Design | Pinterest. In this article he talks about a different molecule called tetramethylrhodamine. 2017 Calendar Word Calendar Template. This molecule has good potential for use as a fluorescent probe because of its resistance to Chart. | Design Aids | Pinterest | Archery pH, its excellent photochemical properties and longer excitation time and wavelengths. Thus far it has been used very little, perhaps because of difficulty in modifying it to a useful probe. 2017 Printable Word Calendar. Here he applies the same principle he used before and synthesized a new derivative called hydroxymethyltetramethylrhodamine (HMTMR). They found that HMTMR displayed a large amount of absorbance and fluorescence in protic solvents but little in aprotic or basic solvents. This led them to discover the thiol analogue (HySOx) which is less dependent on pH and functions similarly.
It was found that HySOx was sensitive to HOCl, a chemical generated inside phagosomes just after phagocytosis is Free Plan Template completed. They then applied HySOx to help visualize phagocytosis of pathogens. As can be observed in figure 14, the activation of these phagosomes could be observed visually as the HOCl contained in the phagosomes reacts with HySOx and causes excitation and 2017 Printable Calendar Template, luminescence. They found that these probes can be useful to observe real-time phagocytosis in vivo. As was mentioned earlier, fluorescent dyes that can produce wavelengths near-infrared frequency are desirable because of their attributes of being less absorbed by surrounding tissues and low background autofluorescence. These properties make imaging much clearer and 2013, more accurate. These dyes have been utilized to diagnose various different diseases, such as arteriosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and cancer.
The problem that is being faced with these probes is that most of them don’t function well in aqueous media because the molecules stack on 2017 Calendar Word | Weekly Template each other and prevent efficient emission of luminescence. In 2012 Dr. Urano reported on Business 2013 the development of fluorescent dyes that are excitable in near-infrared wavelengths based on the rhodamine scaffold that was discovered in Printable, the previous mentioned experiment12. They used a strategy of lengthening the rhodamine ring to adjust the wavelength emitted by the molecule when it became excited and were able to create several different rhodamine-based molecules that emitted near-infrared wavelengths, were efficient in aqueous media, and had good photostability. They then took one of the molecules they developed named SiR-700 and labeled it with an antibody to a glycoprotein known to be specific for malignant gliomas called tanascin-C (TN-C). They then injected the compound into a mouse prepared with human malignant meningioma cells.
The fluorescent signal of the molecule was observed later after 24 hours. The fluorescent imaging can be observed in 26 Free Templates Boost - Noupe, figure 15. The signal amazingly remained observable for 10 days. This displays the huge developments he has made in creating probes that are resistant to photobleaching and can last for a long time in vivo and still display an accurate image. Dr. Urano’s history as a scientist has been largely devoted to biological imaging. His background in biochemistry, pharmacology and 2017 Calendar Word | Weekly Template, applied chemistry has given him an edge in using chemical knowledge to Archery Grams-To-Grains | Design Aids | Pinterest | Archery come up with new ideas to improve the Calendar Template way diseases are observed and accurately diagnosed. With each passing year he has improved upon his previous studies and experiments to produce greater results that have very useful applications, especially in the field of medicine. Other studies done in Template, this field. Intra-cellular processes are very important to be able to understand, especially when it comes to 2017 Calendar | Weekly genes that get turned on that result in 25 Ideas Storyboard En Pinterest, disease, such as cancer, autoimmunity and chronic inflammatory diseases.
Dr.’s Gross and Piwnica-Worms have conducted research where they engineered a luciferase called IkappaB alpha-FLuc. In a living cell this reporting luciferase gave feedback regarding IKK activation, which is a critical regulatory control point for 2017 Printable Calendar Word | Weekly the activation of a DNA transcription factor called NF-kappaB which has been linked to Simple Template | Themesclub.net many diseases. Word | Weekly Calendar. This IkappaB alpha-FLuc reporter now provides continuous feedback of Resume You That Career Boost - Noupe IKK activity in vivo and provides a reliable way to monitor NF-kappaB signaling and potential signs of disease. The intra-cellular processes mentioned earlier are especially important in the field of immunology. The transcription factor NF-kappaB mentioned earlier is one of the 2017 Calendar key transcription factors involved in Simple, B cell activation in Printable Calendar Word Calendar, cell-mediated immunity.
Clarification of these intracellular events is very important in order for us to understand how immune reactions are stimulated, controlled and halted. As Negrin and Contag mention in their article, the pathophysiology regarding grafts is a subject that is currently being researched. Bioluminescence imaging has great potential to be a reliable modality for To Give You That Boost - Noupe observing cell trafficking and gaining greater understanding of biological systems relating to immunity and grafts. Further manipulation of the luminescent protein luciferase has yielded wider possibilities of applications in intracellular gene analysis. In Hattori and Ozawa’s article, they detail how they use a new strategy called split-luciferase complementation. This technique enables protein-protein interactions to be detected intracellularly in living cells. This technique has a wide variety of possible applications, such as phosphorylation monitoring, G-protein-coupled receptor screening, and Printable Word | Weekly Calendar, even Ph monitoring in addition to observing protein-protein interactions. Dragulescu-Andrasi et. al. further emphasize the importance of being able to identify and understand various interactions between proteins in the cell. They describe a system using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer that makes it possible to identify protein-protein interactions not only in culture, but in deep tissue in a living organism. They outline the potential usages of this system to investigate protein-protein interactions in the context of target validation and drug screening in a patient.
The potential usage of this technique is wonderful, especially because of its non-invasive requirements. Wehrman et. al., generated a sequential reporter enzyme that works to report beta-galactosidase activity in vivo using luminescence. This was accomplished using a caged D-luciferin-galactoside conjugate which must react with beta-galactosidase before the luciferin can be released to create luminescence. They state that one benefit of this method, besides the non-invasiveness that comes with using bioluminescence, is the ability for 26 Free Resume Templates To Give Boost the probe to remain fully active even when it is outside of the Printable Calendar Word | Weekly cell since beta-galactosidase is able function without the aid of Simple Plan intracellular enzymes. 2017 Printable Calendar Calendar. Because of this ability, antibodies conjugated to the recombinant beta-galactosidase can be used to detect extracellular antigens or other endogenous cells in vivo, which provides applications that weren’t previously possible with older methods. In an experiment conducted by Hickson et. al., a useful method using bioluminescence has the Business Plan Template 2013 potential to deliver rapid and sensitive feedback regarding drug efficacy and therapeutic action. Using a modified version of luciferin called Z-DEVD-aminoluciferin, they measured the 2017 Calendar Word amount of luminescence delivered after injecting this modified luciferin into cancerous animals prior to treatment with docetaxel.
They also had a control group who were not injected with docetaxel. Z-DEVD-aminoluciferin is cleaved by How To You Letter caspase-3, which is released in 2017 Calendar Word Template, apoptotic cells, which in turn releases the Yoga Template. Xls Invoice Template Template luciferin and results in 2017 Calendar, luminescence. Marketing Template. Light was detected in significantly greater amounts in the group that was treated with docetaxel. What was even more significant to note was that these significant readings which occurred at approximately 24 hours after treatment confirmed what a caliper measurement showed nearly 4-5 days later. 2017 Printable Calendar | Weekly Template. This helps to illustrate the possibility bioluminescence has in terms of testing drug functionality in vivo. Knowledge of how a drug is working can be obtained many days before older methods could measure. Van de Bittner et. al. conducted an experiment using bioluminescence and related it to hydrogen peroxide.
It is An Interview You Letter known that hydrogen peroxide is 2017 Printable Calendar Word | Weekly Calendar generated by living organisms to kill invading pathogens and to maintain immunity. The specifics on hydrogen peroxide’s general effects on aging and Simple Marketing Plan Template | Themesclub.net, health are largely unknown largely attributed to the difficulties of 2017 Calendar Calendar Template being able to study it in vivo. 26 Free To Give Career. In their experiment they report on their use Peroxy Caged Luciferin-1 which serves as a bioluminescent probe that selectively reacts with hydrogen peroxide, causes the Printable Calendar | Weekly Template release of luciferin and consequently creates luminescence. Because of the sensitivity and selectivity of Peroxy Caged Luciferin-1, a real time image of basal levels of hydrogen peroxide can be observed. The effects of hydrogen peroxide, in Archery Grams-To-Grains, addition to all kinds of other chemicals, on aging, disease and 2017 Printable Word | Weekly Calendar, health can now be observed where previously it was impossible.
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