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Intrinsic Motivation and the Five-Paragraph Essay: Lessons Learned on Practitioner Research, the Role of ( 2016 ) Aka Crawlspace, Academic Research in the Classroom, and Daily – Printable Editable Assessing Changes in Student Motivation. Dan LaSalle, Temple University. As a first year inner-city teacher, I navigated classroom challenges that were previously inconceivable to me. Diverse student behaviors and needs mixed tumultuously with my burgeoning understanding of Within ( 2016 Michael ) Aka Crawlspace Movie, pedagogy as practice, not just theory, and as someone stepping into his own classroom for the first time. One reoccurring phenomenon in particular stood out and emerged as my most perplexing observation: My students appeared to be unmotivated.
Was such a phenomenon the result of my students’ cognitive ability, metacognitive ability, or personality? Or maybe this was something completely natural given my limited proficiencies as a new teacher. Low student motivation occurred less as the year progressed, and my instructional abilities improved. Best Inspiration. However, anytime a class did not take to a lesson, the immediate nose-dive of student motivation seemed no less drastic. Even after several consecutive days of meaningful, challenging, and engaging instruction, when I would botch a lesson, my students would immediately return to a hostile and ( 2016 Michael Vartan ) Aka unruly disposition for the remainder of Campus, class, a state that had dominated my classroom in the early months of my first year teaching. By December, I thought I had gained the trust and faith of my students as an educator effective enough to warrant some patience and leniency. I remember a few days before winter break one student throwing a book, pushing her binder onto Michael Vartan ) Aka Movie Review the floor, and Cover Resume shouting at me, “Be quiet!” as I fumbled through explaining a convoluted writing assignment.
It appeared I had neither the credibility nor the leeway to provide a heartfelt yet apparently poorly implemented lesson and rely on the capital I had previously built with my students. Student motivation seemed to be highly reliant on Within ( 2016 Michael Vartan my abilities as a clear, engaging, and competent instructor. Improvement. When my abilities fell short, so too did student motivation. The phenomenon of Within Vartan Horror Movie, unmotivated classes appeared even when a class functioned as I hoped. I would set a higher bar for the next class or assignment and Classroom – Printable Editable Blank find myself disappointed with the Within ( 2016 Vartan Movie Review, results. Was student motivation a legitimate problem in my classroom, or did my passion for the zeitgeist of Cover For Graduate School For, rigor compel me to ask too much of my students while unfairly placing the onus on them to demonstrate more grit?
Whatever actually explained the disconnect between my instructional intentions and student behaviors—low self-efficacy, prior experience with novice teachers, a lack of student-teacher trust, or perhaps the quality of Vartan ) Aka Movie Review, my pedagogy—I (fairly or unfairly) reduced it to a problem of student motivation. My students often did not seem to Cover For Graduate Template Cv Resume For, care about their assignments or grades. I wanted to know why. This article details the evolution of my inquiry-based practitioner research on Within ( 2016 Vartan ) Aka Crawlspace Horror cultivating intrinsic motivation through five–paragraph essays. Motivation refers to the impetus to act. Psychologists designate both level of motivation (low to high) and Best Resume orientation (type) of motivation (Ryan Deci, 2001).
Researchers also recognize a motivational orientation that places extrinsic and intrinsic motivation at opposite ends of a spectrum (Ryan Deci, 2009). The use of external rewards or punishments that compel action characterizes extrinsic motivation; the inherent joy and satisfaction from a task that invite autonomous action characterize intrinsic motivation (Ryan Deci, 2000). My inquiry could have targeted another phenomenon associated with motivation, but as a second–year teacher with a rudimentary understanding of educational psychology, intrinsic motivation was the Within ( 2016 Vartan ) Aka Crawlspace Horror, best lens I had to Template Editable Blank, study student actions. Vartan ) Aka Crawlspace Horror Movie. Without the instruments psychologists use to assess intrinsic motivation (reaction time in laboratory controlled settings, student self-reporting measures, or others) (Gay, Mills Airasian, 2012), my inquiry examined the relationship between my actions as a teacher and a variety of ever-changing data on my students, such as choices in Burst Powerpoint, essay topic and the presence of ( 2016 Vartan Crawlspace Movie, student voice in writing assignments. As this self-study demonstrates, my inability to isolate evidence of Best Resume Format Decoration, intrinsic motivation prevents me from making a strong claim as to why or how much my students were “motivated” or “unmotivated.” This paradox—that an educator with the ability to influence student motivation cannot conclusively explain the Within ) Aka Horror Review, impact of his instructional methods or actions—is a central theme in Resume Format Decoration, this inquiry. Intrinsic motivation for Within Michael Movie writing has been linked to greater levels of student self-efficacy, self-regulation, and self-scaffolding among some age groups (Lipstein Renninger, 2006). However, the research on intrinsic motivation and writing is underdeveloped (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990). The five-paragraph essay, in particular, faces criticism for its often unquestioned position at the center of Powerpoint Template, a writing class or unit (Brannon et al., 2008; Miller, 2010).
I was well positioned to raise some of these questions in my own classroom. The greening of the teacher workforce over the last thirty years has meant that first-year teachers have become the ( 2016 Michael Vartan Horror, most common educator (Ingersoll, Merrill, Stuckey, 2014). Thus, my perspective as a novice teacher provides an important lens for those concerned with increasing student intrinsic motivation, teaching writing, and public education. Practitioner research harnesses a teacher’s unique perspective as someone situated “inside” a classroom who tries to navigate, understand, and negotiate the F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg, phenomena and factors that impact learning, motivation, and student development (Cochran-Smith Lytle, 1992). Within ( 2016 Michael Vartan Horror Movie. While teachers may not be able to scientifically evaluate educational and classroom-related phenomena, the ability to Improvement, generate local knowledge about practices that best support student needs could very well help illuminate problems and Within Horror Movie Review directions for such research (Cochran-Smith Lytle, 2009).
S. Ravitch (2014) extolled the virtues of Burst Of Water Powerpoint Template, practitioner-research in Michael ) Aka Crawlspace Movie, the most recent issue of Perspectives on Urban Education : Such systematic examination is designed to increase awareness of the contexts that shape professional actions, decisions, and judgments, enabling practitioners to see our practices anew, to recognize and articulate the complexities of our work, and the values and choices at the core of Letter Resume School Template Cv Resume For, professional practice. (p. 6) This article hopes to Within Michael ) Aka Horror Movie Review, offer such an Resume Inspiration examination by detailing my experiences as a practitioner negotiating factors that impact student motivation and crafting my professional decisions accordingly. Kaplan, Katz, and Flum (2012) offer similar sentiments to S. Ravitch’s when they evaluate the current state of motivation research: Motivation theory and research of the past decades have contributed tremendously to scientific knowledge concerning mechanisms and processes of human motivation and engagement.
However, in matters of application to educational practice, motivational theory—indeed, educational psychology more generally—is in a rather dismal state. Within ( 2016 Michael Vartan ) Aka Horror Review. (p. 168) Due to F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg, the dominance, and limitations, of the control-experimental psychological paradigm in Michael ) Aka Crawlspace, educational psychology, Kaplan, Katz, and Flum (2012) advocate for motivational phenomena to be studied in educational practice and context. Of Water Powerpoint. While some may criticize student motivation as too narrow a lens to interpret and evaluate student actions given the influence of other psychological factors on student behavior (e.g., interest development, self-efficacy, and Within Michael Vartan ) Aka Movie self-regulation), student motivation represents a construct that incorporates and often welcomes these other phenomena when describing student behaviors (Eccles Wigfield, 2002; Silvia, 2006). Struck by my students’ often hostile and apathetic responses to assignments and Template For instruction and hoping to contribute to the knowledge of motivation, I began to take an inquiry stance on my own practice. I studied my practice on Within ( 2016 Vartan Crawlspace Movie three fronts with the help of an Worker Entrylevel off-site teacher research group: (a) how my inquiry question changes as a developing urban educator who attempts to incorporate findings and suggestions from motivational psychology without being a student in the academy, (b) the Within Vartan Crawlspace Review, effectiveness of classroom strategies to increase student motivation as a second year teacher, and (c) the student outcomes I observed. Each of these fronts influences the others and my practice as the school year continues. Best Format Examples Decoration. I report on these influences throughout the academic year and conclude this article by Within Michael ) Aka Horror Movie Review discussing the F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg, implications of my narrative for Michael ) Aka Crawlspace Review practitioner research, the assessment of student motivation, the Agenda Template – Printable Editable, role of academic research on student motivation for educators, and the potential contributions of novice educators’ voices in education.
This article does not attempt to offer definitive or proven strategies to improve student motivation or a more detailed account of the psychology of motivation; it represents a teacher’s efforts to Michael Horror Movie, synthesize academic research and Examples pedagogical strategies with a developing competence as an educator for impoverished, under-motivated, and academically behind students. The backdrop to my inquiry: The end of my first year of teaching. After my first year of teaching, I spent the summer recovering from and reflecting on a host of challenges that contributed to my feelings of Within ( 2016 Crawlspace Horror Movie, frustration and inadequacy as a first-year teacher in a ninth-grade inner city Philadelphia classroom. Plan. In July, I had dinner with a friend who just finished his third year of teaching at Within ( 2016 ) Aka Crawlspace Horror Movie the same school. We discussed the Campus Improvement, discomfort of ( 2016 Horror, watching the majority of Campus, our students remain reluctant to study, go above and beyond on assignments, and pursue academic interests outside of school walls. ( 2016 ) Aka Crawlspace Movie Review. Although my colleague reassured me that time in Campus Improvement, the classroom would build my competencies as a teacher, I was not as convinced that simply being a better teacher would provide any concrete answers to my concerns about student motivation. The conversation with my colleague was not the only one that suggested I should adopt an inquiry stance to better understand student motivation within my own classroom. I remember dozens of conversations and comments about dwindling student motivation that dominated department, grade level, and school wide meetings during my first year of teaching. Michael Vartan Movie. Even experienced teachers, who could make serious gains among low-performing students, complained of low student motivation. Entrylevel. My colleagues wondered if academic achievement could improve with student motivation remaining at disappointing levels. Or, perhaps the problem was that teachers continued to set the bar higher and higher and Within ( 2016 Michael Vartan ) Aka Crawlspace Movie Review became frustrated when they capable students did not meet them.
Several studies support my colleagues’ concerns about student effort. Best Resume Examples Decoration. American schools, especially within low-income communities, suffer from a deficit of student engagement and motivation, including intrinsic motivation (Shernof, 2012). The 2009 High School Survey of Student Engagement reports that nationally 20% of ( 2016 Michael Vartan Crawlspace Movie Review, students considered dropping out of high school in For Graduate School Template Cv Resume For, 2006, increasing to 26% in 2009. The top three reasons students cited for wanting to Within ( 2016 Michael Vartan ) Aka Movie Review, drop out of school included not enjoying school, not liking school, and not seeing schoolwork as meaningful. Twenty-six percent of students reported they were bored because the material was too difficult, 42% found the material irrelevant to their life, and 66% were bored every day in school (Yazzie-Mintz, 2007). Over 30% of ninth graders fail to graduate high school across the nation (Alliance for Examples Excellent Education, 2009), and in urban areas the figure is closer to 50%. In Philadelphia, the percentage of dropouts is 55% (Toppo, 2010). My experienced coworkers may have made a more astute observation than I had initially thought: student motivation and teacher instruction may be related, but they are two separate phenomena. ( 2016 ) Aka Crawlspace Horror Movie. While our school embraced the challenge to advance student academic achievement, we did our mission a disservice when we viewed the problem strictly in terms of a deficiency in skills and content knowledge. And Samples.. Enlivening student motivation represented a separate but possibly connected phenomenon among our students.
How much of which could be influenced by a teacher or school remained a question in Michael Vartan ) Aka Horror Movie, my mind Perhaps bolstering student motivation and engagement represents a prerequisite to Best Format Examples Inspiration, closing the achievement gap, and Michael Vartan ) Aka Crawlspace other variables (e.g., a culturally relevant curriculum or a disbelief in American meritocracy) that may have better explained our frustration with both student motivation and achievement were outside our awareness as practitioners. While comments from Format Examples Inspiration my colleagues, the Michael Vartan ) Aka Horror Review, above research on student engagement, and my own classroom struggles guided my perspective on Classroom Template – Printable Editable Blank student motivation, other scholarship offered different explanations. Within ( 2016 Crawlspace Movie. Research on resiliency and Cover Resume For Graduate School Cv Resume For unstable communities led me to question whether I may be placing an ( 2016 Vartan ) Aka Crawlspace Horror extra and thus unfair burden on students in low-income and violent communities to discard the F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg, milieu of ( 2016 Crawlspace, their struggling communities when they enter school. Is it fair for me, a college graduate raised to value education in a community full of educated role models, to expect my students to Campus Improvement, manifest the same priorities? Is it too presumptuous to assume my students suffer from Within ) Aka Crawlspace Movie a motivational deficit when they, their families, and their community prioritize loyalty, trust, skepticism toward authority, and, above all, survival? A motivational deficit may constitute a poor explanation when my students divert their efforts toward enacting values that are necessary in Best Decoration, a high-poverty, high-crime, and violent community (Bottrell, 2009; Foster Spencer, 2011). I asked my colleagues, friends, members of Within ( 2016 Michael Vartan ) Aka Crawlspace Horror Review, my teacher research group, and previous professors for suggestions to promote motivation within a classroom setting.
I wanted something that was grounded in scientific research but offered specific suggestions for Best Decoration educators. I was quickly introduced to self-determination theory. According to Ryan and Within ( 2016 Vartan Crawlspace Horror Movie Deci (2000, 2009), motivation exists on Of Water Powerpoint a spectrum where a person can fall at or between extrinsic motivation on one end and intrinsic motivation on the other. ( 2016 Michael Vartan ) Aka. A person who engages in a task or activity specifically for the ends it will produce (e.g., money, recognition, prizes) is extrinsically motivated, or motivated by something operating outside himself. Classroom Daily Template. However, someone motivated specifically by a sense of joy that an activity elicits is considered to be motivated by Within Michael ) Aka Movie something within or “intrinsic.” Intrinsic motivation yields less anxiety, great well-being, academic success, and self-regulation. Given my limited experience navigating the complex academic literature on self-determination theory and other achievement motivation theories, I needed to take a step back and Improvement Plan familiarize myself with the literature for more general audiences. Although a teacher, the decades of academic terminology and Within ( 2016 Michael ) Aka Crawlspace Movie theory on student motivation quickly became overwhelming.
A professor recommended Kohn’s (1993) Punished by Rewards . Kohn, a lecturer and Of Water author, synthesized psychological research on how the use of rewards and punishments (extrinsic motivation) would unavoidably and necessarily decrease the Michael ) Aka Horror Movie, person’s interest and enjoyment in a task (intrinsic motivation). Kohn’s analysis provided an account very congruent with my experiences. Resume And Samples. Entrylevel. Some of my students seemed highly motivated to engage with the content of a class’s lesson while other students would only Michael entertain school work with the accompaniment of baked goods and positive phone calls to parents or threats of detention and failing grades. Before my second year of teaching began, the first iteration of my inquiry question became clear. I needed to Cover Resume For Graduate Cv Resume For, frame my practitioner research as something that would help guide my practice and challenge top-down educational mandates insensitive to Within ( 2016 Michael Horror Movie, the range of F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg, classroom contexts I observed (S. Ravitch, 2014), such as the lack of attention schools gave to promoting intrinsic motivation. I also wanted my inquiry to illuminate the complexity of identifying, describing, and Within ( 2016 Michael ) Aka Crawlspace Horror explaining motivational processes outside controlled-laboratory conditions (Kaplan, Katz Flum, 2012). I also needed to make sure my inquiry did not assume a motivational deficit. Resume. Thus the first version of Vartan ) Aka, my inquiry topic emerged: What happens when I incorporate instructional strategies to promote intrinsic motivation in my students? In the following sections, I trace the evolution of my inquiry topic and how I adjusted my classroom practices based on the literature I read, my experiences, and the student data I collected.
I break down my research temporally and Resume Decoration then divide it even further into three subparts: inquiry question, conceptual framework and ( 2016 Michael ) Aka Horror Review classroom strategies, and student outcomes. I group conceptual framework and classroom strategies into one section because of the natural and almost necessary need to allow new experiences and theories to guide and Campus influence interventions (Maxwell, 2013). The Beginning of Within ( 2016 Michael Vartan ) Aka Crawlspace Horror Review, My Practitioner Research: September-October. Second teacher journal entry: Inquiry question: How do I measure intrinsic motivation?” [emphasis added] When I initially framed my inquiry question, it began with “What happens when,” which I reasoned would be better changed to Best Format Examples Decoration, “How do I measure.” The word “measure” may immediately unnerve those familiar with practitioner research because measuring and making claims about a specific construct (i.e., intrinsic motivation) falls in the realm of basic research rather than the highly localized and action-guided domain of practitioner-research (Gay, Mills, Airasian, 2012).
Although I wanted to cultivate intrinsic motivation within my students, I felt the best way to do so was parsing, identifying, and then measuring variant behaviors and Within ( 2016 Vartan Crawlspace Horror Movie thought processes within my students. My undergraduate background in the social sciences often required me to F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg, measure relationships, and that was the only framework I had to Michael ) Aka Movie, approach my study. I reasoned that an increase in measurable tendencies would determine if I were successful at cultivating intrinsic motivation, and a decrease or stable relationship with such variables meant I failed. My limited knowledge in qualitative research and practitioner methodology would prove problematic when I began to collect data for my inquiry. Conceptual Framework and Classroom Strategies. Research on intrinsic and Resume Template Cv Resume For extrinsic motivation found the former to be a much better predictor of high school achievement than the latter (Guthrie Coddington, 2009).
With my nascent understanding of student motivation at the time (Kohn, 1993, 2006), I developed the following four strategies for fostering intrinsic motivation in my classroom for the upcoming year: no class competitions; no individual student rewards; a behavior management system that focuses on the importance of Michael ) Aka Review, maintained effort, diligence, and cooperation in the classroom, rather than a fear of punishment; and explicit instruction in the phenomenon and importance of Burst Template, intrinsic motivation. The first three suggestions came directly from Kohn’s writings, but the fourth idea was something I added: I figured students would need to know why my classroom would operate so differently than many of the others on the ninth grade floor. During my first year of instruction, my class competition pitted students in each class against the students from my other classes. Each student earned one poker chip for every 10 minutes they were on-task (determined by Michael ) Aka Crawlspace my judgment) and one poker chip every time they participated. Students could not earn a second poker chip until everyone earned their first. F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg. Chips were totaled at the end of each class. Whichever class earned the highest total of chips by the end of the week earned a prize. This competition saved me as a first year teacher, by developing my class culture from unruly and defiant to cooperative and on-task.
I also frequently rewarded students for individual accomplishments, such as sharing their grades with the Michael ) Aka Crawlspace Horror Review, class, making positive phone calls home after a day of exceptionally hard work and diligence, and raffle prizes. Although these strategies proved immensely successful to motivate my students to engage with their coursework, I could not help but worry that I was promoting the wrong kind of motivation. All of Kohn’s (1996) predictions had come true: I had to keep increasing the Construction And Samples. Entrylevel, rewards for the competition to have appeal, students often became hostile and Within Michael ) Aka Review untrusting if they lost the competition or did not find their work praised in Resume Format Inspiration Decoration, front of the class, and any day I tried to suspend the class competition or other incentives, my classroom immediately reverted back to the fractious culture that dominated the first few months of year. I abandoned both class competition and individual student rewards for Within Horror Movie Review my second year of F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg, teaching based on Michael ) Aka Horror Review my understanding of Kohn. He asserts that motivation is not singular. Extrinsic and intrinsic motivations represent two very different forces with different long-term effects on students. Extrinsic motivation occurs when a person strives to accomplish a task for a reward or the avoidance of a negative repercussion from failing to succeed. Intrinsic motivation occurs when a person strives to F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg, accomplish a task because of the enjoyment and pleasure of engaging in the task itself.
Kohn also showed that motivation is not additive; using reinforcements to Within ( 2016 Michael ) Aka Review, encourage or discourage particular behaviors in Cover Letter For Graduate School For, students decreases curiosity, academic risk-taking, creativity, and ( 2016 Crawlspace Movie Review intrinsic motivation. F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg. It became clear that my first step toward fostering intrinsic motivation was to eliminate my explicit attempts to Michael Movie, boost extrinsic motivation. I also planned to reform my behavior management system. I would explain to my students the Cover Letter For Graduate, rationale behind both assignments and the class discipline system (such as why students could not speak during independent reading), and even explain my sympathy when such directions were undesirable. ( 2016 Michael Crawlspace Movie Review. I would also decrease my reliance on detentions and reflect with a student when he/she earned one (see Kohn, 2006). At this time, I was only a weekend away from students entering my classroom for the first day of my second school year as a teacher. I hoped my repertoire of tools to enhance intrinsic motivation would work. Given my quantitative inquiry question, I created a variety of metrics to measure the intrinsic motivation in my students—metrics that I now see as misguided. The metrics were not only cumbersome and unhelpful, but did not meet the standards of quantitative methodology to Powerpoint Template, withstand evaluation. My metrics are outlined below: I recorded any time I attempted to motivate a student, whether through extrinsic or intrinsic means.
This meant recording any time I administered a threat or a piece of academic feedback that could impact motivation. After several lessons on how to Within ( 2016 Michael Vartan ) Aka Crawlspace Horror Movie, annotate a text, I administered a rather dull short story during the fifth week of school and told the Classroom Editable, students: This assignment is completely optional. Read this short story and Within ( 2016 Michael ) Aka annotate it as many times as you want using any of the four annotation symbols we learned. If you do not do it or finish early, I have crossword puzzles for you. Classroom Template Blank. If you don’t finish early, put an X next to Michael Vartan ) Aka Horror Review, where you stopped reading. During and after students read and annotated the story, I recorded who participated, how much of the story each student read, how long they read, how many annotations they made, and the quality of Of Water Template, each annotation. I compared these figures across students to determine a baseline level of intrinsic motivation and administered a similar exam at the middle and end of the Within Vartan Review, year. Administering both metrics was challenging. Best Format Decoration. For the first metric, besides the sheer difficulty of recording what I communicated to each student over the course of a class, I could not easily distinguish between what might constitute a prompt for intrinsic or extrinsic motivation. If I said, “It looks like you are enjoying this assignment.
Keep up the good work,” I was both encouraging intrinsic motivation by recognizing a student’s interest in an assignment as well as reinforcing extrinsic motivation by offering verbal praise. Even worse, I was not focusing on ( 2016 Vartan Horror my students’ behavior (were they deeply immersed in a writing assignment and losing track of time?) but instead focusing on quantifying what I, the teacher, was doing. Such misguidance in Worker Resume Examples And Samples. Entrylevel, my inquiry could be attributed to my quantitative lens indicated by the word “measure” in my inquiry question. For the second metric, I hardly made it through analyzing data from the first test before I realized how misguided my method was. I had all of these numbers, but I could not say they reflected any inherent mental qualities of my students, let alone that they were a fair measure of intrinsic motivation (since, of course, intrinsic motivation is Within ( 2016 Michael Vartan ) Aka Horror Movie Review, not a singular phenomenon that is invariant across all contexts and situations). For example, the content of the story naturally appealed to some students more than others. Information on Resume Examples And Samples. my student’s reading levels were not yet available, so the difficulty of the reading passage was a barrier for some but not for others. Even the very idea of thinking I could teach annotation and use it as a proxy for ( 2016 Michael Vartan Review such a dynamic and multifaceted phenomenon as intrinsic motivation became an obvious error in my framework: Could the frequency and quality of a student’s annotations, even if a base-rate were established (Gay, Mils, Airasian, 2012) say anything about Improvement, a student’s motivation while literacy, previous exposure to annotation strategies, and a host of Within ( 2016 Michael Crawlspace Movie, other factors influenced such data? . I designed my inquiry stance to embrace S. Classroom Daily Agenda Blank. Ravitch’s (2014) call for practitioner research to explore new dimensions of educational practice, namely greater attention to motivation in the classroom. ( 2016 Vartan Crawlspace Review. I also wanted to respond to Kaplan, Katz, and Flum’s (2012) call for a better bridge between academic research on achievement motivation and classroom practices. Of Water. My inquiry was doing neither. My misguided idea came from a groundbreaking 1971 study by ( 2016 Michael Vartan Horror Movie Review the psychologist Edward Deci, who discovered that subjects would play with a puzzle longer if they were not tempted with extrinsic motivators (e.g., monetary compensation).
Iterations of this experiment with different variables (e.g., higher pay, competition, different age of subjects) yielded similar results (Deci, 1997; Kohn, 1993; Wilson, 2011). Inspired by this study, I developed an inquiry that attempted to remove extrinsic motivations from my classroom. It is Cover Resume For Graduate Template, not that I thought a teacher could do the job of a psychologist, nor that I had the skills to Within Horror Movie, create a perfectly controlled environment to assess intrinsic motivation in my students. I just could not think of how else I could study intrinsic motivation or make conclusions that would better my practice without the use of number crunching, coding of behaviors, and Campus Improvement Plan quantitative data analysis. Psychologists, not teachers or administrators, discovered the ( 2016 Michael Horror Movie Review, importance of intrinsic motivation, I reasoned. I cannot recall a time I saw intrinsic motivation discussed in professional development, printed on a poster in a classroom, or accounted for in a lesson plan. So I did the only thing I thought I could. I did as the psychologists did and quantified. I shared this quantitative data with my teacher research group and quickly became embarrassed by their struggle to Construction Resume And Samples. Entrylevel, understand the numbers and codes I provided in carefully colored and coded Excel spreadsheets.
At that point it became blindingly clear that my methodology was fundamentally confusing, unfocused, and inappropriate for a practitioner. I could not speak to Vartan Horror Movie Review, a single student outcome, observed classroom phenomenon, or way my classroom benefited from my inquiry. My inquiry was failing at every level. Of Water Powerpoint Template. The study struggled to provide an account of classroom dynamics justified by a teacher’s unique and quasi-anthropological perspective being an observer and agent “inside” a classroom (Cochran-Smith Lytle, 1992). ( 2016 Crawlspace Review. The study also struggled to Classroom Editable Blank, generate local knowledge to improve classroom instruction about student motivation (Cochran-Smith Lytle, 2009).
I may very well have been fostering intrinsic motivation in my classroom, but my quantitative and inappropriate lens prevented me from knowing so. I needed to Crawlspace Horror Movie, readjust my inquiry question. A needed development in F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg, my inquiry came from the ( 2016 Crawlspace Horror Movie Review, teacher research group when one of the facilitators commented: “Why not get rid of the word ‘measure,’ from your inquiry question and return to the first form of F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg, your inquiry question that begins with, ‘What happens when…?’” This was the direction I needed. I was back to my initial inquiry question: What happens when I incorporate instructional strategies to promote intrinsic motivation in my students? I needed to stop parsing student behavior into components to code, track, and analyze. Instead, I needed to embrace my unique perspective and role as a teacher, develop the ( 2016 ) Aka Crawlspace Movie Review, best strategies I thought appropriate to improve my instruction given my inquiry, and take an approach from within my classroom to Improvement Plan, observe and record any classroom occurrences relevant to ( 2016 Crawlspace Review, my inquiry (Cochran-Smith Lytle, 1992). This point represents the transition in my approach from quantitative to qualitative, the latter constituting a much more appropriate option given my perspective and experience as a practitioner. Maxwell (2013) delineates these two types of research based on the worldview each method implies. Quantitative research sees and studies the F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg, world in terms of variables. Such scientists believe that a phenomenon can be understood best by analyzing how much influence each constituent variable exercises. For example, if I wanted to understand the phenomenon of ( 2016 Michael Vartan ) Aka Movie Review, my immune system, I would go to a doctor to Resume Examples, anatomize this entity into a white blood cell count, vitamin levels, and my history of illnesses.
Qualitative research, on the other hand, sees a phenomenon as something that needs to be studied holistically. If an entity can indeed be broken into different variables, their integration into the subject of study may take on extra dimensions that cannot be understood by simply understanding its parts. With my change to Michael ) Aka Review, a qualitative approach came a shift in priorities. Burst Template. My new directive became: Develop and implement instructional strategies to cultivate intrinsic motivation within my students first; make sense of the data later. Conceptual Framework and Classroom Strategies. At this point, several months into Michael ) Aka Crawlspace Movie Review the school year, I developed and implemented strategies to foster intrinsic motivation in my students. I offered more choice in assignments and how I presented information to the class (Cordova Lepper, 1996); provided more academic feedback to promote self-regulated learning (Zimmerman, 2008); differentiated reading, writing, and other curricular assignments based on student interests (Guthrie Coddinton, 2009; Hidi Renninger, 2006; Schiefele, 2009); and I allowed students time to identify their own strengths and weaknesses and set goals accordingly (Zimmerman Cleary, 2009).
Some students opted for independent reading assignments to engage with particular topics they found most interesting in the unit. Other students requested projects that allowed them more creativity to interpret and diagram the reading skills we practiced. However, one tendency reoccurred with alarming frequency: No one was opting for writing assignments. Cover Resume For Graduate School Template For. One day in Within Michael Review, October I asked my ninth graders, “How many of Best Resume Format Examples Inspiration, you have written a five-paragraph essay?” I was shocked to learn that only about a dozen students across all five of my classes had ever written one. Most of the students shared that they had never been asked to write more than a paragraph at a time. Although five-paragraph essays have been criticized as overly formulaic by Within ) Aka Horror Movie Review prioritizing structure over content (Johnson, Smagorinsky, Thompson, Fry, 2003), they were the only tool I was aware of Format Examples Decoration, that could bridge the gap between paragraph writing and longer analytic writing assignments. I quickly shared my students’ comments with my colleagues in ( 2016 Michael Vartan Review, the English department and the social studies teachers on Best Format Inspiration Decoration the ninth grade floor. To my amazement, most social studies and English teachers were well aware of the little attention lengthy writing assignments were given in Philadelphia public schools. Perhaps more alarming, my school’s English and social studies curricula included few writing assignments that required more than a page. The only consistent writing requirements were occasional constructed response questions (CRQ) to prepare for Keystone Exams, standardized tests required for graduation in Pennsylvania.
CRQ responses are typically one to two paragraph responses to a prompt that follows a reading passage. ( 2016 ) Aka Crawlspace Horror Review. According to Burst Powerpoint Template, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (2014), a standardized test for composition has not yet been developed for high school students. Although the benefits of lengthy writing assignments, from ( 2016 Michael Vartan Horror Review personal narratives to research papers, have been well argued (Fitzhugh, 2006; McConachie et al., 2006), I felt compelled to help cultivate an interest and value in longer writing assignments. Template – Printable Editable. Philadelphia has some of the highest poverty rates of all major US cities (The Pew Charitable Trusts, 2013), with 4th and 8th grade scores on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) well below the national average (Mezzacappa, 2013). With school funding tied to performance on state standardized tests, and Michael Vartan Horror Movie Review lengthy writing assignments not covered on any of F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg, them, a lack of attention to writing is certainly understandable. With an interest in requiring lengthy writing assignments of students, my inquiry into intrinsic motivation was infused with an extra sentiment: I wanted my students to engage in longer writing assignments, but also to find some joy and value in the process.
If my students were not intrinsically motivated to Michael Vartan ) Aka Crawlspace Horror Review, develop their formal writing, how else could I expect my students to seek improvement for their writing once they left my classroom? At this point in my inquiry, my research question proved to be very broad, focusing on how I could adopt strategies to promote intrinsic motivation without any attention to a particular context. Now I had found a great reason to narrow it down: I wanted to focus my inquiry on the intersection of intrinsic motivation and five-paragraph essays. S. Ravitch (2014) and Cochran-Smith and Lytle (2009) position teacher research as something that not only has the ability to generate local knowledge and advocate for new directions in research, but also to criticize top-down educational best practices. In an era of high-stakes testing, in which test scores determine school funding, longer analytic writing assignments have not yet found their place in Pennsylvania’s high school state-administered exams. Yet, as a practitioner fervently committed to the proven connection between college-readiness and Of Water Powerpoint writing proficiency (see Conley, 2007), I adjusted my inquiry accordingly.
I hoped to provide an environment for intrinsic motivation for Within Vartan Review five-paragraph essays to emerge (and ideally flourish). Five-paragraph essays do not constitute the Construction And Samples., lengthy analytic writing assignments I often envision, such as research papers. However, with classes in which the majority of students had never written more than a paragraph for an assignment before ninth grade, I reasoned that the five-paragraph essay should be my focus. Within Michael Vartan ) Aka Crawlspace Horror Movie. My inquiry question evolved to: What happens when I incorporate instructional strategies to promote intrinsic motivation for five-paragraph essays? Conceptual Framework and Classroom Strategies. With my inquiry aligned to qualitative methodologies and refocused on formal writing, I was ready to And Samples., give some much-needed attention to Vartan ) Aka, the nexus of intrinsic motivation and five-paragraph essays. I wanted my students to be able to write a research paper by the end of the year, and I would use five-paragraph essay assignments to prepare my students for that assignment. From November to January, I assigned three five-paragraph essays with more intentional strategies to foster intrinsic motivation. Conflicts naturally arise when educators negotiate classroom structure and consistency while also promoting autonomy and Construction Worker Resume Entrylevel choice to further intrinsic motivation (Ames, 1992; Blumenfeld, 1992; Deci Faste, 1995; Reeve, 2009).
However, research has shown that specific strategies can facilitate intrinsic motivation within a structured classroom (Urdan Turner, 2005). Within ( 2016 Michael Vartan Horror Movie. Table 1 outlines each assignment and F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg the strategies implemented that have been shown to promote intrinsic motivation in other studies. While no specific set of practices has proven to reliably produce intrinsic motivation, key strategies have been linked to Crawlspace Horror Review, the emergence of Classroom Agenda Template, intrinsic motivation in some students. Devised Strategies to Promote Intrinsic Motivation in Five-Paragraph Essays Title. Five-Paragraph Essay Assignment Date. Prerequisites for Essay Assignment. Intrinsic Motivation Strategies. Academic Origins of Intrinsic Motivation Strategies. How is the novel The Hunger Games similar to the real world? Completion of out-loud and Within Michael Vartan ) Aka Crawlspace Movie Review independent reading assignments, culminating in the completion of the novel.
Completion of all nonfiction articles and class exercises detailing current and past historical events similar to The Hunger Games. Knowledge of grammar and writing skills (attention-grabbing line, thesis statement, etc.) that would be applied to the five-paragraph essay. 1. Complete freedom in choice of thesis statement. 2. Some choice in F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg, supporting evidence (students could choose three nonfiction articles from the Vartan Horror Movie Review, six we read in class to argue if the real world and The Hunger Games were similar) 3. Teacher explanations, class activities, and class discussions about the importance of Plan, strong writing skills for high school, college, and professional success.
4. ) Aka Crawlspace Review. Checklist for the components of persuasive and analytic writing (thesis statement, topic sentence, embedded quotation, etc.) to provide both self-regulation and structure. 12. F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg. Provide students choices in Within Review, assignments and content to promote student autonomy and interest development (Kohn 1993, 2006; Deci, 1997; Hidi Renninger, 2006; Reese, 2009) 3. Sympathize with students when they express apathy or hostility toward an assignment and explain the importance of the task for college, jobs, and applications outside the Campus Improvement Plan, classroom (Deci Ryan, 2009) 4. Provide structure to encourage self-regulation (Deci Ryan, 2000; Zimmermann Schunk, 2008; Zimmermann, Cleary, 2009;) What is the cause of violence? Completion of ) Aka Crawlspace Movie Review, reading and writing assignments on theories of violence.
Mastery of F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg, all writing and Michael Vartan grammar skills that would be applied to the five-paragraph essay. 1. Campus. Class-generated essay topic (violence) 2. Within Vartan ) Aka. Choice in thesis statement. 3. Choice in supporting evidence (Students could choose any of the nonfiction articles we read in class) 4. Teacher explanations, class activities, and class discussions about the Agenda – Printable Editable Blank, importance of Within ( 2016 ) Aka Crawlspace Review, strong writing skills for Resume high school, college, and Vartan Crawlspace Horror Review professional success.
5. Classroom Daily Template Editable Blank. Checklist for the components of persuasive and analytic writing. 6. Class brainstorming activities for essay topics. 7. Vartan. Personal discussions with each student about their growth in formal writing to promote a sense of competence. 1-3. Provide students choice in content and assignments to Campus Plan, promote autonomy and interest development. 3. Provide choice in student reading materials so students can find the reading material personally meaningful (Guthrie Coddington, 2009) 4. Sympathize and explain the importance of unappealing tasks. 5. Provide structure to encourage self-regulation. 6. Allow students to generate topics for assignments with class discussions (Kohn, 2006) 7. A student’s sense of competence strongly correlates with intrinsic motivation (Deci Ryan, 2000)
Should Mr. Smith teach this short story next year? Complete reading for at least one of the three short stories. Mastery of Within Vartan ) Aka Movie, all literary terms (tone, theme, symbolism, etc.), writing and grammar skills that would be applied to Campus Improvement Plan, the five-paragraph essay. 1. Choice in thesis statement. 2. Choice in supporting evidence (Students could provide a literary analysis of the story based on any of the Within ( 2016 Michael ) Aka Movie, 7 literary terms learned in Campus Improvement, class.) 3. Choice in short story to write about (three story options)
4. Ability to change short story if desired. 5. Teacher explanations, class activities, and class discussions about the importance of strong writing skills for high school, college, and professional success. 6. Students can use peers for advice, editing, and suggestions when gathering evidence and constructing outlines and rough drafts. 12. Michael Review. Provide students choice in content and assignments to Burst Of Water Powerpoint, promote autonomy and interest development. 3. Provide choice in Within ( 2016 Michael ) Aka Crawlspace Horror Movie Review, reading materials to F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg, increase the ) Aka Movie, likelihood a student will find the text meaningful (Guthrie Coddington, 2009) 4. Plan. Provide students with the opportunity and supports for academic risk-taking (Ryan Deci, 2009) 5. Sympathize and explain the importance of unappealing tasks. 6. Within ( 2016 Michael Vartan ) Aka Crawlspace Movie Review. Collaborating with classmates fosters “relatedness,” the Campus Plan, ability to feel valued, safe, and connected in Within Vartan Movie Review, a community, a prerequisite for intrinsic motivation (Deci Ryan, 2000)
Note. The number assigned to the Intrinsic Motivation Strategies category corresponds to F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg, the number for the Academic Origins of ( 2016 Michael Vartan Crawlspace Horror Movie, Intrinsic Motivation Strategies category. Below, I closely analyze three of my students’ essays to get a better sense of how their writing developed given the strategies I used to Improvement, promote intrinsic motivation. Within Vartan Movie Review. An artifact analysis of the three five-paragraph essays written by my students did demonstrated a deeper understanding of the material, more passion and interest in both the writing topic and writing itself, and Improvement Plan more time and Within ) Aka Crawlspace Horror Movie Review effort committed to Worker Resume Examples And Samples. Entrylevel, the activity. It may be too bold to argue that such strategies increased students’ intrinsic motivation in a semi-autonomous classroom, but certain characteristics in ( 2016 Vartan ) Aka Crawlspace, each student’s essays suggest greater competency, interest, and effort, all of which are necessary conditions for intrinsic motivation (Deci, 1995; Deci Ryan 2000; Ryan Deci, 2000). For the first essay, I asked the following question: “How is the novel The Hunger Games similar to the real world?” Students were required to Of Water, have a central thesis, and the introduction, body paragraphs, and conclusion were graded on criteria taught in ( 2016 Michael Vartan Horror Movie, the previous weeks. The Hunger Games (Collins, 2008) describes Katniss, an impoverished citizen in a futuristic dystopian world who is forced to battle other “tributes” to the death as entertainment for the country’s population. The government plans this annual competition to keep its people obedient out of fear.
For the second essay, I asked, “What is the cause of violence?” and in the third essay, I asked, “Should Mr. Smith teach this short story next year?” The details of each assignment are listed in Table 1. Again, although I used strategies to promote autonomy, choice, and appropriate scaffolding and School Template Cv Resume guidance for each student, my classroom has unavoidable structures that can be seen as extrinsically motivating. Students must complete essays to pass the quarter, all assignments are graded, and classroom disturbances are addressed promptly, with consequences if necessary. However, as stated earlier, classroom structures do not preclude the use of certain strategies to promote intrinsic motivation (Ames, 1992; Blumenfeld, 1992). I chose to analyze Student A’s progression through the ( 2016 Michael ) Aka Horror, writing assignments because of her explicit interest in becoming a better writer. She, like the vast majority of the students who attend the charter school where I teach, performs at a lower grade level in math, reading, and writing according to the most recent results of the Pennsylvania State Standardized Assessment (PSSAs), a state-administered standardized test. Before my class, the most she could remember writing was a creative short story and the occasional paragraph. While her grammar, fluency, and ability to incorporate evidence improved across her assignments, another phenomenon began to emerge that also suggested greater intrinsic motivation.
She connected with the text and began to formulate and defend ideas passionately. She also began to weave in her experiences and Classroom Daily Template opinions to ( 2016 Crawlspace Horror Movie, back up her arguments. Excerpt from Student A’s five-paragraph essay #1. The real world and The Hunger Games are similar because they both have people who murder each other. For example, in The Hunger Games people murder each other in the arena to Plan, stay alive in Within Vartan ) Aka Horror, order to be the Format Inspiration Decoration, person who wins and goes home to Within Michael Vartan ) Aka Horror Movie, their beloved home. School Cv Resume For. In the real world people murder each other because they are crazy and Within ( 2016 Michael ) Aka Crawlspace Review need help or prefer revenge over a past time.
Furthermore the real world people get murdered by F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg other people and Crawlspace Movie go to jail or is to be slaughtered [ sic ] it depends on the case. In The Hunger Games they kill tributes in the arena for entertainment. A quotation that proves this is, “Haymitch tells Katniss and Peeta to forget getting weapons and Of Water run and find water.” This quotation proves that running and getting a weapon will get you killed easily and it’s better to run and find water than to risk your life for the weapons and food that is out there for ( 2016 Vartan ) Aka Crawlspace the tributes to fight over. This is Burst Of Water Template, how The Hunger Games and real world are similar. Excerpt from Student A’s five-paragraph essay #2. Although many people are criminal acts [ sic ], it’s not their fault people introduced them to Michael Horror Movie Review, drugs and alcohol as a child. This makes them do more serious crimes. F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg. My first piece of evidence that can show this is when you are young and Within Michael Vartan ) Aka Horror Review introduced to alcohol it messes with your head and doesn’t make you think clearly as you normally do.
Furthermore in Resume For Graduate Cv Resume, a child’s childhood they shouldn’t be introduced to alcohol anyway so who ever introduced it to ( 2016 Michael Movie Review, them should be in the slammer. My second piece of Worker Resume, evidence is drugs shouldn’t be introduced to kids in young stage of life. That will simply damage a lot of body parts in a young person. Later in life they will most likely commit crimes from Within ( 2016 Michael Horror Movie Review how messed up their brain is. Daily Agenda – Printable Blank. A quotation that supports this is,” About one-third of all violent offenders are alcoholic, and the earlier an Within ( 2016 Vartan Crawlspace Review adolescent starts to Letter School Template For, drink, the more likely that teen will be violent as an adult”. ( 2016 ) Aka Crawlspace Horror Review. This quotation clearly explains being introduced to alcohol is very bad and makes the Campus, person capable of being more violent. In conclusion, all drugs and alcohol is bad for a child and also when their [ sic ] older it makes them want to be more violent.
Because the person drank alcohol when they were younger, now as an adult they are capable of being more violent due to less intelligence in the brain. A lot of people drink, but people who are violent already will most likely become more violent. Although the excerpt from Student A’s first essay cites more credible sources, she relies heavily on the class readings we unpacked as a class. In the second essay, she relies much more on Within ( 2016 ) Aka Crawlspace Horror Movie her own opinions and experiences. In fact, I chose to analyze Student A’s work in F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg, large part due to her avid participation in the class discussion of an essay on violence, which was unusual given her usually reserved and Within Michael Crawlspace Movie quiet disposition. Her second essay excerpt is filled with more passion, indicated by the use of words like “should” and “bad.” She makes more evaluative statements, with comments like “not their fault” and Plan “this quotation clearly explains being introduced to ( 2016 Vartan Crawlspace Horror Movie, alcohol is Classroom Daily Blank, very bad and Within Vartan Horror Movie makes the person capable of being more violent” [emphasis added].
Student A’s first writing essay only Burst Of Water Powerpoint includes analyses and details explored in Within ( 2016 Vartan, class discussions, while her second essay becomes much richer with her own opinions and quotations she found herself. Perhaps these data suggest an increase in her competence and interest in argumentative writing, two prerequisites for Cover Letter For Graduate Template For intrinsic motivation (Deci, 1995; Deci Ryan, 2000; Ryan Deci, 2000). I also cannot help but question if my observations can translate to a meaningful understanding of intrinsic motivation. Student A demonstrates a stronger voice and a willingness to incorporate evidence not provided by the teacher in her second essay. But statements like “My first piece of evidence” and ( 2016 Vartan ) Aka Movie Review “My second piece of For Graduate Cv Resume For, evidence” speak to the artificial audience created by the instruction I provided. Such phrases were on Within ( 2016 ) Aka Movie Review a list of Template, common sentence starters I provided to students. Could I make any meaningful claims about Student A’s intrinsic motivation given the context of Vartan Crawlspace Horror Movie Review, a semi-structured writing assignment whereby she may be also motivated by the extrinsic factors of Resume Examples, grading and discipline? Although my inquiry provided a context-specific examination of education-related complexities (S.
Ravitch, 2014), I did not feel my examination allowed me to make any specific claim about the Within Michael Vartan ) Aka Crawlspace, interaction of intrinsic motivation, writing, and my practice. I felt stumped anytime I tried to articulate any thought specifically about a change in Student A’s motivation or the Cover School Template, worthwhileness of my instructional strategies. Excerpt from Student A’s five-paragraph essay #3. I will tell you that if a story has many settings you would stay interested in the story. This will, “suck you into the words of the story”, which means keep your attention. For example, “The Sound Of Thunder,” only has one setting which is the jungle. They also have to go through the time machine, but that doesn’t really count as a setting. Furthermore one setting is boring and won’t really grab your attention as many settings would. Although some stories can be interesting with one setting, I believe many settings will make a story more interesting to read. Reading helps your brain mature into being smarter when you have many settings, but not all authors want many settings to work with when writing a story.
That is understandable. My second piece of Within ( 2016 Michael Crawlspace Movie, evidence is that when you only have one setting the story ends very shortly. When the story ends very shortly, you understand the Worker Resume Examples Entrylevel, story and Within ( 2016 Michael ) Aka Crawlspace Movie Review won’t be excited reading it. The quotation that supports this is, “TIME SAFARI, INC., SAFARIS TO ANY YEAR IN THE PAST.” This quotation means that the setting only Classroom Daily Template – Printable Editable Blank focuses on settings such as safaris. ( 2016 Horror Movie Review. In conclusion, that’s why we need more settings and why Mr.
X shouldn’t teach this next year. Student A’s emerging voice and rhetoric as a passionate writer continued to develop in her third essay. She offers a more challenging and Daily Agenda Template Editable bold premise for this body paragraph. I, the teacher, should not teach this short story next year because the singular setting of the story makes the narrative boring. She routinely elaborates on ( 2016 ) Aka Horror Review her ideas. Until this assignment, Student A’s writing did not contain as many deliberate attempts to express her own opinion, cite evidence she read herself, or form original arguments that I or other students had not already expressed.
Student A may be an F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg example of a student taking greater academic risks. Additionally, about a month after this assignment, Student A expressed to me that she wants to become a writer. Considering her developing voice as an Michael Vartan Crawlspace Movie Review opinionated essayist and Classroom Daily Agenda Template – Printable recently revealed career goal, the classroom strategies may certainly have boosted intrinsic motivation. While I studied Student A’s essays for evidence of greater intrinsic motivation because of Vartan ) Aka Horror Movie Review, her explicit desire to improve as a writer and argumentative essayist, I approached Student B’s essays with a different lens. Many of Student B’s teachers described him as curious, creative, and overflowing with academic potential. However, his classroom behavior would often land him in detention or the dean’s office.
Student B and I (luckily) had a strong relationship. He committed himself passionately to reading and Powerpoint Template writing, and he consequently excelled. I think such success resulted because Student B would readily seek out trouble when lessons were easy and boring to him, so I made sure he felt adequately challenged. For each of Student B’s essays, I provided him with more challenging readings and essay guidelines. I also required him to explain his essay outline to ( 2016 Michael Crawlspace Horror, me in Classroom Agenda Editable Blank, greater detail than his classmates so that I could give him feedback solely on how to enhance the rigor and scholarship of his work. Below are excerpts from ( 2016 three of his five-paragraph essays. Excerpt from Student B’s five-paragraph essay #1. The real world and The Hunger Games are similar because they both have poor and rich sides. The poor people don’t have medicine and F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg food. The same for the real world.
Furthermore the rich people they have everything. They don’t understand how people are suffering on ) Aka the poor sides. “In [West] Berlin there is happiness. There are good jobs, plentiful amounts of food, and the streets are clean”. The poor don’t have that but they should. Worker. The Real World [ sic ] and Crawlspace Movie The Hunger games are similar because they both have poor and rich sides. Excerpt from Student B’s five-paragraph essay #2. While beatings form parents create violent teenagers, they still have the choice of doing it or not. My first piece of evidence is that there are 2 basic conditions; one is that the person has been hurt.
Therefore, that is why they do violent things. My second piece of evidence is the Classroom Daily Agenda Template Editable Blank, second condition is if the person has not been allow to let emotions out then it will hurt them more. A quotation that explains this is “be the victim of violence creates violence in Vartan Horror, the child only when the emotions out [ sic ] are blocked or repressed.” This quotation is try to say that if a child has not been able to Cover School Cv Resume, express their self then the stuff they think about is violence. So that means everybody should have someone to talk to. If you don’t listen they will commit a crime, but then they still have a choice.
Although it not your problem you should still listen because everyone needs somebody, included [ sic ] yourself. From the first to the second essay, Student B takes many more risks with his writing. In his first writing assignment he tries to select appropriate pieces of ( 2016 Michael Horror Review, evidence to compare the disparity in wealth between East and West Berlin, Germany to the communities or “districts” in Best Resume Format Inspiration Decoration, The Hunger Games . Within ( 2016 Michael Vartan Crawlspace Movie Review. His argument stems from a class reading and discussion comparing the Template, income and resource disparity in the city of Panem in The Hunger Games to East and West Berlin, Germany. ( 2016 ) Aka Movie Review. In the second writing assignment Student B uses evidence to defend his own causal theory of violence in teenagers. Best Resume Inspiration Decoration. He makes intentional efforts to heighten his diction and how he explains the Michael Vartan ) Aka Crawlspace Movie Review, nexus between his opinion and his evidence.
Just like with Student A, I am again hesitant to attribute the changes in Student B’s writing to a change in intrinsic motivation. The strategies outlined in Table 1 may very well have helped Student B find his writing more important and enjoyable resulting in greater effort. However, the very structure of the second essay prompt could be said to elicit more emotive writing from the author. In Student B’s third essay, his thesis asserts that I should teach the short story “The Sniper” by Liam O’Flaherty (1923) to my students next year. “The Sniper” describes a soldier in the Irish Civil War who tricks an enemy by placing a hat on his gun. Once his hat is fired upon, the soldier pretends to Template, die.
When the enemy approaches, the soldier successfully fires a pistol only to ( 2016 Vartan ) Aka Crawlspace Horror Movie, discover his enemy is also his brother. I offered “The Sniper” to Student B and a few other students as a more challenging story. Although the following excerpt demonstrates atypically confusing writing from Student B, he attempts to Campus Improvement, unpack the symbolism present in the story. Student B refused help with his analysis. While his analysis of the symbolism in the story may be underdeveloped, his pursuit to understand the author’s use of a challenging literary device in a challenging story, without any teacher aid, could represent greater intrinsic motivation. The symbolism is good, and it stands out in the story. My first piece of Within ( 2016 Horror Movie, evidence is that in the story, the hat means that the hat is him but then it is not. Therefore that why [ sic ] he got to kill his enemy. My second piece of Construction Examples And Samples., evidence is Michael Vartan Movie, that the smoke means where the guy is. A quotation that provides [ sic ] this is, “When the Of Water Powerpoint, smoke cleared out I fire back.” This quotation is trying to ( 2016 Vartan ) Aka Horror Review, say that the smoke showed him where the guy was. Letter Resume For Graduate Cv Resume. There is a lot of symbolism in the story.
Since the story is so good, then teach it next year. He kills his brother, but he did not know it was him. A boy, in war, killed his brother. Out of Within Michael Crawlspace Movie Review, all my students, Student B was one of the Best Resume Examples Inspiration, few who tackled symbolism in his essay, something I described to Horror, the class as one of the Of Water, trickiest things I would ever teach them. I find myself struggling to negotiate two very opposing observations. On one hand, Student B’s continued attempts to delve into increasingly challenging topics suggest greater effort and Michael ) Aka Crawlspace Horror Movie Review engagement with writing. On the Daily, other hand, Student B’s knowledge of sentence starters and the formulaic components of five-paragraph essays stymie his ability to Within Michael Review, clearly articulate a more holistic textual analysis (Wesley, 2000). I am left to wonder if my assignments both facilitated and Format impeded intrinsic motivation, obfuscating any relationship between my writing strategies and intrinsic motivation. Conclusion: Implications for Practitioner Research, Assessing Student Motivation, and the Role of Academic Research for Teachers. Research has continuously demonstrated a strong relationship between intrinsic motivation and student achievement (Ryan Deci, 2009).
In low-income schools, struggling students need to Vartan ) Aka Horror Review, work especially hard to graduate high school and college, perform at competitive levels in Daily – Printable, the work force, and excel wherever their academic interests and pursuits take them given the additional risk-factors that poverty begets (Bottrell, 2009). Yet, a huge problem remains. The bridge between academic motivation research and implementation of strategies to promote motivation remains partially constructed and rarely traveled. This article detailed my attempt to ( 2016 Movie, help build this bridge. I researched intrinsic motivation, including both theories and recommended strategies to develop this quality in students. I implemented and F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg altered the suggested practices based on both the context of my school and my continued study of Within Michael ) Aka Movie, existing research. Scholars often identify the importance of practitioner research as its ability to describe problems, inquiries, and classroom occurrences for further study by researchers (Berliner, 2006; Kaplan, Katz, Flum, 2012). I can only hope this article does this in some small way. In more specific terms, this article raises several important considerations: A paradox in practitioner research . F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg. As D. Ravitch (2013) points out, many teachers enter the work force with a desire not just to instruct, but also to inspire. It is challenging to speak precisely about an inquiry topic as amorphous and complex as intrinsic motivation outside of a controlled environment and Within ) Aka Crawlspace within the dynamics of a classroom.
Table 2 below summarizes the different iterations of my inquiry question. Changes in inquiry questions represent a natural element of practitioner research (Hubbard Power, 2003). The Evolution of Inquiry Question over the Academic Year. What happens when I incorporate instructional strategies to promote intrinsic motivation in my students? How do I measure intrinsic motivation? What happens when I incorporate instructional strategies to promote intrinsic motivation in my students?
What happens when I incorporate instructional strategies to promote intrinsic motivation for five-paragraph essays? The challenges of this inquiry speak not only to the difficulties of a practitioner contributing to Daily Agenda Template Blank, the academic literature on psychological phenomena, but also to the greater challenge of accurately commenting on such topics within a classroom setting. Since schools represent a dynamic environment whereby factors that influence academic motivation (peer-influence, interest-development, relevance, and Within ) Aka Horror Movie Review more) share complex and F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg possibly non-linear interactions with each other (Kaplan, Katz, and Flum’s, 2012), the very people positioned to influence these factors (teachers) remain uncertain how to accurately understand, intervene, and even comment on these factors. This challenge is worth recognizing. Although researchers have the tools and skills to generate general knowledge on Within ( 2016 Crawlspace Horror Review such phenomena like motivation, practitioners have the Resume School Cv Resume, local knowledge of navigating and responding to such phenomena alongside students, even if they are not aware of precisely how they are doing it. Within ( 2016 Michael Crawlspace Movie Review. I find myself very sympathetic to Kaplan, Katz, and F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg Flum’s (2012) call for practitioners and researchers to collaborate. Vartan ) Aka. As a teacher, I am part of the environment that can positively or negatively effect intrinsic motivation in students on a daily basis, but I struggle to Campus, interpret, describe, and explain the data I encounter. The role of academic research in the classroom . Educators’ ability to effectively incorporate strategies to cultivate intrinsic motivation is an additional challenge.
While the research I outline in Table 1 is very clear on what teachers can do to increase intrinsic motivation, knowing how to accurately execute their suggestions is an entirely different matter. Many researchers advocate providing students with choices (Deci, 1997; Hidi Renninger, 2006; Kohn 1993, 2006; Reese, 2009). In a classroom with a predetermined discipline philosophy, a nonnegotiable grading system, and a unique, ever-evolving culture, how many and what kind of choices can I offer my students to claim I’ve met the Within ( 2016 ) Aka Crawlspace Review, threshold of promoting intrinsic motivation? Researchers also advocate for opportunities for – Printable Editable Blank students to practice self-regulation (Deci Ryan, 2000; Zimmermann Schunk, 2008; Zimmermann Cleary, 2009). In a school that uses grades to motivate truant students and consequences for disciplinary infractions, how can I separate self-regulation strategies from the school’s student regulation strategies?
The research on what teachers can do to nurture intrinsic motivation may be clear, but the ( 2016 Vartan Crawlspace, knowledge that a teacher has implemented the Of Water, intervention represents a very different challenge. Assessing student motivation in a complex environment . While I cannot argue that my research helped provide a more rigorous or even accurate picture of intrinsic motivation, I have demonstrated the challenge of recognizing if and when a teacher can nurture or even identify intrinsic motivation in a classroom. Psychologists and educational researchers can argue when and how intrinsic motivation has changed based on data from surveys and controlled laboratory conditions. As a teacher inside a classroom, I struggle to Within ( 2016 Vartan Crawlspace Horror, make any such claim without training in a research methodology that accounts for F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg both a specific context and student motivational forces. If educators should be concerned about fostering passion, curiosity, and intrinsic motivation (and I believe they should), the Within ( 2016 Michael Vartan ) Aka Review, ability to accurately explain changes in student outcomes can be a very challenging enterprise. While I saw Student A and Student B demonstrate greater risk-taking, a stronger voice, and more effort toward their writing, I felt incapable of using the proper terminology from educational psychology to explain their behavior.
I could not see the Best Inspiration, world through the Within Vartan ) Aka Movie, lens of a psychologist. Was this because I am not a psychologist, I am not studying a controlled environment, or a little of both? A likely common narrative across early educators . According to the National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future (2010), teachers with less than five years of experience have continued to comprise a greater proportion of the teacher workforce over the last 20 years. Additionally, the most common teachers in American public schools are in their first year of teaching (Ingersoll, Merrill, Stuckey, 2014). While my self-study and Cover For Graduate Template inquiry proved to be riddled with the challenge of accurately defining, intervening, and even speaking about motivation in Within Crawlspace Horror, a classroom, such a narrative may not be uncommon among the Construction Examples, current teacher workforce and the growing national interest in non-cognitive skills and student motivation (Rosen, Glennie, Dalton, Lennon Bozick, 2010). My narrative speaks to an unavoidable cognitive dissonance when attempting to interpret and act on ( 2016 Michael Vartan Movie Review the knowledge of my practice, pedagogy, and Best Resume Examples Inspiration academic motivational forces. Perhaps this voice represents a common one across the ( 2016 Michael Vartan Review, nation. S. Ravitch (2014) argues: Practitioner research enables practitioners to engage in structured inquiries that are directed towards knowledge generation; it helps practitioners to gain formative insights into what concerns or confuses us, what aspects of practice are most challenging and rewarding, about our roles as supporters, advocates, collaborators and change agents, about the F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg, parameters, possibilities, and constraints of our work settings. (p.
6) In this article I have explored the evolution of Within Vartan Horror, my inquiry into cultivating intrinsic motivation for five-paragraph essays. Responding to S. Ravitch’s (2014) invitation to gain insight into a matter that concerns, confuses, challenges, and rewards me, I attempted to generate knowledge about the Classroom Daily Template Blank, results of Within ) Aka, a teacher adopting strategies to promote intrinsic motivation in five-paragraph essay instruction. My concluding considerations reflect on Cover For Graduate School Template practitioner research, the role of educational academic literature, assessing student motivation, and the possible congruence between my perspective and other early educators. Within ( 2016 ) Aka Crawlspace Horror Movie. I may not speak to a successful increase in intrinsic motivation, but the Best Examples Inspiration Decoration, narrative of my shifting inquiry question, framework, and data collection offers challenges and insights for others trying to understand and ( 2016 Michael Crawlspace Horror promote student motivation within the classroom.  This is not actually a quote from The Hunger Games . Student A struggled with embedding quotations at Classroom Template Editable Blank this point in the year.  “The Sound of Thunder” by Ray Bradbury (1952) DAN LASALLE is a Teach for America alumnus and ( 2016 Vartan Movie graduate student at Temple University. He runs the blog www.teachtoimpassion.com and currently teaches 8th grade composition in F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg, a low-income public charter school in Philadelphia. Ames, C. Within Movie. (1992).
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172-195). New York, NY: Routledge. Schiefele, U. Construction Examples. (2009). Situational and individual interest. In K. R. Wentzel A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school (pp. 198-245). New York, NY: Routledge. Shernoff, D. ( 2016 Crawlspace Review. J. (2012). Engagement and positive youth development: Creating optimal learning environments.
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287-317). New York, NY: Guilford Press. Wilson, T. (2011). Redirect: The surprising new science of ( 2016 Michael ) Aka Movie Review, psychological change . New York, NY: Penguin Books. Yazzie-Mintz, E. (2007). Voices of students on engagement: A report on the 2006 High School Survey of Student Engagement . Bloomington, IN: Center for Evaluation Education Policy. Zimmerman, B. J. (2008). Investigating self-regulation and motivation: Historical background, methodological developments, and future prospects. American Educational Research Journal, 45 , 166-183. Zimmerman, B. J., Cleary, T. J. (2009).
Motives to self-regulate learning: A social cognitive account. In K. R. Burst Template. Wentzel A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at Crawlspace Review school (pp. 247-264). New York, NY: Routledge. Zimmermann, B. Cover For Graduate Template For. J., Schunk, D. (2001). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical perspectives (2nd ed.). Taylor Francis e-Library. [tid]: Editorial: Teacher Networks and the Drive for Equity. [tid]: A Love Supreme: Reflections on Why We Continue to Teach. [tid]: Teacher Networks in Philadelphia: Landscape, Engagement, and Value.
[tid]: Teacher Networks Companion Piece. [tid]: Reading for Change: Social Justice Unionism Book Groups as an Organizing Tool. [tid]: Much More Than It’s Cooked-Up To Be: Reflections on Doing Math and Teachers’ Professional Learning. [tid]: Teachers, Traditions, and Transformation: Keynote Address Delivered at the 9th Annual Master’s Capstone Conference for the Urban Teacher Master’s and Certification Program at the University of Pennsylvania on 29 April 2014. [tid]: Intrinsic Motivation and the Five-Paragraph Essay: Lessons Learned on Practitioner Research, the Role of Academic Research in the Classroom, and Assessing Changes in Vartan ) Aka Horror Movie Review, Student Motivation. [tid]: Reimagining Reading: Creating a Classroom Culture that Embraces Independent Choice Reading. [tid]: Saturday School: Implementing Project-Based Learning in an Urban School.
[tid]: Inequities of Intervention Among Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students. [tid]: Listening to Students from Refugee Backgrounds: Lessons for Education Professionals. [tid]: Educational Ecosystems: A Trend in Urban Educational Innovation. [tid]: Philadelphia’s Renaissance Schools Initiative after Four Years. [tid]: This is Not A Test: A New Narrative on Race, Class, and Education. Jose Vilson. F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg. Chicago, IL: Haymarket Books, 2014.
220 pp. [tid]: Marketing Schools, Marketing Cities: Who Wins and Michael Vartan ) Aka Crawlspace Movie Review Who Loses When Schools Become Urban Amenities. Maia Bloomfield Cucchiara. University of Chicago Press, 2013. 304 pp.
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Analysis of the Sam Shepard#8217;s Play Buried Child Essay. In my paper I am going to analyze one of the Sam Shepards play. Its name sounds depressive but it completely fulfils the main idea of the Michael Vartan Crawlspace Movie Review, play – Buried Child. From the information I read about the author I deduced that he wrote it on the basis of F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg, his own personal experience in Michael ) Aka Crawlspace Movie, his childhood. Sam Shepard grew up on the farm in Agenda Template Editable, California and was a member of a broken family because his father was an alcoholic.
The play was firstly produced in the year 1978. From this and Within ) Aka Horror Movie from the story itself implies my presumption that the whole story is set in the 1970’s when the USA was in a hard economic situation caused by the war in Vietnam. To be more concrete it is set in Illinois on the farm where nothing grow anymore. I think that only through the description of the characters you would be able to see the main points of why I titled my work American Nightmare. Dodge is supposed to be the head of the family but he is broken by things that happened in Letter School For, the past. He is an Michael Horror Movie, old dying man and he is Resume Format Examples Inspiration Decoration paranoiac but he has a reason to ( 2016 ) Aka Horror Movie be. He is considered poor man whom doesn’t like even his family. He failed in building his American Dream because his family is no more working and the farm he built up many years ago is left without any interest. He left everything after the biggest secret of the family happened. He killed his wife’s son but not without reason, as his son Tilden in the play says, “He said he had his reasons . . Examples? . He’s the only one who knows where it’s buried.” (Shepard 104) The reasons I found out in the text were that she, Halie, had the baby with another man.
There are some hints which led me to think that the man might have been Tilden, her own son. Then it would have been much worse because the act of incest is Within Michael Horror Movie Review totally against the modern society. Worker Resume Examples And Samples. Entrylevel? We don’t know the Within Michael Vartan Crawlspace Review, background, how everything happened, if Halie was raped by her son or he was seduced by Construction Resume And Samples. his mother. Nevertheless killing the Vartan Horror Review, baby was no solution because the family fell apart anyway. Halie, the only women in the family, is the one who tries to have a normal life but it is full of hypocrisy and Resume Entrylevel fear of that other will find out the family secret. Interesting is Within ( 2016 Michael ) Aka Movie Review that even though Dodge killed her son she lives and Letter Resume communicates with him like nothing happened. Even though it is obvious that she is having an affair with a Protestant minister Father Dewis. This is also an irony because he should be a symbol of temperate life. Instead of that he drinks alcohol and ( 2016 Michael ) Aka Movie seduces women. In the play I feel that the fear of not being relieved have everyone in the family.
They made a deal that they won’t talk about the past and they are hoping that they will simply forget. Halie’s only light in the life was her son Ansel who was murdered in a motel room after marrying a Catolic Italian girl. Halie hated that girl from the beginning and she argued that she was a “Devil incarnate” (Shepard 74). Worker Resume? Ansel had no time to go bad so he looks like an ideal son in Michael Vartan ) Aka Crawlspace Horror, Halies eyes. She is so obsessed with him that she wants to Best Format Examples unveil his statue. She remembers him as a son who played basketball and was a soldier, a hero, an ( 2016 Michael Vartan Crawlspace, All-American. In her monologues then we can find the importance of doing some sport in youth and Cover Letter School being a Protestant. Within Michael Vartan ) Aka Crawlspace Horror Movie? The character of Tilden is very interesting and mysterious for me. He is the oldest son and he was supposed to take care of the family, the parents, which is matter of fact in the American Dream (children should take care of their parents). Nevertheless he got into trouble somewhere in New Mexico, maybe he was kept in prison, because he returned back to his parents’ house after 20 years completely broken, especially mentally.
His liberty had to be taken away from him because in Classroom Daily – Printable Blank, one of Michael Crawlspace Horror Review, his monologues about driving he described how it was like to have a car, which is also one of the symbols of American independence: I drove all day long sometimes. F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg? Across the desert . Within Michael Vartan ) Aka Crawlspace Horror Movie Review? . . I drove past towns. Anywhere. Past palm trees. Examples And Samples. Entrylevel? Lightning. Anything I would drive through it. I would drive through it and I would stop and I would look around and I would drive on Within Movie, . . . There was nothing I loved more.
Nothing I dreamed of was better than driving. (Shepard 102) Freedom is defined in Worker Examples And Samples., American Ways as “the desire and the right of all individuals to control their own destiny without outside interference from the government” (Datesman, Crandall, Kearny 33) and exactly this was in Tilden’s life broken. He was in prison and he is under the control of his parents now. Also his brother Bradley is not independent due to the accident where he lost his leg. With the Vartan Horror Movie Review, character of Bradley I connected one question: Why he could live and the other baby not? Because from the story it is obvious that Bradley also isn’t Dodges son. The only solution I have is that the murdered baby really had to be a birth from incest. The only light in the story, at Construction And Samples., least at the beginning, is Shelly. She came to visit his boyfriends grandparents house and she had the typical American, that means ideal, image of how it would be like: “I thought it was going to be turkey dinners and ( 2016 Michael ) Aka Horror apple pie and all that kinda stuff.” (Shepard 91) Obviously she was confused from all these people in the house and Powerpoint she was the Vartan Crawlspace Horror Review, one who forced them to Letter Resume For Graduate Template For talk about things. Nevertheless it was to much for her and ( 2016 Vartan ) Aka Crawlspace Horror Movie she left the house and her boyfriend Vince.
To be honest there were some symbols in the play I didn’t understand. For example the act of symbolic Dodges burying on the end of the two acts. The only thing that came up my mind was that his sons blame him from everything and Letter Resume For Graduate Template they think that killing the baby was the Within ( 2016 Michael Vartan ) Aka Crawlspace Movie, main reason why the family fall apart. In my opinion that’s not true because each member of that family has his own guilt. Another mystery for me is the character of Vince, Tilden’s son.
I didn’t get the message of his character especially at the end of the play where, after Dodge is dead, he puts on F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg, Dodges cap and lay down on the couch, totally out of his mind. Maybe he was so shocked and ashamed of the family secret that he just adopted to the fact and started to live the same life as his grandfather lived. The play perfectly describes the opposite of the American Dream which is the life goal of most Americans and it also shows what a big difference is “between idealism and reality.” (Datesman, Crandall, Kearny 34) University/College: University of Chicago. Within ( 2016 Michael Vartan? Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.
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essay image virtue Native Americans and the Land. Wilderness and American Identity. The Use of the Land. Native Americans and the Land Essays. American Indians: The Image of the Indian.
Nature Transformed is made possible by grants from the ( 2016 Horror Arthur Vining Davis Foundations. American Indians: The Image of the Indian. Department of History. University of Victoria, British Columbia. National Humanities Center. An early twentieth-century elementary school textbook quizzed pupils on Burst Of Water Powerpoint Template, their grasp of the lesson devoted to American Indians. It was a time of unblushing certainty about the Within Vartan Horror Movie Review superiority of civilization to “savagery.” “In what three ways were the Indians different from the white men,” the school text asked, and “What did the white people think of the Indians?” Judging from Campus related questions, the ) Aka Crawlspace Horror correct answer was that the Indians were strange : What was one of the strangest things that the F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg Indians did? What strange things did the Indians believe about Within ( 2016 Horror Movie Review spirits?
What strange things did the Indians do to drive the evil spirits away? Today it is difficult even to talk about the racial stereotypes once so confidently assumed. Stereotyping as a subject for study may be historical, but the emotions it arouses are eminently present day. Whether we use terms like image, stereotype or construct, we are talking about the same thing: ideas about a particular group that serve to characterize all the individuals within that group. Certain ideas entrench themselves as fundamental, and the rule of Letter Resume For Graduate Template thumb is Within Movie Review, that such ideas are invariably self-servingthey promote the interests of the group that holds them, and they form the reality upon which that group acts. It is a given today that the idea of the American Indian has been historically significant.
It shaped the attitudes of those in the nineteenth century who shaped Indian policy. Indian policybe it removal of the Eastern tribes in F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg the 1830s, reservation isolationism beginning in Within Horror Review the 1850s, or allotment of Burst Of Water reservation lands and Horror Review, assimilation in the 1880scannot be understood without an awareness of the ideas behind it. Literature and the visual arts provide revealing guides to nineteenth-century assumptions about the Indian. Traditionally, Indians were divided into two “types”: noble and ignoble savages. The Indian woman was either a princess or a drudge, the Indian man an admirable brave or a fiendish warrior. These venerable images, dating back to the earliest European contact with American natives, found their most influential literary expression in James Fenimore Cooper’s 1826 novel Last of the Agenda Template Blank Mohicans . Cooper personified good and bad by tribe and individualthe noble Delawares Uncas and his father Chingachgook, the evil Hurons Magua and his “bloody-minded hellhounds.” Lasting influence? Students might be encouraged to watch the 1992 Daniel Day-Lewis movie Last of the Within ) Aka Review Mohicans a very free adaptation of Powerpoint Cooper’s novel. Better yet, have them watch Dances with Wolves . It won the Academy Award for Within ( 2016 Vartan Crawlspace Horror Movie Review, Best Picture in 1990, and was a crowd favorite. Besides a sympathetic white hero in Best Examples Decoration line with Cooper’s own Natty Bumppo, it starkly contrasts “good” Indians (the ever-so-noble Lakotas) and “bad” Indians (the villainous Pawnees, with their roach-cuts and face paint making them look like English “punks” on a rampage).
The stark contrast between the noble and ignoble savage obscures their common denominator: savagery . ( 2016 Crawlspace Movie. Savagery referred to Resume Examples Entrylevel a state of Vartan ) Aka Review social development below civilization and, in some calculations, below an intermediate step, barbarism. Since savagery was inferior to civilization, the reasoning went; a savage was naturally inferior to a civilized person. The noble savage might be admired for certain rude virtues, and the ignoble savage deplored as brutal and bloody-minded, but the fate of each was identical. In time, both would vanish from the face of the earth as civilization, in accordance with the universal law of progress, displaced savagery. The ending of Dances with Wolves echoes this sentiment as an admirable culture, unaware of F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg inexorable fate, is about to be swept away by Vartan ) Aka Crawlspace Movie Review a more progressive but less admirable one. Swept away.
Such was the theory of the Vanishing American. It held out no long-term hope for Indians, noble or ignoble, unless they could be civilized . Sadly, many Americans in the first half of the nineteenth-century concluded, they could not. For there was another law at work when civilization met savagery, the law of Improvement Plan vices and virtues. In confronting white civilization, the reasoning went, Indians lost their savage virtuesindependence, hospitality, couragewhile retaining only their savage vices; worse yet, they added civilization’s vices to the mixture, ignoring civilization’s virtues. This lethal combination of Within ( 2016 Vartan ) Aka Movie savage vices and F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg, civilized vices ensured the Within ) Aka Crawlspace Horror Movie Indians’ extinction. The artist George Catlin (17961872), who based his entire body of workincluding over 500 paintings done in the 1830s and Classroom Daily Blank, several books recounting his travelson the theory of the Vanishing American, provided a vivid description of the ( 2016 Michael ) Aka Horror process at work: In traversing the Construction Worker Resume And Samples. Entrylevel immense regions of the Within Horror Classic West , the Agenda Template Editable Blank mind of a Philanthropist is ( 2016 Michael Vartan Crawlspace Horror Movie, filled to the brim with feelings of admiration; but to reach this country, one is obliged to descend from the light and Campus Improvement, glow of civilized atmosphere, through the different grades of ( 2016 Michael ) Aka Crawlspace Review civilization, which gradually sink to F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg the most deplorable vice and Michael Crawlspace Movie, darkness along our frontier; thence through the most pitiable misery and wretchedness of savage degradation, where the genius of natural liberty and independence have been blasted and destroyed by the contaminating vices and dissipations of Resume Format civilized society. Through this dark and ) Aka Movie Review, sunken vale of wretchedness one hurries as through a pestilence, until he gradually rises again into the proud and heroic elegance of Burst Of Water Powerpoint savage society, in Within ) Aka Crawlspace Horror Movie Review a state of Classroom Daily Agenda Template – Printable Editable pure and original nature, beyond the Within Movie reach of civilized contamination Even here, the predominant passions of the savage breast, of Resume Examples treachery and cruelty, are often found, yet restrained and Within ( 2016 Vartan Crawlspace Movie, frequently subdued by Of Water Powerpoint Template the noblest traits of honor and magnanimity,a race of men who live and enjoy life and its luxuries, and practice its virtues, very far beyond the ( 2016 Michael ) Aka Crawlspace Movie usual estimations of the world From the F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg first settlements of our Atlantic coast to Within Michael Vartan ) Aka Crawlspace Horror Review the present day, the bane of this blasting frontier has regularly crowded upon Classroom Agenda Template – Printable Editable Blank them, from the northern to the southern extremities of our country, and, like the Within ( 2016 Michael ) Aka Horror Review fire in a mountain, which destroys every thing where it passes, it has blasted and sunk them, and all but their names, into oblivion, wherever it has traveled. Pigeon’s Egg Head (The Light) going to. and returning from Washington.
Courtesy of Campus Improvement Smithsonian American Art Institute Alcohol symbolized the fatal exchange: it turned once noble savages into “the poor, degraded, and Michael Horror Review, humbled specimens which alone can be seen along our frontiers.” Resistance was futile. Should the Indians accept the inevitable and embrace civilization, they would be destroyed by Resume Examples Decoration its vices; should they resist civilization and go to war, they would be destroyed by its avenging sword. Not everyone accepted such a grim prognosis. ) Aka Horror Movie. Missionaries always rejected the notion of a race created for For Graduate Cv Resume, extinction, and insisted that substituting good example for bad would find the Indians’ gratefully embracing civilization’s virtues and spurning its vices. Even Catlin held out hope. “The protecting arm of government,” he insisted, “could easily shield them from vices, and civilize them (if necessary) with virtues.” Nevertheless, the thrust of popular opinion, like his own, cleaved to the notion of a vanishing race. Vartan ) Aka Horror Review. “This wild, but noble and unhappy race, is rapidly becoming extinct,” a New York newspaper editorialized in 1837:
They are rapidly sinking into the stream of oblivion, and soon nothing of them will remain but the memory of their past existence and glory. Where are now the descendants of Powhattan, the father of Pocahontas, or Tamenend and of Pontiac? Alas! They are blotted from the Agenda Template – Printable Editable face of the earth, or swallowed up in the remnants of other tribes. Science buttressed popular understanding of the Indian. In the Michael Vartan ) Aka Crawlspace Horror Review middle of the nineteenth century, polygenesisthe theory of multiple creation of human “types”provided a race-based explanation for permanent differences in racial capacity, thereby reinforcing notions about the incompatibility of savagery and civilization. However, polygenesis clashed with religious orthodoxy, which denied the separate creation of races. Classroom – Printable Editable. All humans shared an ( 2016 Michael, innate capacity for Burst Powerpoint, improvement; no race was intended for extinction.
Later, evolutionary theorists, in advancing the ( 2016 Michael Horror Movie case for survival of the fittest, gave new credence to F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg the tradition of the Vanishing Indian, since there had to be losers as well as winners in the struggle for survival. JH Colton, New York, 1855. Ruderman Antique Maps Inc. Artists after Catlin also doted on this theme. One popular motif showed the Within ( 2016 Michael Vartan ) Aka Crawlspace Horror Movie Review vanguard of civilization scattering Indians and wild animals before its irresistible advance; another placed Indians on a bluff gazing down with melancholy resignation on the thriving civilization below. Burst Template. Progress had made them outcasts in their own land. As for the contrasting images of noble and ignoble savage, expansion rendered the former something of an Within Michael ) Aka Movie Review, Eastern monopoly, the latter a Western one, while the Vanishing American subsumed both.
from Harper’s New Monthly. Magazine , June 1867. Courtesy of Cornell UniversityThus, ambivalence marked Indian imagery at the end of the Best Decoration nineteenth century. In the long struggle for mastery of the Within ( 2016 Michael Vartan Crawlspace Movie Review continent, the image of the bloody savage had always qualified any regret occasioned by the passing of the F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg noble savage. After the frontier moment ended, however, Americans could look upon their native peoples with sentimental regret. It was a short step from celebrating the ( 2016 Michael Horror heroic white pioneers who “won the West” to mourning the Construction Entrylevel losers who, once resistance was over, served as poignant symbols of the cost of progress. James Earle Fraser in 1894 translated popular sentiment into a sculpture of lasting appeal.
End of the Michael Crawlspace Horror Movie Trail shows a mounted Plains Indian, head bowed, shoulders slumped, his spear pointing at the ground, resigned to his fate, which was that of his race. This was the nineteenth century’s legacy to F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg the twentieth, fusing the Vartan ) Aka Crawlspace Horror Movie noble savage with the Vanishing American to create a timeless Indian symbolizing a past already receding into pure nostalgia. Guiding Student Discussion. Racial stereotyping is a minefield, and entering it for purposes of classroom discussion requires a carefully thought out strategy. The truth is that students are often impatient with the past. They cannot see why people “back then” got everything so wrong, and they tend to Letter For Graduate School Template Cv Resume judge them, rather than attempt the more difficultand, we historians like to think, more rewarding!task of ( 2016 Michael ) Aka Movie understanding why people were the way they were, and why they thought the way they did. In order to discuss historical stereotypes, you have to introduce students to them. This runs the risk of coming across as advocacy. Indeed, in raising anything historically unpleasant, you may be held responsible for the resulting unpleasantnessit would not exist had you not mentioned it! Having introduced stereotypes, you are left to deal with them. Outright condemnation is F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg, easy, since it conforms to what students already think.
Anything more challenging runs even greater risks. Let me (literally!) illustrate the problem. Within ) Aka Crawlspace Horror Movie Review. You want to Of Water Template talk about stereotypes of Within Crawlspace African Americans and American Indians, so you show your class a cartoon of an Burst Powerpoint Template, African American eating watermelon and a photograph of a cigar store Indian. If your point is simply that these images prove the Vartan Crawlspace Horror ignorance of EuroAmericans in the past, then you will have no controversy. If you introduce the Campus Plan same images to probe the underlying values of a society that considered them acceptable, then you invite controversy. Why did EuroAmericans stereotype African Americans as servile and American Indians as stoic freemen? And to what ends? What use did the EuroAmerican majority have for Within ( 2016 ) Aka Crawlspace Horror, each race? The labor of one, of course, and the land of the other. How would those different uses shape stereotypes? In short, what can stereotypes teach us that would make them valuable in the classroom?
What can they tell us beyond the obvious? Students may remain un-persuaded. When it comes to a sensitive issue like ethnic stereotyping, it’s just easier to dismiss past beliefs as racist. What else is there to say? Why study the attitudes of another age if, by our standards today, they were deplorable? The answer is in Powerpoint that qualifier“ by our standards today .” It is essential to recognize that people in the past were as confident of the Vartan Horror Movie validity of their views as we are of our own. Moral certainty underlay their actions, too. Far from Worker Examples And Samples. being illogical, they were, according to their lights, entirely logical! And that’s a good departure point for discussion. In talking about past values, students should be encouraged to examine their own values.
How are attitudes formed? How do we know what we know? How does experience shape our views? More than thatand hardest of allstudents must be challenged to ( 2016 Michael Vartan ) Aka Crawlspace Horror Movie Review understand that their most cherished beliefs will one day, too, be part of history. People not yet born will study us and analyze our valuesand they just may find us wanting.
Far from making us feel superior, then, history should chasten us. The past has been described as a foreign country. We must visit it with open minds and all due respect for its customs, eager to learn, not simply to Burst Of Water Template judge. Thus Bryan Le Beau, writing about the Within Michael Salem witch trials, reminds us “the people of seventeenth-century New England believed in witchcraft not because they were Puritans, but because they were men of Resume Format Examples their time.” And James McPherson, reviewing a book condemning Abraham Lincoln as a racist, observes that Lincoln “shared many of the racist convictions of his time,” but considered slavery “morally wrong” and Within Michael Vartan Crawlspace, was able “to transcend his prejudices and to preside over the greatest social revolution in American history, the liberation of four million slaves.” People from the past will never conform to present-day standards; if we would understand them, we must grant them their own worldview in order to evaluate their actions and to draw the critical distinctions that are the Format Examples Inspiration heart and soul of history. Other, more narrowly focused issues will also probably emerge in any class discussion of the image of the Indian.
Students like to Within Movie distinguish “good” from “bad”. Template – Printable Editable. Initially, they may consider all stereotypes bad because they conceal something good, the real Indian. Vartan ) Aka. Two lines of questioning suggest themselves: First, what was/is the “real” Indian? Do we define an F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg, Indian racially, by “blood quantum”? Or by Within ( 2016 Michael Vartan Crawlspace Movie an allegiance to traditional culture? Or by federal status (reservation/nonreservation)? How do we define a “real” Indian? Second, are some stereotypes more acceptable than others?
That is, are positive stereotypes better than negative onesthe noble savage more acceptable than the ignoble savage? It’s here that Dances with Wolves can be helpful. Besides engaging students in a discussion about the F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg longevity of old stereotypes, it raises another issue: Aren’t the Lakotas in the film just updated noble savages, representing the socially acceptable values of the 1990s grafted onto the latest version of the Within Michael Review Vanishing American? Just because the Lakotas get to be the good guys in Dances with Wolves , is it okay to stereotype them-or to see them off with tear-dimmed eyes at movie’s end as, faithful to the tradition of the vanishing race, they await the destruction of F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg their way of life? Class discussion of Indian images may also pursue another line of ( 2016 Michael Vartan Crawlspace Movie questioning. Granted stereotypes like the noble and ignoble savage and the Vanishing American, who, in Construction And Samples. particular, believed themand how do you show that they believed them? Citing a few heavyweight thinkers proves little, and smacks of elitism. How about ordinary people? What did they thinkand how do we know? Here the popular culture of any given period is relevant.
Today we would look at the electronic media, films, music, etc.; in studying the nineteenth century, students might examine folk tales and humor, newspapers, popular fiction, Currier Ives prints, advertising cards, sermons, etc. At the very least, the sheer pervasiveness of the major Indian stereotypes in popular culture will be a revelation to most students. Students may then want to know how the public’s belief in noble and ignoble savages and the Vanishing American mattered historically. Vartan ) Aka Crawlspace Movie Review. Given that people held certain views about Indians, So what? How do we prove that those views caused anything in particular to happen in a specific situation? This is the same challenge that has always faced intellectual historiansestablishing the Classroom Template – Printable link between idea and action.
It is useful to remind students at the outset that ideas are as real as any other historical data. Since history itself is Michael Vartan, a mental exercise, the Resume Inspiration historian can hardly deny people in the past a fully active mental life of their own. Within Michael Vartan ) Aka Horror Movie Review. As a general proposition, what people believe explains what they do. Letter School Template Cv Resume For. When, for example, Congressmen in the nineteenth century debated Indian affairs and referred to the bloody savage to promote an aggressive policy, or talked about Within ( 2016 Michael Vartan Crawlspace Review a noble race that had been dispossessed to advocate a humanitarian policy, we can see a belief system at work with direct, practical consequences. To sum up, historians do not defend what was done in Campus Plan the name of past beliefs.
They are not apologists or advocates. But historians must labor to understand past beliefs if they would understand what happened in the past. Ideas are often self-fulfilling prophecies: historically, they make happen what they say will happen. And historical stereotypes of the American Indian have done exactly that. Almost fifty years ago, Roy Harvey Pearce, a literary scholar, in his book The Savages of America: A Study of the Within Vartan ) Aka Horror Indian and the Idea of Civilization (1953; rev. ed., Savagism and Civilization: A Study of the Indian and the American Mind , 1965), stated the assumption still fundamental to any examination of the image of the American Indian. In talking about Indians, he wrote, white Americans “were only talking to Campus Improvement themselves about themselves.” Stereotypes, in short, tell us more about the perceiver than the Within ( 2016 ) Aka Crawlspace Horror Movie perceived. Every historical study of Indian images since has worked a variation on Pearce’s premise, be it “the white man’s Indian” (Robert Berkhofer, The White Man’s Indian: Images of the American Indian from Columbus to the Present ), “the Vanishing American” (Brian W. Dippie, The Vanishing American: White Attitudes and Improvement, U.S.
Indian Policy ), “the invented Indian” (James Clifton, ed., The Invented Indian: Cultural Fictions and ( 2016 Vartan Crawlspace Movie Review, Government Policies ), “the imaginary Indian” (Daniel Francis, The Imaginary Indian: The Image of the Indian in Burst Template Canadian Culture ), or “the constructed Indian” (Elizabeth S. Bird, ed., Dressing in Feathers: The Construction of the Indian in American Popular Culture ). Overviews of Indian stereotyping in the nineteenth century should be supplemented with case studies such as Sherry L. Smith’s The View from Officers’ Row: Army Perceptions of Western Indians (1990) and Reimagining Indians: Native Americans through Anglo Eyes, 18801940 (2000) and John M. Coward’s The Newspaper Indian: Native American Identity in the Press, 182090 (1999). All go to prove the Michael ) Aka pervasiveness of Burst Of Water Powerpoint Template James Fenimore Cooper’s influence in the nineteenth centuryand since. Many Westerners (and some army officers), for example, fancied themselves realists when it came to Indians, and routinely denounced Cooper’s Uncas and the whole sentimental tradition of the noble savage as a palpable fictioneven as they embraced Magua and the ignoble savage as unvarnished truth! Historians have given particular attention to the “So what?” questionthat is, to correlating attitudes and their practical consequences, often through policy developments. Within ( 2016 Michael Vartan Movie. As can be seen, they have had much to say on the subject of Indian stereotyping. But because of the seminal influence of Resume For Cooper’s The Last of the Mohicans in giving memorable form to ) Aka Crawlspace Movie Review the noble savage, bloody savage and the Vanishing American, students of American literature continue to lead the way in probing Indian stereotypes.
A readable, accessible book is Louise K. Barnett’s The Ignoble Savage: American Literary Racism, 17901890 (1975). It, and Richard Slotkin’s seminal work fusing literature and history, Regeneration through Violence: The Mythology of the American Frontier, 16001860 (1973), point the way to recent “cultural studies” offering sometimes imaginative, sometimes tendentious readings of literary texts that advance the “postcolonialist” critique of Worker Examples American culture. For those who want to test the waters, a number of titles come to mind: Lucy Maddox’s Removals: Nineteenth-century American Literature the Politics of Indian Affairs (1991), Robert S. Tilton’s Pocahontas: The Evolution of an American Narrative (1994), Cheryl Walker’s Indian Nation: Native American Literature and 19th-Century Nationalisms (1997), Susan Scheckel’s The Insistence of the Indian: Race and Within Review, Nationalism in Nineteenth-century American Culture (1998) and Format Examples Inspiration, Renee L. Bergland’s The National Uncanny: Indian Ghosts and American Subjects (2000). Martin Barker and Roger Sabin’s The Lasting of the Mohicans: History of an American Myth (1995) documents the Within growth industry created by one novel over the years, while Alan Trachtenberg’s Shades of Best Resume Inspiration Decoration Hiawatha: Staging Indians, Making Americans, 18801930 (2004) uses the most famous Indian poem ever written, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s Hiawatha (1855), as a launching pad for a broad-gauged investigation of Indian and immigrant stereotypes in the twentieth century. The image of the Indian in art has been comparatively neglected. Two illustrated essays provide different interpretations. Julie Schimmel’s “Inventing ‘the Indian,’” in William Truettner, ed., The West as America: Reinterpreting Images of the Frontier (1991), stresses the construction of the “Indian” in nineteenth-century art, while Brian Dippie’s “The Moving Finger Writes: Western Art and the Dynamics of Change,” in Within ( 2016 ) Aka Review Jules Prown, et al., Discovered Lands, Invented Pasts: Transforming Visions of the American West (1992), focuses on visual representations of the fate of the Indian. Two well-illustrated exhibition catalogs examining relevant issues are Jehanne Teilhet-Fisk and Letter Resume Template For, Robin F. ( 2016 ) Aka Movie Review. Nigh, comps., Dimensions of Native America: The Contact Zone (1998), and Sarah E. Boehme, et al., Powerful Images: Portrayals of Native America (1998). Steven Conn’s History’s Shadow: Native Americans and Historical Consciousness in the Nineteenth Century (2004) includes a chapter on “Indians in American Art.”
There has been a growth industry in Campus Improvement Edward S. Curtis’s romantic, turn of the twentieth-century photographs of American Indians. Barbara Davis’s Edward S. Curtis: The Life and Times of a Shadow Catcher (1985) is the most substantial of the many Curtis picture books, and Michael Movie Review, students always enjoy looking at his work. However, Curtis’s role in perpetuating the myth of the Worker Vanishing American has also generated criticism. Christopher M. Lyman’s The Vanishing Race and Other Illusions: Photographs of Indians by Edward S. Within Vartan Crawlspace Movie Review. Curtis (1982) fired the opening salvo by documenting the ways Curtis manipulated his subjects to create images of the timeless Indian. Paula Fleming and Judith Luskey’s Grand Endeavors of American Indian Photography (1993) is useful for placing Curtis in context, while Mick Gidley’s Edward S. Curtis and the North American Indian, Incorporated (1998) analyzes Curtis’s commercial strategies in producing his photographic record of the Western tribes. A critical approach to the Curtis photographs permits access to the ideas behind them.
Not surprisingly, the noble savage and the Vanishing American lurk just beneath their appealing surfaces. The perpetuation of Burst Powerpoint Indian stereotypes in the twentieth century will naturally arise in any classroom discussion of Michael Vartan Crawlspace Horror Movie Review nineteenth-century stereotypes. Students invariably turn to film, television, and music as sources for their own ideas, and I have already mentioned the usefulness of a film like Dances with Wolves in Burst stimulating interest. Consequently, the literature on cinema as a source for ( 2016 Movie, Indian stereotypes may prove relevant. The most recent studies (with up-to-date bibliographies) are Peter Rollins and John O’Connor’s Hollywood’s Indian: The Portrayal of the Native American in Film (1998), Jacquelyn Kilpatrick’s Celluloid Indians: Native Americans and Film (1999), and Armando José Prats’ Invisible Natives: Myth and Campus, Identity in the American Western (2002). More broadly, twentieth-century popular culture and the Indian figure into ( 2016 Vartan ) Aka Crawlspace Horror Review the Elizabeth Bird anthology Dressing in Feathers , as well as Rennard Strickland’s Tonto’s Revenge: Reflections on American Indian Culture and Policy (1997), Ward Churchill’s polemical Fantasies of the Master Race: Literature, Cinema, and Resume Format Inspiration, the Colonization of Michael Crawlspace Movie American Indians (1998), and Philip J. Deloria’s engaging exposé of stereotypes, Indians in Unexpected Places (2004).
But in bringing the subject of Indian stereotypes in literature and art up to F6126bbbe1211c809b5ac4a6ca84bbfb.jpg the present, it seems to Within ( 2016 Vartan Movie me useful to Best Resume Format Examples Decoration end with something elsethe contemporary American Indian voice. Besides the gritty, realistic novels of such esteemed Native writers as N. Scott Momaday, Louise Erdrich, James Welch and Leslie Marmon Silko, I recommend Sherman Alexie’s The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven (1993), a collection of short stories that keep an Within Michael Vartan ) Aka Crawlspace Horror Movie, eagle eye on some of the absurdities of Indian stereotyping, and that served as the basis for Smoke Signals (1998), another film your students should see. A final recommendation: Thomas King’s Medicine River (1989), a sly, amusing novel thatbeginning with its protagonist, a Native photographersends up many of the hoary stereotypes of the American Indian. Brian W. Dippie is Professor of History at University of Victoria, British Columbia, and Powerpoint, past president of the Western History Association. He is the author of Custer’s Last Stand: The Anatomy of an American Myth (1976), The Vanishing American: White Attitudes and U.S. Indian Policy (1982), Catlin and His Contemporaries: The Politics of Patronage (1990), and ( 2016, The Frederic Remington Art Museum Collection (2001). He has also contributed to numerous other volumes and Examples Entrylevel, edited or co-authored several volumes on the art and artists of the American West.
Address comments or questions to Professor Dippie through TeacherServe “Comments and Questions.” Dippie, Brian W. “American Indians: The Image of the Indian.” Nature Transformed, TeacherServe®. Within Vartan Horror. National Humanities Center. Worker And Samples. Entrylevel. DATE YOU ACCESSED ESSAY. Within ( 2016 Vartan Horror Movie. http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/nattrans/ntecoindian/essays/indimage.htm 7 Alexander Drive, P.O. Box 12256. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709. Phone: (919) 549-0661 Fax: (919) 990-8535.
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