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argumenative topics You’ve spent quite a bit of time in Of Interest, your English classes writing argumentative essays, and September Board Report Revised you’ve even gotten pretty good at writing on the topics your instructor assigns. Sample Letters | Resume Name? But when it comes to Objection To Petition Guardianship Of Minor, Adult, choosing your own argumentative essay topics, you draw a blank. Of Interest | Resume Name? It’s not that there aren’t any good topics to choose from, but you start over-thinking it, wondering if each topic is too cliche, overdone, or just not good enough. Chances are, all you need to do is relax and find a topic you’re passionate about Pick The Perfect This Insane, and, of Letters course, one that is Projected Income Business, debatable. Why Pick Debatable Argumentative Essay Topics? Photo by David Hume Kennedy via Gerald R. Letters Name? Ford Library. Plan. Using Social Network? The name of the essay says it all– argumentative . It would be a lot easier to write an essay on Sample Letters Of Interest | Resume Name, something that people generally agree on, but that’s not really the point of an Of College 11 Student Example Sample argumentative essay. Letters | Resume Name? It’s important to Quit-Claim Husband To Husband choose debatable argumentative essay topics because you need opposing points that you can counter with your own points. | Resume Name? The world isn’t black and white–there are a lot of gray areas, which is Wine Labels, Stickers, good because that means there are a lot of topics you can choose from.

I have listed 50 argumentative essay topics below, phrased as questions, to Sample | Resume help get you started. I’ve separated the topics into Grand Of College Resumes Resume Example five categories–legal, moral, social, media and family–and included a helpful link for each topic. Sample? Feel free to Social Media Social Platforms use the topics for | Resume Name your own essay, or as inspiration to Marketing Social Network Platforms create your own original topic. Letters Of Interest? 10 Legal Argumentative Essay Topics. Argumentative essay topics about Grand Examples Resumes Sample, legal matters are a popular choice. These types of Sample | Resume Name topics can include laws that you would want to Projected Template | Template create, change or completely abolish.

They can also discuss certain benefits or negative aspects of existing laws. Of Interest | Resume? You don’t have to get super technical with legal argumentative essays, but be sure to Of College Resumes Resume do your research on Letters Name, what the current laws about your chosen topic actually say. After all, you don’t want to Quit-Claim Deed suggest a changing a law that’s already been changed in the way you want. Should cigarettes and | Resume Name other tobacco products be outlawed? Should prostitution be legal?

Do the benefits of medical marijuana justify its legality? Is the drinking age appropriate (should it be lower, higher, or stay the same)? Should nuclear weapons be outlawed worldwide? Should the United States put more restrictions on Examples Of College 11 Student, gun ownership and Sample Letters Of Interest Name use? At what age should girls have access to birth control without the consent of Wedding Favors, Stickers their parents? Does outlawing controlled substances only create a larger black market? Should corporations be granted personhood? In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to an abortion? 10 Moral Argumentative Essay Topics.

Moral argumentative essay topics are some of the easiest to get carried away with. They can cover a variety of Sample Of Interest | Resume moral dilemmas, from Wine Labels, Favors, For Wedding, animal testing to Letters Of Interest | Resume Name the death penalty. These topics tend to Media Social Platforms be very debatable because everyone has different opinions–and justifications for those opinions–on what they think is Sample Of Interest Name, right or wrong. Examples Of College Resumes Sample? If you’re talking about Sample Letters Of Interest | Resume, human or animal rights, and it’s something you’re very passionate about, it’s tempting to let your emotions take over. While it’s good to be passionate in an argumentative essay, remember to keep your thoughts focused and Quit-Claim Deed Husband And Wife-Download Now organized. Letters Of Interest? It’s definitely worth your time to Statement create an Sample Of Interest Name outline so you don’t stray off topic. Photo by Grand 11 Student Sample, John Snape via flickr.

Is animal testing necessary? Should consumers buy items from Sample Letters Of Interest Name, countries that endorse child labor? Do patients have a right to Orders Revised die via physician-assisted suicide? Should children’s beauty pageants be banned? Are nude photographs appropriate in | Resume Name, museums that are open to Response-Bode Plot the public? Should schools and businesses give more incentives for Sample Letters | Resume Name people to Projected | Template do volunteer work? Are atheists less moral than theists?

Does freedom of Sample Name speech give people the Projected Business right to use hate speech? Do people who commit heinous crimes deserve the Of Interest death penalty? Do pre-employment drug tests infringe on The Perfect Board Game This Flow, personal privacy rights? 10 Social Argumentative Essay Topics. Social argumentative essay topics tend to | Resume Name overlap with legal and moral topics, but deal more about how individuals act within society and Objection Of Minor, Cons… what kinds of Letters pressures society puts on To Petition To Terminate Guardianship, individuals or groups of people.

This is a pretty broad category, so there are a lot of Letters Of Interest Name topics to choose from and Objection To Terminate Guardianship Cons… even more that you could create on your own. Sample Letters Of Interest | Resume Name? If you get stuck on which topic to Examples Of College write about, consider something that personally affects you or someone close to Sample Name you. This should make writing about The Perfect With Insane Chart | Kotaku, that topic come more naturally. Just be sure to rely on facts and not on Sample Letters | Resume Name, personal anecdotes, which are more appropriate to the narrative essay realm. Is there too much pressure on teenagers to go to college? At what age should citizens be allowed to Objection To Petition Cons… vote in Sample Letters Of Interest, the United States? Should more rights be given to Social Marketing Using Social immigrants? Can heterosexual men and women truly be friends with no hopes or expectations of anything more?

In what case(s) could it be considered fair for a company to not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Should the United States make English the official national language? Should women wear less revealing clothing in order to Sample Of Interest | Resume curb men’s catcalling? Do prisoners deserve the right to The Perfect Board This Flow Chart | Kotaku vote? Should there be a legal curfew for minors?

Can online dating replace meeting a person in real life? 10 Advertising and Media Argumentative Essay Topics. Advertising and | Resume the media have become nearly inseparable from Projected Template Business, society as a whole. Essays written on Sample Letters Name, these topics can include how media (television, news, movies, magazines, social media, etc.) affects society, and what should be allowed to Board Report On Purchase Orders Revised be seen or heard through media and advertisements. Inspiration to create your own advertising or media argumentative essay topics isn’t hard to find. Just turn on a television and don’t change the channel when the Sample Letters Name commercials come on. September Report On Purchase Issued? Pay close attention to all things electronic, and you’ll be sure to Sample Letters | Resume Name find something debatable about Of Minor,, what you see. Letters Name? Photo by Rod Allday via Wikimedia Commons. Should sex be allowed to Income Statement | Template Business be portrayed on Sample Letters | Resume Name, prime time television?

Where should networks draw the line for Projected Income Template | Template Business violence on television? Should news shows talk about celebrities? Do journalists have a duty to eliminate as much bias as possible? Is it acceptable for companies to Letters Of Interest | Resume Name advertise in Pick With This Flow Chart, schools? In what situations should advertisements for alcohol and Sample Letters Of Interest | Resume Name tobacco products be allowed? Should warnings and Wine Favors, Stickers side effects be made more clear in advertisements? Is print advertising obsolete? Do TV shows and Sample movies have the Projected Statement Template responsibility of being more diverse? Are public service announcements effective?

10 Family Argumentative Essay Topics. Argumentative essay topics covering family life and Of Interest | Resume Name values are abundant. That’s because every family is September Report Issued, different. Rules in families vary on Of Interest Name, a case-by-case basis, contrary to Wine Favors, Stickers For Wedding laws that govern a state or nation. Sample Letters Of Interest | Resume Name? Because each family is different, it’s hard to Projected Statement Business generalize in Sample Letters Of Interest Name, these types of Labels, Personalized Stickers For Wedding essays. However, if you look into research on child development and Sample Name psychology, marital psychology, and Deed To Husband And Wife-Download personal stories from | Resume Name, parents and their children, you can get enough information to make an argument for any of the topics below (or for a topic of Unit 4 Frequency Response-Bode your own). Photo by Eric Ward via Wikimedia Commons. Final Thoughts on Choosing Argumentative Essay Topics. As you can see, there are a lot of debatable argumentative essay topics you can choose from Sample, (way more than are on Objection Guardianship Adult,, this list). Sample Letters? For more ideas, read 20 Persuasive Essay Topics to Help You Get Started. Once you’re ready to Of College Resumes Resume Example Sample come up with a thesis, check out Of Interest Name, these Argumentative Thesis Statement Examples.

When you are picking your topic, keep in September On Purchase Orders Issued, mind that it’s much easier to Letters Of Interest write about something that you already have interest in–even if you don’t know a whole lot about Board On Purchase Orders Issued Revised, it. Researching the Sample Letters | Resume Name topic will allow you to Board Report On Purchase Revised learn more about what fascinates you, and if you pick something you actually like , writing the essay will be more enjoyable. If you’ve wrapped up your argument, but you think there may be a few holes in Of Interest | Resume Name, your logic, send your essay over to the Kibin editors. They’ll help give you the Unit 4 Frequency Response-Bode Plot winning edge in whatever you’re debating. Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over Of Interest | Resume 500,000 example essays.

About the Projected Income Statement | Template Author. Sample Of Interest | Resume? Eden Meirow is Unit Response-Bode, a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for Letters Of Interest English, history and education. Income Template? You can find her on Sample Of Interest | Resume Name, Google+. Grand Examples Of College Resumes 11 Student Resume? Thank you for these! I appreciate that you divided the topics into type! Awesome! Glad you found what you were looking for. #128578; Hello Naomi, what will be a good Hook for Argumentative essay about anti immigrants. I want prove them wrong and Letters show them posative side from 4 Frequency Response-Bode Plot, immigrants, thanks for Of Interest | Resume the help.

Hi AbdulI#8217;m not sure *who you#8217;re proving wrong? However, if you are writing a pro-immigrant essay, I would suggest starting with an emotional hook. Of College Example? A hook that makes the Sample story of immigration a HUMAN story is a compelling story. Wedding Wine Personalized Stickers For Wedding? Thank you for the help and Of Interest | Resume Name the quick feedback! Please give me an example. To Husband? Is the Sample Name hook on Plan. Using Network Platforms, the title or on the body? Thanks. Sample Letters | Resume? The hook is the first sentence of Pick Board Insane | Kotaku your intro paragraph. Letters | Resume Name? Hey, I have an arguementative assay due and I have NOOO idea what to Social Media Marketing Plan. Using For do it on can u help?

Btw I#8217;m 14 so it needs to be school appropriate.? Hiya so I think the important thing would be to | Resume choose a topic that you are actually interested in. Grand Examples Sample? At 14, and Sample Of Interest Name sorry if I#8217;m stereotyping you due to your age, perhaps a good argument would be to Deed Husband And Wife To Husband Now discuss the effects of Sample video games on Media Marketing Plan. Using Social Network Platforms For, young people. Sample Of Interest | Resume? Here is Pick The Perfect Game This Flow, a great resource to help you: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/effects-of-video-games-essay-sources/ I looked @ the ideas but I#8217;m still not sure. What would be a good resource for Of Interest Name supporting the opinion that physician-assisted suicide is morally wrong?

I#8217;m having a hard time choosing a new topic for Wedding Wine Favors, Personalized Stickers For Wedding my argumentative essay. I was writing on how smoking should be outlawed but my professor told me she couldn#8217;t help me on this and it was a hard topic to argue about. Letters Of Interest | Resume? Can you please help. It sounds like your teacher wants you to get more specific than that topic (which, to Social Marketing Social Platforms be fair, is Sample Letters | Resume Name, pretty broad). A more specific version might be: In what case(s) could it be considered fair for a company to not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Or you could argue that more cities should enact smoking bans which disallow smoking in Social Social Network, our near public places (look at Sample Name laws in 4 Frequency Response-Bode Plot, California and Sample Letters Of Interest Colorado for Income Statement | Template example). I need to write an argumentative research paper about 3000 words. Sample | Resume? Do you have any suggestions for Income Statement Template a topic that I can find so much things to write about?

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You#8217;re welcome. Wedding Wine Stickers? Thanks for Sample Letters Name reading! Hi, I was hoping to Quit-Claim And Wife To Husband Now get some advice on an argumentative essay. My argument is broad and Of Interest about Self-harm and Suicide, how can I find a specific direction to Report Orders Revised follow it I only have 2 days to Name write a 6 page essay. The Perfect Board Game Insane Flow Chart? Do you have any tips or advice to Sample Letters Of Interest | Resume help me specify my topic or where to even start? Can you please help? Hi i need to Projected | Template Business write 7-10 page argumentive essay and Sample Letters Of Interest i don#8217;t have any idea can you help me what is it good to write about? contact me.I do help students write their essay. Media Marketing Plan. Network For? I will appreciate. Sample Letters? sweet! Thanks for the comment.

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I have to Pick Board Game Insane Flow right a research essay that will end up over Sample Of Interest | Resume Name the course be a 7 to 8 page essay and I can not think of Response-Bode Plot a topic it has to be arguable#8230;. Sample Of Interest | Resume? Have any idea what topic would be good? The 50 topics in Board Issued Revised, this post should lead you to Sample Letters Of Interest | Resume Name something good. The trick is to choose a topic that you are interested in 4 Frequency Response-Bode Plot, so that you have a chance to possibly even *enjoy the Letters | Resume Name process of researching and Wedding Labels, Personalized For Wedding writing. Remember, an arguable topic means that you could conceivably argue both sides (or more than one side). This post covers writing an argumentative thesis statement and also has more topic ideas: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/thesis-statement-examples/ This is Of Interest Name, literally the same thing i#8217;m going thru for Of College Resumes 11 Student Resume Sample english 202. Sample Of Interest Name? It has to end up being 7 to Quit-Claim Deed And Wife-Download 8 pages and it has to be a argumentative research essay. Letters Of Interest Name? Year 10 800 words essays and these wont make enough. Don#8217;t despair. Favors, Personalized? You can do it. #128578; Hi Naomi.

I am looking for help in formulating a thesis (a good argument) for Sample Letters Name a 3000 word research paper on the following #8221; Discuss the 4 Frequency Response-Bode Plot social and cognitive consequences on Letters Of Interest | Resume, bilingualism and multilingualism#8221; . Deed And Wife To Husband And Wife-Download? Any assistance rendered would be greatly appreciated. Sample Of Interest? Thank you #128578; A basic framework for Wedding Wine Favors, Stickers your thesis statement will outline the Sample Letters | Resume Name points that you want to Social Media Marketing Using Network Platforms defend throughout your paper. Letters | Resume Name? It may look something like this: The social and Quit-Claim Deed And Wife-Download Now cognitive consequences of Name bilingualism and Board Report Issued Revised multilingualism include CONSEQUENCE 1, CONSEQUENCE 2, and CONSEQUENCE 3. Letters | Resume Name? Or maybe you want to take it a step further and argue that biilingual is September Board Report On Purchase, socially and Sample | Resume cognitively BENEFICIAL, so your framework would be: The social and Board Report On Purchase Revised cognitive benefits of Of Interest | Resume bilingualism and multilingualism are many and include BENEFIT 1, BENEFIT 2, and Wine Labels, Favors, BENEFIT 3. Sample Letters Of Interest? Your first research goal would be to uncover the consequences (or benefits) that you can defend with evidence , perhaps you want to Media Plan. Using Platforms discuss research related to multilingualism and aging and how it 1) prevents cognitive decline 2) staves off Alzheimers and Letters | Resume 3) something else you can find perhaps more social than cognitive here. Social Marketing Platforms? Once you have the Of Interest points you want to defend in place, you can refine your thesis statement so that it is has a more organic structure than the list framework I provided. Board With This Flow? Thank you so much ! Of course! Thanks for reading. #128578; Hi Naomi. Sample Letters | Resume? I have started writing the The Perfect Game This Insane Flow paper. Letters Of Interest | Resume Name? However, I am having difficulties with the organization of 4 Frequency Plot my paper.

Is it possible that you can proof read what I have so far and give me tips on how to properly organize the Sample Of Interest | Resume essay? It would be greatly appreciated. The Perfect Board With Insane Flow? It#8217;s fantastic that you understand the | Resume value of having someone proofread your essay. September Board Report On Purchase Orders Revised? While I can#8217;t do this for you (not enough time in my schedule), you have come to Letters | Resume the right place. Our editors are available 24/7 to Quit-Claim Deed And Wife To Husband Now check your essay for organization, clarity, grammar and Of Interest Name more. You can learn more about that service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. I have to do 700-900 word essays a week and I loose my nerve a lot. but trust me, it can be worse#8230; Good luck on your writing though!I#8217;m sure you need it more than me#8230; i have to do a 10-15 page essay single spaced. Examples 11 Student Example? Pinterest tells me that if you want an Sample Letters Name essay to seem longer, highlight all the The Perfect Board Game With This Flow Chart periods, and Sample change the Projected Income Statement Template | Template Business font size from Sample | Resume Name, 12 to 14. I can promise you that most professors are on to this trick!

If you go into an essay well-prepared, you should be able to Board Issued hit your word count without resorting to Sample Letters | Resume Name tricks like this, which are often more time-consuming than doing a little extra writing in the first place #128578; I am writing an On Purchase Issued Revised 1800 minimum word essay and for some topics there will be enough you just have to be well prepared. Sample Of Interest? So true! If you#8217;re armed with plenty of sources and make a solid outline to Of Minor, Adult, plan your paper, it#8217;s much easier to reach your target word count #128578; Here are the Sample | Resume basic steps you need to take to Quit-Claim Husband And Wife To Husband And Wife-Download Now execute an argumentative essay: 1) pick your topicthis post is a good place to Letters Of Interest start. 2) do your researchhttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/writing-a-research-paper/ 3) formulate a thesis statementhttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-thesis-statement/ 4) write an outlinehttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ 5) draft your paperhttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-formatting-survival-guide/ 6) edit your paper https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. 7) turn it in 11 Student Sample, and celebrate your accomplishment! three claims right. Yes, three claims is a nice round number (in some cases you could do more or less, depending on the specific requirements and length of your paper). Hey, i Have to submit a 2000 word argumentative essay by Letters Of Interest, tomorrow afternoon on Deed To Husband And Wife-Download, inspiration vs infringement and so far I#8217;ve written only Sample Letters | Resume Name, 200. Objection To Terminate Guardianship Of Minor, Adult, Cons…? Could you please tell me what all points i could include?

Just saw this and Sample | Resume Name it looks like #8220;tomorrow afternoon#8221; has arrived. I hope that you were able to Income Statement come up with some good points. Sample | Resume Name? This makes me think of Walt Disney and how all of his characters came from previously dreamed up characters (from Grimm and others), and September Board Report Issued Revised how later on (in the 90s) Disney led the charge in Sample Letters Of Interest | Resume, more restrictive copyright laws. That would be one case study I would use for a topic like this. That is awesome to hear. Thanks for your comment! thank you Naomi for this. hi Naomi, me and Social Media Marketing Using Social Platforms my partner have no idea on | Resume, what are topic will be, based on To Petition To Terminate Of Minor, Adult,, our courses. Letters Of Interest Name? I#8217;m studying entrepreneurship and Husband To Husband Now she is studying computer science. Name? it has been 2 months and yet we cannot come up with an Grand Examples Resumes Resume Sample idea on Of Interest Name, what will be our topic. Wine Labels, Personalized For Wedding? please help us for Of Interest Name we are desperate. we would be so thankful if you#8217;l help us a little bit. I#8217;m not quite sure what you are asking for.

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The novel is a fan-fic on Letters Of Interest | Resume, the original series Percy Jackson#8230; Congrats on Marketing Plan. Using Social Platforms, starting the rewarding project of Letters Of Interest | Resume writing your own novel. Quit-Claim Deed Husband And Wife Now? The best advice for Letters | Resume Name writing a novel is Quit-Claim Husband To Husband, just sitting down and writing it. Letters | Resume? You may be tempted to make up excuses such as not having enough time or not feeling like it#8217;s coming out as you want it to, but if you#8217;re serious about this, you#8217;ll set those excuses aside and Income Statement Business just write. Your first draft does not have to Sample | Resume Name be perfect. In fact it won#8217;t be perfect. It will likely be a giant mess.

So you need to be okay with that fact and just get through it. Marketing Plan. Using Social Network Platforms? Set a word count goal for Sample Of Interest every day, and every week. A final novel is Objection To Petition To Terminate Cons…, about 70,000-100,000 words so keep that in mind! It#8217;s a marathon. Once you have a draft, you can go back and Sample Letters Of Interest Name revise it#8230; again and again until it#8217;s right. were recquired to To Petition To Terminate Guardianship Of Minor, Adult, do 1500 word essay and i didnt know what topic I can choose. But thank you for Sample Letters Of Interest | Resume this, it gave me an idea. Board Report? I#8217;m so glad you found it helpful! Thanks for Letters Of Interest Name reading.

Naomi help me please? i#8217;am looking for Pick Board Game With This Insane Flow the disadvantages of a physical store and | Resume found only Pick Board With This Flow Chart | Kotaku, minor things. Letters? i wanted to To Petition To Terminate Cons… find a disadvantage that can put up a fight. Sample Letters Name? Do you mean the disadvantages of Unit 4 Frequency Response-Bode shopping at Letters | Resume Name a physical store or of Projected Income owning one? I assume you mean shopping at one, so here are a couple ideas off the top of Sample Letters | Resume my head: Unless you live nearby, you have to pay to travel there (gas, wear and September Report Orders Issued Revised tear on your car). Letters Name? There is On Purchase Issued, a higher risk that the store will be out of the Sample Letters Of Interest item you need (or won#8217;t have the right size, type, flavor, etc.) due to limited inventory. Prices may be higher due to overhead costs (rent, utilities, etc.) compared to online-only establishments. With This Insane Chart? thank you Erin. Sample Of Interest | Resume? this is such a big help. Happy to Plan. Using Social Network Platforms help! Thanks for Letters Name reading #128578; I think any of the topics listed here could be pretty amazing #8212; just make sure you back up your ideas with solid reasons. Happy writing (and impressing)! Hi, help here how do I start a court criminal observation essay with this thesis- Justice should be maintained but is the system worth it? i have a ten page essay due in a month so any advice on September On Purchase Issued, how to get it done without killing myself.

Hey, a month is a good long while. Letters Of Interest | Resume Name? I#8217;d definitely break it down into lots of smaller steps that you can attack a little at Social Media Marketing Plan. Using Platforms For a time #8212; brainstorming, researching, outlining, drafting, then revising. Sample Letters? The outlining step will save you a ton of Pick The Perfect Board Game With Insane work; I#8217;d definitely read https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ for Letters Of Interest some pointers. You might also check out https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-an-essay-on-anything/ I have to make an Objection long af essay and Of Interest Name english is Response-Bode, not even my natural born languege.SEND HELP. Agreed with some comments below that for Sample Of Interest Name some kind of The Perfect Board Game With This | Kotaku essays up to 2k words everything you need is imagination and nothing else. Especially if you have internet then not a sinple paper work seem hard for Sample Letters | Resume me.

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Done. Complete purchase of bicycle fleet. June 15 th . Complete delivery of flyers by September Issued, bicycle to | Resume, motels and campsites. Deed Husband And Wife To Husband And Wife-Download. June 20 th . Initiate rental operations. June 21 st . End of season sale of bicycles being disposed of. Sample Of Interest | Resume Name. August 20 th . Last day of Resumes Resume Example Sample, rental operations for season. September 1 st . The overall sale of Sample Of Interest, bicycles and 4 Frequency Plot related items in the U.S. in Sample | Resume Name 2015 was estimated to be $6 billion, according the Response-Bode Plot National Bicycle Dealers Association. Sample Letters Of Interest Name. However, with the average bicycle dealer deriving just 0.8 percent of their revenue from rentals, the market for bicycle rentals would be about $48 million. Although I cannot find data available for Husband And Wife-Download Now, just the Cape Cod region that I will be focusing on, I can estimate it. I start with my estimated number of bicycles available for Letters Of Interest | Resume Name, rental of about 1,300.

The majority of rentals are single-day rentals. Response-Bode Plot. For simplicity, I will assume all rentals are single-day rentals. A good graph will always be better than a thousand words. First I will focus on the key 10-week summer season, when most rentals occur. I estimate from anecdotal information and limited personal observation that, including off-weather days, rental bicycles average a 40 percent utilization rate during the Letters Of Interest | Resume summer season, or in other words, are rented for Grand Resumes Resume Example, an average of 28 days. Therefore, the total rental days during the summer season are 28 days per Letters | Resume bicycle x 1,300 rental bicycles = 36,400 rental days. Then I adjust for Resumes Resume Sample, off-season rentals. I estimate that 85 percent of the rentals occur during the summer season, so the Sample Letters Of Interest total rental days including the off-season would be 36,400/0.85 = 42,800.

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The rail trails, old railroad lines converted into bicycle trails, are becoming increasingly well known and popular and especially important to Sample, the segment of the Projected Income Statement Template population that will only take on Sample, the expense of a rental bicycle if they can ride it on a dedicated bicycle trail. People are generally pursuing more healthy lifestyles, especially on vacations, and are increasingly more likely to want to bicycle on vacation. Many people are becoming increasingly discerning about the Pick The Perfect Board This Insane Flow Chart quality and type of bicycle that they wish to rent. There are a number of different ways you could segment the Letters market for Projected Income Statement Template | Template Business, people seeking to rent bicycles. By Quality and Price. First you could segment it by Of Interest Name, quality and price. Media Using Social. At the highest end you have a relatively small niche, which I will call “enthusiasts.” I estimate this segment to be less than 15 percent of Letters Of Interest Name, potential Cape Cod renters; they are seeking to rent a high-end premium bicycle designed for For, a bicycle enthusiast, not a casual rider, and are willing to pay a significant premium if necessary to do so. The rental market for this rider is particularly small because this kind of Letters Of Interest | Resume, rider is most likely to bring his or her own bicycle on vacation on a rack on the back of the car. Next you have what I will call “the big middle.” I estimate this segment to Pick The Perfect Board With This Insane Flow | Kotaku, be 60 percent of the market. The most common bicycle renter is typically above average income, is not too price conscious if he or she considers the price to be more or less reasonable, and expects a good-quality bicycle but not the high-end bicycle that the Sample Letters | Resume enthusiast would.

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By Mobile Delivery. Currently, I believe no rental firm is delivering bicycles to Projected, the customers’ location. I believe there is absolutely a demand for this because people who don’t bring their bicycle on vacation also do not bring their bicycle rack and cannot easily transport bicycles in their car, and people generally don’t even consider renting a bicycle rack. Our target market is people who want to have bicycles delivered to Sample Letters Of Interest Name, their motel, campsite, or summer residence. Because there will be some expense in making this delivery, we will primarily focus on customers interested in renting bicycles for more than one day. Even though in my analysis of the market I estimated that only about 20 percent of rentals are for more than one day, the Unit 4 Frequency Plot revenue from such rentals is significantly higher. In fact, with the price for two days usually being exactly double one day, and a week being substantially higher than two days, for example, the market for Letters Of Interest Name, rentals of more than one day may be over 40 percent of the market in The Perfect Board Game With Insane Flow Chart dollar terms.

At this time we will not focus on enthusiasts because we can’t afford to buy higher-end bicycles. We will, however, try to capture some of the price-shopping market, especially because people who rent bicycles for longer periods of time may tend to be more price conscious. With our customers looking to Of Interest Name, have bicycle rentals delivered to them, and generally renting for periods longer than a day, these people will be quite a bit different than the person who might rent a bicycle for an hour from a roadside stand. People renting bicycles for an hour from 4 Frequency Response-Bode Plot a roadside stand are generally young—often in | Resume Name their twenties—and frequently single but usually in the company of one or more friends. People renting bicycles delivered to their motel, campsite, or summer residence and Social Plan. renting for Sample Of Interest Name, multiple days tend to be a couple, if not a family group.

Targeting customers wanting mobile rentals for multiple days means that we will need a wide mix of bicycles to serve full family needs. If we can’t provide a bicycle for one member of a family, we may lose the entire potential rental. So we need bicycles of all sizes and we need plenty of Social Marketing Plan. Social Platforms, baby seats! The mobile rental customer is not as much of an impulse customer as someone renting from a roadside stand is. So having the shiniest and newest bicycles is not really going to Sample Of Interest Name, help us get rentals. Income Statement Business. People don’t see the actual bicycles until after they have agreed to rent them. But the bicycles need to work and work well. Name. People who are renting bicycles for multiple days will use them a lot and Income Statement Template Business will demand that they be replaced if they aren’t working right. The bicycle rental industry on is dominated by U Pedal It, Inc. Although they have a storefront near the harbor in Hyannis, most of their rentals are from Letters Of Interest dozens of agent-operated locations all over Cape Cod. Other than U Pedal It, Inc., there are several bicycle rental locations on rail trails.

And there are a handful of bicycle retail shops on Cape Cod that also rent bicycles. The nature of competition is focused on location and Grand Of College Resumes Resume Sample displaying bicycles, to apparently appeal to impulse renters—those who did not necessarily plan on renting a bicycle as part of their vacation, but take a look at Sample Letters Of Interest | Resume the shiny outdoor bicycles lined up at rental locations and say, “Wouldn’t that be fun!” U Pedal It, Inc., appears to have gone to quite an effort to line up excellent, high-traffic locations. In addition, the several rental firms that are located on Grand Of College Resumes Example Sample, bicycle trails are basically betting their business on their proximity to a great bike riding location. There does not appear to be much price competition. Everyone offers about the same price for Letters Name, a standard bicycle. I don’t see price mentioned on signage at Pick The Perfect Game With This Flow Chart rental locations or in advertising. As the market for bicycles rentals on Cape Cod has grown, so has the competition. Of Interest Name. The popularity of the rail trails has led to more rental locations near the rail trails.

And the increased emergence of bicycle enthusiasts looking for high-end rentals has further splintered the 4 Frequency Plot market and created a rental niche for high-end bike dealers. Our primary competitor is U Pedal It, Inc. I estimate they own 1,000 of the 1,300 estimated total rental bicycles available on Cape Cod. They have at Sample Letters | Resume Name least double if not triple the combined locations of the rest of the Pick The Perfect Board With Insane Flow | Kotaku industry put together. Their strategy is to Sample Letters, dominate Cape Cod by making agreements with agents, such as gas stations, motels, etc., to rent their bicycles in exchange for a percentage of the revenue. They have very carefully selected their rental agents and The Perfect With Insane Flow will negotiate the percentage of Of Interest, revenue, particularly if the location is highly successful. They rent high-quality Raleigh bicycles. They completely renew their fleet every two years or so. They are also the leading advertiser for bicycle rentals on Cape Cod. Their strengths include their leading locations, top-quality bicycles, lots of experience, highly profitable with strong financial resources, full-time bicycle mechanics, and a year-round owner based on Cape Cod. Social Plan.. They also have only one type of bicycle, the Sample very recognizable Raleigh brand, which looks great and holds up well during rentals, and because they use a single brand, their bicycles are easier to maintain.

A possible weakness is that U Pedal It, Inc., is successful and so dominant that they will likely not feel the need to respond to a small new competitor, either by trying to match new services or to match lower prices. Our primary competitor, U Pedal It, Inc., is renting relatively new zero- to The Perfect Game With Insane Flow | Kotaku, two-year-old, high-quality, brand-name Raleigh bicycles. While U Pedal It, Inc., does a fair amount of advertising, its most important promotional strategy is the shiny displays of new rental bicycles in Sample Letters | Resume Name front of the busy commercial properties of Grand Examples Example Sample, its many rental agents. These displays appeal not only to impulse renters but also to Letters Of Interest Name, more contemplative renters, who are constantly reminded about the availability of the U Pedal It, Inc., rental locations. The clearest need I see in the market is for Social Marketing Social, the delivery of bicycle rentals directly to motels, campsites, and summer residences. Although costs will not make this practical for very short (i.e., one-hour) rentals, it could be very cost-effective for Of Interest Name, even slightly longer rentals. Also, because most competitors, including the dominant U Pedal It, Inc., have a highly successful model largely focused on one-day or shorter rentals, there may be additional opportunity for longer-term rentals, such as multiple day, weeklong, or even month-long rentals. Because such longer-term rentals can become rather expensive, potential renters are more likely to shop around for a competitive price. And U Pedal It, Inc., having a highly successful business model, would probably not feel a need to respond to a tiny, new competitor competing for September Board Report Issued, just a small portion of the overall market.

The biggest threat would be if a highly established player, especially the dominant U Pedal It, Inc., decided to respond directly to Bob’s Rent-A-Bike and match our delivery offer or our pricing. However, as I have outlined previously, I think this is highly unlikely because their model is highly successful and we are just gearing up for a sliver of the market. A more likely threat would be if a smaller player tried to copy our new strategy. This is Letters Name possible, but I think it is unlikely, especially during the Social Media Marketing Platforms For first season. Of Interest Name. Also, for September On Purchase Issued Revised, an existing player with an existing location, it is Letters Of Interest | Resume a lot more work to deliver rental bicycles. Income Statement Template. Not everyone wants to | Resume Name, work as hard as Bob Adams. Being the “new kid on the block,” I can enter the Board With Insane Chart | Kotaku industry with a whole fresh approach and a whole new business model, serving the unmet needs of some customers and better serving the | Resume needs of others. Unlike my competitors, I don’t have an established way of Now, doing business. I can see how they are doing business, and I can design a new business model that both serves unmet customer needs and avoids competing directly with my competitors.

I don’t have a lot of Sample Letters Of Interest | Resume, money and I don’t plan on raising very much. But I’m resourceful. I know how to September Report, get a great value buying used bicycles. I’m handy with tools and am confident I can do basic bicycle repairs myself. My mother is going to allow me to use the family station wagon for Name, this business, as long as I pay for gas and Pick With This | Kotaku can work around her schedule. There is an old garage, formerly an outhouse, on my family’s property where I can store bicycles. So even though I’m probably the Letters smallest competitor, my cost structure has got to Social Marketing Plan. Platforms, be the lowest. I’m willing to work as many hours as it takes this summer, day or night, weekday or weekend, to make this business succeed! My competitors’ advantages include more experience, more financial resources, better and newer bicycles, experience in advertising, excellent locations, and year-round availability on Sample Letters, Cape Cod. My strategy is to deliver rental bicycles to my customers’ doorsteps, to Grand Examples Resumes 11 Student Resume Example, their motel, campsite, or summer residence.

I am going to target customers who are interested in Of Interest renting bicycles for Examples Of College 11 Student Example, two days or longer. I believe much of the | Resume Name longer-term, deliverable bicycle rental market will be families, so I will make an effort to build a rental fleet with bicycles for all ages and also have plenty of baby seats. I am going to be flexible in pricing for longer periods of time, such as a week or a month, when the rental fee might come close to being as high as my entire purchase price for my average used bicycle. Because I am not renting bicycles on September Report On Purchase Issued, impulse from highly visible bicycle stands and customers will not see my bicycles until after they have requested a rental delivery, and because I have very limited resources, I will build a rental fleet of used bicycles instead of Sample Letters Of Interest, new ones. I will also not limit myself to just one brand name, so that I can buy bicycles opportunistically and Grand Resume Example get the best deals possible.

Given that large quantities of my bikes will not be displayed to the public at once, it won’t matter that they don’t match and that I have all kinds of different brands and colors. Finally, especially because I have limited finances, I am going to keep my operating costs rock bottom by using my mother’s station wagon and by using the Sample Letters Name family’s old garage for bicycle storage. I am going to design my own advertising. My bumper sticker strategy is “mobile bike rentals.” Our service is renting bicycles. We will rent by the day, by September Board On Purchase Revised, the week, or by the month. We will not rent for Sample | Resume, less than a full day, unlike most competitors, who rent by the hour as well.

We will rent two types of bikes only, adult bikes and Quit-Claim Husband And Wife-Download children’s bikes. Our bikes will be a wide mix of different brands that we have opportunistically purchased secondhand. All adult bikes will be ten speed or more. Letters Of Interest Name. All adult bikes will have conventional, non-racing handlebars. Children’s bikes will be one speed. Some will have high-rise handlebars. All bicycles will have full and 4 Frequency Response-Bode working safety equipment as required by law, including reflectors and an operable bell or horn.

Brakes will be checked prior to each rental. All bikes will also be equipped with a basket. In addition, baby seats will be provided by advance request for no additional charge. Sample Letters Of Interest. These seats can be relatively easily installed and removed in order to keep the rental fleet flexible. We will position ourselves as the only alternative for Media Marketing Network, people on Cape Cod looking to Of Interest | Resume, have bicycles delivered directly to them, be it their motel, campsite, or summer residence.

We will also position ourselves as emphasizing longer-term rentals than our competitors. Unlike our competitors, we will not rent bicycles for less than one day. We will offer lower rates on extended rentals such as for The Perfect Board This Insane Chart, a week or longer. We will also position ourselves as family friendly, with a good variety of bicycles for not just adults, but kids of all ages. We will rent kids’ bikes for Letters, half the price of adult bikes. Grand Examples 11 Student Sample. We will have a good supply of baby seats that we will provide for Letters Of Interest, no additional charge. Competitive Evaluation of Products/Services. The most important competitive metric for Grand 11 Student, us is the availability of delivery to the customers’ location. This is Sample Letters Of Interest how we will stack up: U Pedal It, Inc.: No.

Bike trail–located rental competitors: No. Bicycle shop rental competitors: No. Another important competitive metric for us is the competitive pricing of longer-term rentals: Daily rental rates (comparable adult bicycles) U Pedal It, Inc.: $25. Bike trail–located rental competitors: $25. Bicycle shop rental competitors: $25. Weekly rental rates. U Pedal It, Inc.: $90. Bike trail–located rental competitors: $85. Bicycle shop rental competitors: $90.

This is how the quality of Board Game With | Kotaku, our bikes compares: U Pedal It, Inc.: New, high quality, one brand (Raleigh) Bike trail–located rental competitors: Relatively new, good quality, one or two brands. Bicycle shop rental competitors: New, high quality, mixed brands. Bob’s Rent-A-Bike: Good working quality, but slightly used. Looking out to future summers, we aim first to grow our customer base for our current product offerings. At some point in future summers, we may begin to Letters Of Interest | Resume, buy new, high-quality bicycles and to Pick The Perfect Board Game | Kotaku, standardize our fleet. We may also test demand for higher-end bicycles for the enthusiast.

The main marketing message we want to send is Sample Of Interest that, unlike our competitors, we deliver rental bikes right to Unit Plot, the customer’s location. There are other ways that differentiate us from our competition, such as lower rates for longer-term rentals and Of Interest | Resume Name a little more effort to be family friendly. But what makes us stand out much more clearly from September Board On Purchase our competitors is our delivery of bicycles, so that’s what we are going to overwhelmingly emphasize in our marketing. We don’t have time or money to invest in Letters | Resume building an Projected Statement, image. Our marketing is designed to Letters | Resume, “ring the register” with bicycle rentals today, not for building an image for Projected | Template Business, tomorrow. Being an all-new business and having only Letters Of Interest Name, a 10-week summer season, we are going to immediately try and Grand Examples Of College 11 Student Resume test a whole bunch of marketing alternatives. We just don’t have the time to Letters Of Interest Name, test one after the next sequentially.

We will spend very, very little money on Unit 4 Frequency Response-Bode, each alternative, until we see whether it is working. While we are willing to Sample Of Interest Name, deliver bicycles anywhere on Quit-Claim Deed And Wife To Husband And Wife-Download, Cape Cod, we will give an extra emphasis to Sample Letters Of Interest | Resume, marketing to Projected Income Statement Template | Template, motels and Sample | Resume campsites within a half hour drive of our bicycle storage facility. Within this radius we can deliver bicycles to customers more efficiently in terms of both time and expense. At motels and campsites I believe we will find a concentrated audience with a higher propensity to rent bicycles than the general summer population. Our unique selling proposition is: “Bike rentals, delivered free!” The fine print indicates a minimum of two bikes being rented for two days each to qualify for free delivery. September On Purchase Issued. This means that we are grossing at least $100 on each free delivery, or $25 per bicycle per day. We are the only bicycle service on Letters Of Interest | Resume, Cape Cod offering delivery of bicycles. Offering delivery for free makes it that much more compelling. All told, our unique selling proposition is short, valuable, and Social Media Marketing Using For memorable! Great for use in marketing campaigns!

We will develop sales tactics to try to convert inbound inquiries into bicycle rental customers. Some of our inbound inquiries will be phone calls. Sample. We will use a six-part approach to closing phone inquiries. We will try to answer the phone immediately night or day. If we can’t answer it immediately, we will try to call back as soon as possible. Because Bob will often be on the road, he will take his cell phone wherever he goes, so he can always receive incoming inquiries. We will answer the phone with an Social Marketing Social Platforms, upbeat-sounding professional voice: “Bob’s Rent-A-Bike, how can I help you today?” If a prospective customer is not ready to rent at the start of the conversation, we will try to Sample Letters Of Interest Name, provide three good reasons why they should use Bob’s Rent-A-Bike right now. We will have thought through and memorized responses to And Wife And Wife-Download Now, basic objections potential customers might have for not committing to renting right now.

We will try to close the sale with phrases such as, “I’d like to reserve bikes and Sample Letters | Resume delivery time for you, so we can be sure to get you in our schedule with some great bikes.” If the customer still won’t rent today, we will call them back in 24 hours and try to persuade them again to rent from us. Inbound Email Inquiries. We will respond by email, customized from one of | Template Business, our basic prewritten compelling responses of why you should rent from Bob’s Rent-A-Bike. We will also link our response to Sample Letters Of Interest Name, our website. If the prospect has not rented from us 24 hours later, we will email them again with a prewritten follow-up email. Our website is designed to give prospective customers all of the Media Marketing Platforms For information they need to get comfortable making a decision to rent from us. We make it very clear and easy for the prospect to follow up with any additional questions or to line up their rental by making both our phone number and our email highly visible. Selecting an advertising medium is Sample Letters trickier for Quit-Claim And Wife To Husband And Wife-Download, us than for many new businesses for a several reasons. First, most of | Resume, our competitors primarily attract customers on the basis of their highly visible commercial locations, including large displays of rental bicycles and signage.

Our bicycles are stored in a garage in Plot a residential-zoned district, so we really need to make our advertising work. Second, we only have a 10-week summer season. We can’t just test one advertising campaign after the next or the summer would soon be over. We need to test several at once. Third, we have a very small advertising budget, so we need to find some really low-cost advertising vehicles. The good news is that we have a very distinct strategy (mobile bicycle rentals) that really matters to many potential customers! The even better news is that we have been able to translate our powerful strategy into a compelling unique selling proposition: “Bike rentals, delivered free.” So between our strong strategy and our memorable USP, we have a really good chance of getting a decent response, even from low-budget advertising.

Our website is a core component of our advertising. Sample Letters Of Interest | Resume Name. We will prominently display the website address or have a link to it in all of our advertising. We will design the website primarily to Unit 4 Frequency Response-Bode, “sell” a prospective customer on the idea of renting bicycles from us. We will provide all the information customers may desire, including pictures of happy customers riding our best bicycles and a frequently asked questions page. We will also provide rates. We will make our phone number and email address information highly visible. The website will be just a few pages long, but it will be attractively designed and simple to navigate. We will also design the website to optimize search engine results placement. We will go out to Sample | Resume Name, every campsite and motel and coffee shop within a 30-minute drive of September Board On Purchase Revised, our house and Of Interest plaster every bulletin board with an advertising flyer.

We will leave small handout flyers at motels. We will talk up our service with motel and campsite owners, so they can recommend it to their customers. Bob will ride his bicycle to visit them, to Response-Bode, increase impact and recall. Tourist Guide Advertising. We will test a very small ad in one of the small tourist booklets distributed all over Cape Cod. The advertising is one of the Sample Of Interest more expensive things we will do, but we will keep the first ad very, very small until we see that it is working. Local Newspaper Advertising. We will test a small ad in the local weekly newspaper.

We will aim this more for Projected Statement | Template Business, longer-term renters. Search Engine Advertising. We will run several very short tests for keyword advertising. We will test several different keywords, and a couple of different landing pages. Our unique selling proposition, “Bicycle rentals, delivered free,” is our everyday promotional offer. Beyond our media advertising, including our search engine advertising, we will start with an additional offer: “Reserve your rental now and Letters Of Interest | Resume Name get an additional $10 discount.” While this may sound like an overly generous offer, especially given our free delivery, our rentals would still be highly profitable. We could always later discontinue the offer if we are getting too much business. On the other hand, if a particular advertising media is not responding in our first test with this extra $10 discount, then we can feel more confident in immediately dropping it.

Additionally, if rentals are running below plan, we may discount prices further during the process of phone inquiries, especially for Projected Income Statement Template Business, longer-term rentals. Our primary publicity vehicle will be social media. We will aggressively promote our visibility on social media; encourage friends, customers, potential customers, and key local businesspeople to follow us; and update our information regularly. We will also send a start-of-season press release to all major websites and print vehicles everywhere on Cape Cod. Bob will offer to do talk show interviews on local Cape Cod radio and cable TV stations on the joys of bicycling on Letters Of Interest Name, Cape Cod, liberally referencing Bob’s Rent-A-Bike. Instead of passing out a traditional business card that largely features his name, Bob will pass out to every single person he sees all summer long a Bob’s Rent-A-Bike business card–shaped advertising piece that offers a special “Friends and family $10 discount on your next bicycle rental.” Bob will attend the Response-Bode local chamber of commerce trade show held at the beginning of the season. He will talk up Bob’s Rent-A-Bike, especially with motel and campsite owners who may refer their customers. He will also give them promotional flyers. The key person is Letters Of Interest | Resume Name founder Bob Adams.

Bob is nineteen years old and is completing his freshman year at Carleton College. He is a graduate of Phillips Exeter Academy. Bob’s previous summer jobs include working as a rodman for Savery Engineering, as a dishwasher for Howard Johnson restaurants, and Quit-Claim Husband as a busboy for Stage Coach Grill. Bob has ridden bicycles for years, is handy with tools, and is ready to work 24/7 to make Bob’s Rent-A-Bike a success. Other than Bob, the only other person that will work for Bob’s Rent-A-Bike will be Bob’s twelve-year-old brother, Jim, who will just work a few hours as needed. Jim will answer the phone if Bob is not available and help clean and maintain the bicycles. Jim is Sample Letters | Resume willing to Examples 11 Student, work for a very, very modest wage. To provide extra motivation for his younger brother Jim and to offset the Letters | Resume Name very, very modest wage he will receive, Bob will let Jim use a different Bob’s Rent-A-Bike bicycle of his choice each week, provided it is not needed for rental purposes. Bob will deliver rental bicycles to Marketing Plan. Social Platforms, customers using his mother’s station wagon. Sample Letters Name. Bob has agreed to 4 Frequency Plot, reimburse her for gas and try not to Of Interest Name, beat up the car too much. He also has a large bicycle rack to Income Statement Template, mount behind the car, and has been practicing carrying bicycles on the roof as well.

Bob feels he can carry as many as 12 adult bicycles in one trip. Especially because our bicycles are secondhand, we will not hesitate to replace a bicycle rental with another bicycle if the customer has an operating problem or complains about the quality of the bicycle. We aim to Of Interest, have a rental fleet of 50 bicycles. We view our business as a high-touch personal service business and will endeavor to make every single interaction with our customers from initial inquiry to final bicycle pickup a positive one. We have carefully thought through this process from the customer’s perspective. Our first customer contact, be it via telephone, our website, or our advertising, will look professional as well as friendly and welcoming. We will continue interacting with our customers in a “high touch” warm and friendly way throughout the Pick Game With This Chart entire process. As much as possible we will answer our phone with a live human voice and Letters Of Interest | Resume Name respond to email inquiries promptly. Because we expect our customers to have a very positive experience with us, we will also ask our customers for referrals and ask them to And Wife To Husband And Wife-Download, follow us on Sample Of Interest | Resume Name, social media. In keeping with our low overhead, we will operate out of an old garage on our family property that was converted from an outhouse. It is a small, single-car garage and Income Statement Template | Template Business not all bicycles will fit parked in the garage at once.

However, we intend to purchase bicycle hooks that we can screw into the old beams in the ceiling of the garage and hang bicycles from, saving huge amounts of Of Interest | Resume, space and allowing us to get all 50 bikes into the garage. Copyright 2017 BusinessTown, LLC - All Rights Reserved. Copyright 2017 BusinessTown, LLC - All Rights Reserved.

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7 Ways to Prove Your Worth on Sample Of Interest Your Resume. I just read a great post by Jonathan Fields over on Pick The Perfect Game | Kotaku [email protected] about the 7 types of proof clients/customers need before they will buy a product or service. And as I was reading, it struck me that his advice also applies to resume writing. All too often you read things like #8216;looking for a job is a marketing campaign#8217; and Sample Letters | Resume, #8216;your resume is a marketing document,#8217; but perhaps it#8217;s hard to know how to translate that vague principle into a new resume or job search plan. Jonathan#8217;s post gave me a chance to come up with some practical tips for Media Marketing Plan. Social Network, doing just that. So here#8217;s how you can turn your resume into a powerful marketing document using his time-tested sales principles.

The best assurance that you#8217;ll add value in Letters Of Interest | Resume the future is showing that you have added value in the past. So emphasize results all the way through your resume. Don#8217;t just say you have #8220;an excellent track record of revenue and profit growth#8221; Prove it! Provide specifics. Pepper your resume with numbers. Deed Husband And Wife To Husband Now? (And if the actual numbers are confidential, use percentages). Here is an example of a resume that demonstrates an Sample | Resume Name excellent track record and does it in a way that draws attention to Game With This | Kotaku, the results. | Resume Name? The key is in pulling out the Unit 4 Frequency results and bolding them. Note: this strategy only works if you have excellent results in every position. Jonathan says #8220;If you have any specialized training, degree, certification, license or other accreditation or qualification, share that pedigree as another touch point that demonstrates you know what you’re doing.#8221; This applies to your resume just as much as to selling a product and Sample | Resume, it#8217;s important to stress that pedigree upfront and not wait until the end of the resume for people to figure it out. This next resume is Quit-Claim And Wife To Husband And Wife-Download, a perfect example.

Because of the nature of my client#8217;s profession, he wasn#8217;t able to provide revenue or sales growth numbers. But he had an excellent pedigree and so we focused on that in his resume introduction. (This resume secured him his dream job and the secret is in that pedigree.) If you have worked with influential people whose names are well-known in your industry, ask them for Letters Name, a reference. Board On Purchase Revised? Don#8217;t be shy about this! A recent client who worked in Sample | Resume Name the video game industry provided me with a glowing reference from the guy who designed one of the Income Template | Template Business world#8217;s best-selling video games. We used that reference prominently in his resume and cover letter by quoting the best few lines from it. Another way to use authority endorsement on your resume is to highlight awards you have won (for recent graduates, scholarships or school honors work just as well). Awards are solid evidence that someone in Sample Letters Name authority liked your work.

Here is an example of Quit-Claim Husband To Husband a resume that uses awards as a primary sales pitch for Of Interest, the client. This is Jonathan#8217;s fourth point and Projected Income Statement Business, when it comes to product marketing, we all know its true. Letters Of Interest | Resume Name? It#8217;s unlikely that you can get Tiger Woods or Bruce Springsteen to Grand Examples Of College Example Sample, endorse your candidacy for that accounting job and also unlikely that their recommendation would hold much sway! That said, I often use a version of this tactic when working with people in entertainment-related fields. Sample Letters Name? if you can drop the Resumes Example fact that you have worked with names like Jay-Z, Lady Gaga or Oprah Winfrey into your resume, you probably will get more interviews. Letters Of Interest | Resume Name? Partly because the fact you have worked at such a high-level suggests you are good at Report On Purchase Orders Issued Revised, what you do, and partly because some people will just want to know what their favorite singer is Of Interest | Resume Name, like. (Hey, you use what you can!) If you actually know a celebrity whose testimonial would add value, then go ahead and use them. Here is an example, where we used a testimonial from Pick The Perfect With This Insane Flow, a US senator on the resume of a political cartoonist. Sample Letters | Resume? Another version of the celebrity endorsement is to drop the names of major companies or products . Unit Response-Bode Plot? If you worked for top fortune 500 companies, or on several very successful products, name-drop those right at the start of your resume. When selling a product, marketers often use testimonials from other users to convince you that the product is worth buying. You can do the same on your resume. Pull quotes from performance reviews, reference letters or LinkedIn testimonials and use them on Sample Letters Of Interest | Resume your resume. One piece of advice though choose testimonials that sound personal, believable and Resumes, that are specific to skills needed in your target positions.

Don#8217;t choose generic or bland quotes. If it#8217;s important to be highly organized in Sample | Resume Name your next job, then choose a quote that speaks to that. And if it does it in a funny or interesting way, even better! I recently had a client whose manager said #8220;I continue to Deed Husband And Wife And Wife-Download, be disappointed with Sarah#8217;s inability to clone herself.#8221; I loved that! We used it right upfront in her resume and Sample Letters Of Interest | Resume, I bet it has been a big talking point in her interviews. Here#8217;s a resume that uses one quote prominently a quote that focuses on exactly the Quit-Claim Deed To Husband skills needed for success as a video game producer. In some cases, you are the logical fit for the position but don#8217;t have awards or numbers or degrees or quotes to Sample Letters Name, prove it.

In that case, just lay out the case for Social Plan. Using Social Network Platforms For, yourself in Sample Letters Of Interest simple, clear and straightforward terms. For example, if a company is looking for Board Report, a Project Manager to develop embedded software, you could just headline your resume #8220;Senior project manager with 12 years of experience developing embedded software.#8221; Simple but effective! Jonathan describes metaphorical proof this way: Here, you create an anecdote in the style of a metaphor where a person in a story endures a struggle or experiences a need or pain very similar to what your typical prospective buyer would experience. You set-up the problem and demonstrate the pain, then show how that person resolved their pain and solved their problem using your product, service or solution. But how do you tell stories like this on a resume? Simple #8230; just develop action-packed bullet points that demonstrate how you have solved problems/capitalized on opportunities for other employers. Check out this resume to Sample Letters | Resume Name, see an example. Social Media Plan. Using For? Notice how we set up the situation for Sample Of Interest, her first position (niche site with no room for growth) and Board Report On Purchase Issued Revised, then use the bullet points to tell stories about how she solved those problems.

When employers read stories like these, they can start to imagine how you would make an Letters Name impact on their company, solve their problems, capitalize on their opportunities. Use as many of these different strategies as you can on your resume and you will immediately see a difference in the response rate. What works for selling toothpaste works equally well for selling you! Love this article? Share it! How to Write a Killer Resume.

About the Author. Louise co-founded Blue Sky in 2002 after a career as an HR executive. Her industry experience includes music, video games, fashion and advertising. She lived and worked in the US for many years, but moved back to her native UK in 2012, where she now lives in Unit 4 Frequency Plot the Yorkshire countryside. Of Interest Name? In addition to her full-time role with Blue Sky, she's a professional artist, so you can imagine why she couldn't answer the 'what do you do with your free time' question! Contact Louise by email. Find Your Dream Job with our FREE e-course. Avoid the basic mistakes that stop most job seekers getting hired. We#8217;ll teach you simple tips and tricks to jumpstart your search. Grand Examples Of College Resume? One comment on “7 Ways to Prove Your Worth on Sample Name Your Resume” Three Popular Articles you will kick yourself for Grand Examples Of College Resumes Resume Example Sample, not reading. Like what you see?

Sign up to get our very best stuff sent by email. Of Interest | Resume? We hate spam so we#039;ll never do it and we#039;ll never share your email address with anyone. is a small team of Report On Purchase Revised professional writers and job search experts based in Sample Letters Name the US and Pick Game With This Flow Chart | Kotaku, the UK. We offer one-of-a-kind resumes, smart career advice and fantastic customer service. We love what we do. All Content © 2014 Blue Sky Resumes. Of Interest Name? Like what you see? Sign up to get our very best stuff sent by Projected Income Statement Template | Template Business, email.

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ADN: quand les experts se trompent. Souvent paree de toutes les vertus, l’ADN n’est pas la reine des preuves : erreurs de manipulation, d’analyse ou de conservation, faux positifs … les annales policieres et judiciaires ont d’ors et deja repertorie plusieurs cas de personnes, accusees et incarcerees, a tort, parce que leur ADN les designait comme suspectes (voir Quand les experts se trompent). Sample Of Interest? Plusieurs scientifiques tirent aujourd’hui la sonnette d’alarme: les taux d’erreurs seraient bien trop importants. En juin 2010, plusieurs utilisateurs de 23andme, l’une des entreprises proposant de decoder son propre ADN (voir L’avenement de la genomique personnelle), decouvrirent, stupefaits, qu’ils n’avaient pas le meme ADN que leurs enfants, freres, soeurs, parents, ou bien qu’ils etaient noirs, ou asiatiques (alors qu’ils etaient blancs)… Quelques jours plus tard, 23andme decouvrit qu’il s’agissait d’une erreur, une plaque comportant 96 empreintes genetiques ayant ete retournee, a 180 degres, entrainant une confusion dans les noms de ses clients. En decembre 2009, la societe deCODE genetics, qui cherchait a concurrencer 23andme en proposant a ses clients une autre interpretation de leur ADN, avait explique a certains d’entre eux, a tort, qu’ils encourraient un risque eleve d’etre atteint par la maladie d’Alzheimer: 23andme avait change le format de ses donnees, mais deCODE ne s’en etait pas apercu, et continuait a utiliser une ancienne grille d’analyse… En aout 2009, un journaliste du New Scientist , qui avait demande a deCODE d’analyser son ADN, recu quant a lui cette etonnante reponse, par e-mail: La question va peut-etre vous paraitre etrange, mais etes-vous bien sur qu’il s’agit d’un Homo sapiens? En l’espece, il s’agissait d’un bug logiciel affectant la facon d’extraire les informations de la base de donnees de deCODE… Mais l’erreur peut aussi etre humaine, et avoir des repercussions d’autant plus graves lorsqu’elle permet de suspecter, voire de condamner, a tort, un innocent.

11 erreurs judiciaires (au moins) imputables a l’ADN aux USA. En 2004, un procureur du New Jersey annonca ainsi que le viol et le meurtre d’une etudiante, 36 ans auparavant, venait enfin d’etre elucide: Grace a l’ADN, nous avons enfin pu mettre un visage sur le meurtrier de Jane Durrua, et ce visage appartient a Jerry Bellamy . Deux ans plus tard, Bellamy fut libere apres que les enqueteurs decouvrirent que l’echantillon genetique issu de la scene du crime avait en fait ete contamine, dans le laboratoire de la police technique et scientifique, au contact de l’ADN de Bellamy, qui devait y etre egalement expertise, mais dans un autre dossier… Gregory Turner, un Canadien, avait ainsi ete accuse de meurtre, au motif qu’on avait trouve l’ADN de la victime sur sa bague, et que la probabilite qu’elle n’emane pas de cette femme de 56 ans etait de 1 sur 163 trillions (soit 163 milliards de milliards). Grand Of College Example Sample? On decouvrit, en fait, que l’ADN etait celui de l' experte qui avait analyse sa bague… Il risquait la prison a vie, et avait deja passe 27 mois en detention. L’affaire dite du Fantome d’Heilbronn est probablement la plus connue des erreurs liees a l’ADN. Of Interest? Qualifiee sur TF1 de plus grande enigme criminelle de l’Histoire , elle mobilisa plus de 100 policiers, sur plus de 1400 pistes differentes, entrainant 2400 analyses genetiques, afin d’identifier une tueuse en serie a qui les polices allemande et autrichienne imputait une dizaine de meurtres, et des dizaines de cambriolages, depuis 1993. En mars 2009, on September Issued decouvrit que l’ADN de la tueuse en serie etait en fait celui d’une employee de la societe de materiel medical qui fournissait les cotons-tiges de prelevement genetique utilises par la police, et qu’il n’existait donc pas de Fantome d’Heilbronn . Ce meme mois de mars 2009, un homme, mis en examen en 2004 pour le meurtre de sa femme apres analyse de son ADN, etait definitivement mis hors de cause: une consultation du fichier d’empreintes genetiques revela qu’il avait le meme profil genetique qu’un autre homme, connu pour des faits de proxenetisme, mais decede depuis. Brandon L. Sample Letters? Garrett est professeur a l’ecole de droit de Virginie, Peter J. Unit Response-Bode? Neufeld, cofondateur de l’Innocence Project qui a permis, a ce jour, d’innocenter 261 personnes en demontrant que leur ADN ne correspondait pas a celui du veritable coupable de ce pour quoi ils avaient ete condamnes (plus de la moitie d’entre eux avaient pourtant ete, notamment, condamnes sur la foi de preuves apportees par la police technique et scientifique qui, par la suite, se sont en fait averees erronees). Sur les 137 cas qu’ils ont analyses, en 2009, pour leur etude qu’ils ont consacree aux erreurs des experts de la police scientifique et technique, Garrett et Neufeld ont decouvert 11 erreurs judiciaires imputables, en partie, a une mauvaise interpretation ou exploitation de la preuve par l’ADN . L’une des victimes de ces erreurs judiciaires fit les frais d’une grossiere erreur dans l’analyse de son ADN. Sample Of Interest | Resume? Trois autres furent condamnes sur la base de faux temoignages des experts ayant analyse leur ADN.

Pire: l’ADN de sept d’entre eux avaient precisement demontre leur innocence, en vain. Josiah Sutton, un noir americain de 16 ans, fut ainsi condamne pour viol, en 1999, a 25 ans de prison (il n’en fit que 4 ans 1/2). 4 Frequency Response-Bode Plot? Son ADN ne correspondait pas au sperme trouve sur le lieu du viol, mais cet aspect ne figura pas dans le rapport officiel, et l' expert declara, a contrario, qu’il correspondait bien au sien, avancant un taux de probabilite de 1 sur 694 000 personnes. Letters Of Interest | Resume Name? Dans les faits, un homme noir sur 16 partageait ses caracteristiques genetiques, et le laboratoire de Houston, implique dans plusieurs centaines d’autres cas litigieux, fut finalement ferme. Gilbert Alejandro fut de meme condamne pour viol sur la base du temoignage de l' expert , qui declara etre sur a 100% que l’ADN du violeur etait le sien. September Board Revised? Il s’avera que cet expert , Fred Zain, avait non seulement menti sur son diplome, et qu’il ne possedait aucune qualification a meme de justifier ce pour quoi il travailla pourtant pendant 20 ans pour la police scientifique et technique du Texas, mais egalement qu’il n’avait pas proprement effectue l’analyse en question.

Zain fut finalement implique dans 134 condamnations douteuses, et plusieurs dizaines de personnes, qu’il avait contribue a condamner, furent ensuite innocentes. 1 chance sur 1M, sur 40 000, ou bien sur 3. En aout dernier, Linda Geddes, journaliste au New Scientist revenait de son cote sur le calvaire traverse par Richard Smith, accuse de viol, et qui risquait 25 ans de prison. Le prelevement genetique effectue sur son penis lors de son arrestation comportait deux ADN meles. Letters Of Interest Name? L’expert qui temoigna a son proces estima que la probabilite que l’autre ADN ne soit pas celui de la victime etait de 1 sur 95 000. Quit-Claim To Husband And Wife-Download? Son superieur hierarchique estima quant a lui que la probabilite etait de 1 sur 47. Sample Name? Une expertise ulterieure avanca qu’elle etait plutot de 1 sur 13. Media Using Social Platforms? En changeant de methode statistique, elle n’etait plus que de 1 sur 2… Une etude du National Institute of Sample | Resume Name, Standards and Projected Income Business, Technology (NIST), qui avait envoye une seule empreinte genetique a 69 laboratoires americains revela que les methodes utilisees etaient tellement variees que les resultats obtenus variaient d’une magnitude de 10. Letters | Resume Name? Les resultats emanant de laboratoires utilisant les memes methodes statistiques n’etaient guere plus rassurants: en fonction des analyses, la probabilite d’identification de l’ADN variait de 1 sur 100 000 a 1 sur un quadrillion (10 puissance 15, soit mille milliards). On pense souvent que l’expertise genetique releve de quelque chose de scientifique.

Dans les faits, c’est aussi et surtout de la statistique ou, plus exactement, un calcul de probabilites, comme le soulignent Elie Escondida et Dante Timelos, auteurs d’un guide de self-defense juridique , Face a la police / Face a la justice, qui notent qu' on Quit-Claim Deed Husband And Wife Now a rarement rappele le fait que la preuve par l’ADN n’est, tout simplement, pas infaillible : Pour profiler quelqu’un, les experts analysent en effet generalement 13 marqueurs (ou locis , regions chromosomiques) de l’echantillon ADN qu’ils expertisent, dans la mesure ou l’analyse de ces marqueurs suffit generalement a distinguer l’empreinte d’un individu, avant d’estimer la probabilite de concordance de profils ( random match probability , RMP, en anglais), a savoir le risque de voir cet ADN correspondre a une ou plusieurs personnes. Sample Name? Des lors, l’objectif n’est donc pas tant de determiner l’ empreinte ADN d’un individu, mais son profil , et ca change tout, pour Escondida et Timelos: Deux ADN differents peuvent donner deux profils ADN semblables justement parce que le profil n’utilise qu’une fraction de l’ADN et non l’ADN dans sa totalite. Pour pallier ces difficultes, les experts vont se livrer a un calcul de probabilites. Unit? L’idee est simple. | Resume? Meme si on Social Marketing Social Platforms ne peut certifier que deux profils ADN identiques representent bien un ADN unique, il est toujours possible d’essayer d’estimer la probabilite d’une coincidence fortuite. Letters | Resume? Autrement dit, le resultat d’une expertise ADN n’est pas, contrairement a ce qu’on croit, une affirmation du type « l’ADN retrouve dans cette trace appartient a telle personne » mais bien une affirmation du type « il y a x probabilites pour que l’ADN retrouve dans cette trace appartienne a telle personne ». Husband And Wife To Husband And Wife-Download? Si on Of Interest Name peut refuter, avec une certitude absolue, l’identite entre deux profils, on Grand Examples Of College Example ne peut en revanche jamais confirmer celle-ci avec une certitude de 100%. Sample? En mai 2008, le Los Angeles Times revenait ainsi sur le cas de John Puckett, un Americain qui, en 2004, a l’age de 70 ans, se vit inculpe d’un meurtre commis 30 ans auparavant, parce que son ADN correspondait partiellement au sperme preleve sur la victime. Lors de son proces, les experts de l’accusation avancerent que la probabilite d’une coincidence de profils ADN etait de 1 sur 1,1 millions.

Les experts de la defense, utilisant d’autres methodes de calcul, avancerent les chiffres de 1 sur 40 000, et de 1 sur 16 400. Using Social Network Platforms? Apres 48h de delibere, les jures le declarerent coupable. Or, d’apres le LA Times , la probabilite que l’ADN de Puckett et celui du meurtrier soient les memes etait en fait de 1 sur 3… Car le fichier genetique repertoriait, a l’epoque, 338 000 profils ADN, et qu’il convenait donc, pour affiner la probabilite, de diviser 338 000 par 1,1 million, soit une probabilite de concordance de profils de 1 sur 3… Interroge par le LA Times , l’un des jures expliqua que le taux de probabilite de 1,1 million etait ce qui leur avait finalement permis de conclure a la culpabilite de Puckett. Sample Letters Of Interest | Resume? Et que s’ils avaient eu vent de ce taux de 1 sur 3 seulement, le verdict aurait tres certainement ete tres different. Condamne par un expert , innocente par 16 autres. Aux Etats-Unis, la fascination exercee par la police scientifique et technique porte un nom: le CSI Effect, du nom de la serie tele ( Les experts , en VF) qui cartonne en terme d’audience, et qui a bouleverse la facon de presenter le travail de la police a la television.

Or, cette vision, comme toute fascination, est une representation glamour, romancee, exageree et inexacte, pour ne pas dire faussee, de la realite, comme l’ont note plusieurs sociologues et juristes americains: Par exemple la place de la preuve ADN est grandement exageree tout comme sa pertinence. To Husband? Les procureurs sont pousses a produire toujours plus de preuves scientifiques meme si cela ne presente aucun interet pour l’affaire a priori. Bien que les technologies presentees par la serie et ses derives existent dans les laboratoires criminels, elles demandent bien plus de temps et sont souvent bien plus equivoques dans la realite. Les analystes craignent que les gens en viennent a croire que les sciences legales sont aussi efficaces que dans les series et s’attendent donc a des effets plus spectaculaires dans les cours de justice. Sample Letters Name? Pour comprendre pourquoi un seul et meme prelevement genetique pouvait ainsi etre interprete de facon si differente, le New Scientist a demande a 17 experts d’analyser un prelevement genetique ayant permis la condamnation d’un homme, Kerry Robinson, pour viol.

Comme le resume sobrement Le Matin , dans un article intitule Crime: peut-on faire confiance a l’ADN?, les avis sont apparus etonnamment divergents : Quatre ont affirme que les resultats n’etaient pas probants, douze ont etabli que la presence de l’homme en question sur le lieu du crime pouvait etre ecartee, et un seul s’est rallie a l’avis qui avait prevalu lors du jugement, concluant qu’il n’etait pas possible d’exclure sa presence sur les lieux. The Perfect Board Game This Flow | Kotaku? Autrement dit: pour pres des 3/4 des laboratoires, le prelevement genetique permettait d’etablir l’innocence du prevenu, pour 1/4 d’entre eux, qu’il ne permettait d’etablir rien du tout. Of Interest Name? Et le seul laboratoire qui s’est range a l’avis de l’expert ayant contribue a faire condamner cet homme n’a pas affirme qu’il etait le coupable recherche, mais que sa presence sur les lieux ne pouvait pas etre exclue… Pour le New Scientist , la technique est subjective et faillible . Social Plan. Using Network Platforms? Or, il suffit de l' opinion d’un seul individu pour finir en prison. Sample Letters Of Interest Name? De fait, Richard Smith et Kerry Robinson, bien qu’innocentes par une grande majorite des laboratoires ayant contre-expertise les echantillons genetiques leur ayant valu condamnations, sont toujours en prison. Pour Raphael Coquoz, charge de cours a l’Ecole des sciences criminelles de l’universite de Lausanne et specialiste de l’ADN, interroge par Le Matin , ces divergences d’expertises ne sont pas tres etonnantes: Un profil ADN n’est pas quelque chose d’univoque : On lui accorde trop de valeur. Social Media Using? L’analyse ADN donne une probabilite que telle ou telle personne ait ete presente a un endroit.

Le concept de probabilite est parfois difficile a entendre quand on Sample Letters Of Interest Name aimerait voir les choses en blanc ou en noir. En presence d’un profil faible , lorsque les traces sont infimes ou melangees, la probabilite diminue. September Board Issued? Lorsque le profil est de bonne qualite, les certitudes sont elevees, mais on Letters Of Interest | Resume n’est jamais sur a 100%. L’ADN n’est qu’un outil parmi d’autres, qui peut mener a des erreurs judiciaires. Grand Examples Of College Resumes Resume? Il faut le reconnaitre. | Resume? Tout depend en effet d’abord de la qualite de l’echantillon recueilli. Grand Of College 11 Student Resume? Parfois, il est trop petit, ou abime, degrade, pollue, quand il ne comporte pas plusieurs ADN, qui peuvent se masquer les uns les autres… rendant son analyse encore plus ardue. Sample Letters Of Interest Name? Le mythe de l’infaillibilite des experts , et la pression de la hierarchie et de la justice sont tels que, par ailleurs, les policiers procedent de plus en plus a des prelevements d’echantillons genetiques sur les scenes de crimes. Un rapport de l’autorite de controle britannique de la genetique (HGC) avait ainsi revele, en 2009, que la police arretait de plus en plus de gens aux seules fins de les ficher genetiquement: alors que la delinquance baissait, les arrestations, et le fichage ADN, progressait, au point que 1 million d’innocents figuraient dans la base de donnees policiere britannique (forte de 6,3 millions de profils, dont 282 000 mineurs de moins de 18 ans), ainsi que 75% des Noirs de 18 a 35 ans.

Dans son rapport sur le projet de loi de finances francais pour 2011, le depute UMP Guy Geoffroy rappelait ainsi que le fichier national automatise des empreintes genetiques (FNAEG) continuait sa montee en puissance, avec 1 582 595 traces genetiques enregistrees au 1er juillet 2010 : Rien que sur l’annee 2010, pres de 375 000 traces supplementaires devraient avoir ete inserees. Depuis la constitution du fichier, de tres nombreux rapprochements d’affaires ont ete realises: 5548 avec une trace non identifiee, 25 884 avec l’empreinte genetique d’une personne mise en cause et 8796 avec celle d’une personne condamnee. Marketing Network Platforms For? Visitant en octobre dernier un laboratoire de la police technique et scientifique, Brice Hortefeux a ainsi rappele l’objectif fixe par son ministere de l’Interieur: realiser des prelevements d’empreintes genetiques sur 100% des cambriolages et des voitures volees retrouvees . Dans le meme temps, et consequemment, ceux qui sont transmis aux laboratoires d’analyse sont de moins en moins bonne qualite. Of Interest Name? De plus, il existe plusieurs techniques et methodes statistiques pour expertiser un echantillon genetique. Social Marketing Using Social Network Platforms For? Et moins l’empreinte est de qualite, plus il faut recourir a des techniques complexes, mais donc egalement plus compliquees a apprehender par un juge, et a fortiori par des jures, qui n’ont jamais ete formes aux subtilites de la statistique ni de la genetique.

La confiance populaire dans la preuve par l’ADN est telle que, sous la pression des juges, victimes, avocats, procureurs ou encore de l’opinion publique, les experts sont bien souvent sommes de parler, sinon de prendre parti, alors meme que certaines empreintes ou prelevements sont tellement abimes, partiels ou complexes a analyser qu’il est tres difficile de distinguer ce qui releve du signal de ce qui releve du bruit ou encore des artefacts techniques, au point qu’il est impossible d’esperer pouvoir en tirer une expertise veritablement fiable. Mais au lieu d’expliquer la methodologie statistique utilisee, afin de permettre a ceux qui vont juger de le faire un connaissance de cause, nombreux sont les experts et les laboratoires qui se contentent d’expliquer qu’ils pensent que l’ADN est (ou pas) celui du suspect, ou de la victime, entrainant juges et jures a condamner quelqu’un en accordant une confiance aveugle a une expertise qui, d’un point de vue scientifique ou statistique, pourrait pourtant etre contestee par un autre expert… Or, comme le rappelle le New Scientist dans son editorial, les jures americains estiment, a 95%, que la preuve par l’ADN est fiable, et un prevenu est plus susceptible d’etre condamne si le dossier comporte une preuve ADN que s’il n’en comporte pas… John Butler, responsable du groupe de genetique appliquee au National Institute of Sample, Standards and Examples 11 Student Resume Sample, Technology (NIST), a ainsi examine 5000 echantillons ADN de 14 laboratoires differents, et decouvert que 34% d’entre-eux comportaient l’ADN de deux personnes, et 11% celui de trois voire quatre personnes differentes. Parallelement, une etude de Dan Krane, de l’universite de Wright, parue dans le Journal of Sample Letters Name, Forensic Sciences , a demontre que 3% des echantillons comportant trois ADN differents pouvaient etre interpretes comme ne comportant que deux ADN seulement, et que 70% des echantillons de quatre ADN pouvaient, pareillement, etre analyses comme ne comportant que deux ou trois ADN differents. Or, comme le resume Dan Krane qui, en tant que consultant, effectue regulierement des contre-expertises, si vous ne pouvez determiner combien de personnes etaient presentes sur les lieux, il est ridicule de suggerer que vous pouvez etre en mesure d’identifier le profil ADN ou l’identite de ceux qui y etaient vraiment. With Flow | Kotaku? Itiel Dror, professeur de neuroscience au college universitaire de Londres, qui a contribue a l’experimentation du New Scientist , en appelle a la conscience professionnelle des experts : Ceux qui travaillent dans l’analyse des empreintes digitales, et autres disciplines de la police technique et scientifique, ont desormais accepte que la subjectivite et le contexte pouvaient affecter leurs jugements et decisions. Il est desormais aussi temps que les experts genetiques acceptent que, dans certaines conditions, la subjectivite, voire meme certains biais, puissent affecter leur travail.

Le probleme se double du fait que, comme le souligne Linda Geddes dans le New Scientist , les experts n’utilisent pas forcement tous les memes procedures. Sample Of Interest? Un questionnaire, auquel ont repondu 19 laboratoires americains, canadiens, britanniques et australiens, a revele que 11 d’entre eux interdisaient a leurs analystes d’interpreter les resultats de maniere subjective, mais que 4 d’entre eux l’autorisaient regulierement, et deux autres de maniere exceptionnelles. L’ADN, une preuve essentiellement a charge Si la genetique permet souvent d’accuser, ou d’innocenter, quelqu’un sans trop de difficultes, David Balding, un geneticien et statisticien anglais, n’en estime pas moins que juges et jures sont trop frequemment confrontes a des preuves exploitees essentiellement a charge , pour confondre tel ou tel suspect, et non pas seulement de maniere neutre et scientifique. Il est ainsi courant qu’un laboratoire se voit demander si l’ADN de tel suspect, qui a ete apprehende, se trouve aussi sur l’echantillon preleve sur la scene du crime. Grand Resumes 11 Student Example Sample? Ce qui est tout a fait different que de demander au laboratoire d’identifier le ou les ADN du prelevement, sans faire de lien, d’emblee, avec tel ou tel suspect. Dan Krane et William Thompson, professeur de criminologie a l’universite de Californie, ont ainsi soumis un echantillon de salive preleve sur le sein d’une femme qui avait ete violee a 1000 experts , repartis en quatre categories.

Trois hommes avaient ete suspectes, un seul fut condamne. Sample Letters Name? Les trois premiers groupes devaient estimer si l’ADN de chacun de ces trois suspects pouvait etre identifie, ou non, dans l’echantillon, le quatrieme etant charge d’y rechercher l’ADN de la victime. Tous ont estime que l’ADN de la personne qui leur etait presentee pouvait etre identifie dans l’echantillon de salive en question. Pick This Chart? Or, souligne Dan Krane, pres du tiers des affaires qu’il a a traiter, au quotidien, comportent de tels biais d’interpretation subjective… Le New Scientist explique egalement que les experts sont souvent trop proches de la police, et qu’ils en savent souvent trop sur l’affaire, ou les suspects, au point que cela pourrait constituer un biais dans leurs analyses. Letters | Resume? Un expert americain, temoignant de facon anonyme, denonce ainsi les risques de partialite de ses confreres: Les laboratoires criminels ne devraient pas etre places sous le controle de l’institution policiere. Social Media Marketing Plan. Social Platforms? Nous sommes des scientifiques, pas des policiers, ni des procureurs. Sample Of Interest Name? Avec Peter Gill, co-inventeur de la preuve par l’ADN avec Sir Alec Jeffreys, et ancien responsable du laboratoire de police scientifique britannique, David Balding a ainsi elabore une methode, le ratio de probabilite ( likehood ratio , LR) , dont l’enonce suffit a mettre a mal l’infaillibilite supposee de la preuve par l’ADN:

Il s’agit de se demander quelle est la probabilite que cette preuve puisse etre utilisee par l’accusation, et quelle est la probabilite qu’elle puisse etre exploitee par la defense. September Board On Purchase Revised? Ensuite, vous faire un ratio des deux. Letters? Aussi surprenante qu’elle puisse paraitre pour un profane, cette methode a officiellement ete recommandee, l’an passe, par l’International Society for Grand Of College Resumes 11 Student Resume Sample Forensic Genetics (ISFG), et le Scientific Working Group on Sample Letters Of Interest | Resume DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM), un laboratoire du FBI charge d’effectuer des recommandations aux laboratoires de police scientifique et technique americains, des lors que l’empreinte genetique s’avere complexe a expertiser. Pour Peter Gill, qui deplore le mythe de l’infaillibilite de l’ADN, le manque de comprehension de la part du public, mais egalement des juges et des avocats, est considerable . September Report Issued Revised? Ainsi, aux Etats-Unis, il estime que seuls 10 a 15% des avocats dont les clients ont pourtant ete, en tout ou partie, incrimines sur la base de leur empreinte genetique, effectuent une contre-expertise… Dane Krane, lui, estime que le taux serait plutot inferieur a 1%, soulignant la croyance aveugle qu’accorderait les avocats dans la preuve genetique… Bruce Budowle, ancien responsable du laboratoire genetique du FBI, plaide ainsi pour que les laboratoires generalisent la contre-expertise, et la verification, de leurs analyses, et pour que toutes ces donnees et conclusions soient aussi confiees aux avocats et defenseurs des personnes dont l’ADN a ete identifie. 18 des 19 laboratoires interroges par le New Scientist procedent a de telles contre-expertises, mais dans la majorite des cas, le second analyste a prealablement pris connaissance des conclusions de son predecesseur, faussant ainsi potentiellement leurs resultats. Si 15 de ces laboratoires expliquent qu’en cas de desaccord, c’est le superieur hierarchique qui tranche, seuls deux d’entre eux declarent mentionner, dans leurs rapports, l’existence d’une divergence d’analyses… Il ne s’agit pas pour autant de jeter l’opprobre sur l’utilisation judiciaire de l’ADN, ni de conclure que les expertises seraient systematiquement sujettes a caution. Par contre, le fait que l’on ait d’ores et deja autant d’erreurs, et les biais et problemes de subjectivite souleves par le New Scientist , plaident pour une vigilance accrue en la matiere, d’autant que la police et la justice exploitent de plus en plus la genetique dans leurs enquetes.

L’expertise genetique est une discipline encore relativement nouvelle, mais nous disposons egalement de suffisamment d’elements pour ne plus lui accorder la confiance aveugle qu’on lui prete generalement. Dans son rapport, tres critique (voir Quand les experts se trompent), sur le caractere non scientifique des techniques utilisees par la police technique et scientifique, le conseil national de la recherche americain soulignait ainsi que les methodes developpees dans les laboratoires afin d’aider les forces de l’ordre pourraient grandement beneficier des contributions des chercheurs et scientifiques. Et c’est precisement pour renforcer la confiance que l’on peut accorder au systeme judiciaire, et a la facon qu’ont les experts d’exploiter traces et identifiants genetiques, que Dan Krane a publie dans la revue Science , en decembre 2009, un appel cosigne par 40 autres scientifiques et professeurs de droit, intitule Time for Sample Of Interest Name DNA disclosure (.pdf) (Il est temps de liberer l’ADN), appelant a liberer la base de donnees de profils genetiques de la police americaine, afin que d’autres chercheurs et scientifiques y aient eux aussi acces: Nous pensons que le temps est venu pour le FBI de permettre aux scientifiques d’acceder aux profils genetiques anonymises de sa base de donnees afin qu’ils puissent y effectuer des recherches qui profiteront a l’ensemble de la justice criminelle. Les forces de l’ordre devraient honorer les normes scientifiques et ouvrir leurs bases de donnees ADN au regard scientifique independant. Projected Statement? Cela ne pose guere de risque significatif, et ne peut que renforcer la qualite de l’exploitation judiciaire de l’ADN.

Comme le souligne egalement le New Scientist dans l’editorial qu’il consacra a cette demande, si le FBI s’est trompe dans ses statistiques, les consequences sont tellement profondes que nous devrions pouvoir le savoir. Sample Letters Of Interest | Resume Name? S’il ne s’est pas trompe, les recherches ne pourront que renforcer la preuve par l’ADN. Grand Resumes 11 Student Resume? Dans les deux cas, la justice en sortira gagnante . Letters Of Interest? Cette evaluation serait d’autant plus pressante, mais egalement pertinente, que ladite base de donnees est de plus en plus exploitee par la police et la justice, et qu’elle repertorie plus de 9 millions de profils genetiques, augmentant d’autant la probabilite de voir une ou plusieurs personnes partager le meme profil ADN, et donc deboucher sur des erreurs judiciaires. Media Network Platforms? Comme l’expliquent Escondida et Timelos, plus un fichier augmente en taille, plus il est cense etre efficace, mais plus sa fiabilite theorique est en chute libre . Interroge par le LA Times , Jonathan Jay Koehler, professeur de droit specialiste des sciences du comportement, et notamment de ce qui preside aux decisions judiciaires basees sur les expertises de la police technique et scientifique, estime que le taux d’erreur, dans les laboratoires, est de l’ordre de 1 pour 1000, qu’il s’agisse d’ADN identifie, a tort, ou bien, a contrario, non identifie alors qu’il aurait pu l’avoir ete: Personne ne voudrait prendre l’avion s’il devait s’ecraser une fois tous les 1000 vols. Sample Of Interest Name? William Thompson, considere comme l’un des meilleurs specialistes des erreurs en matiere de genetique criminelle, se rappelle que lors de la creation des premieres bases de donnees d’ADN, on Examples Resumes Example estimait que les innocents n’avaient rien a craindre, et qu’ils ne devaient donc pas avoir peur d’etre fiches. Mais aujourd’hui, quand on Letters Of Interest regarde la somme d’erreurs repertoriees de par le monde – et nous ne connaissons que la partie emergee de l’iceberg -, le probleme se pose vraiment de savoir combien de personnes nous voulons ainsi ficher. Deed Now? Et je n’aimerais certainement pas etre l’une d’entre elles. Sample? 77% des personnes fichees, en France, sont innocentes En 1994, la loi qui avait cree le fichier genetique americain avait expressement anticipe le fait que des chercheurs pourraient y effectuer des controles qualite dans la mesure ou les informations personnelles et identifiables en seraient retirees , ce qu’il est d’autant plus facile a faire que les identifiants genetiques fiches sont non-codants , et donc non susceptibles de reveler d’informations sensibles (une affirmation cela dit contestee par Catherine Bourgain, chargee de Recherches de l’Unite INSERM 535 Genetique epidemiologique et structures des populations humaines , pour qui il n’y a pas d’ADN neutre ).

Si le FBI s’est deja illustre en essayant de camoufler les erreurs identifiees par certains experts dans son fichier genetique, il refuse d’acceder aux demandes des scientifiques precisement (ou, plutot, officiellement ) en raison de considerations liees a la protection de la vie privee, et des caracteristiques genetiques de ceux qui sont fiches dans sa base de donnees. Ces derniers voudraient ainsi verifier le taux d’erreur, au moment de la saisie manuelle des fichiers. Projected Income Business? Une etude portant sur 15 021 profils genetiques contenus dans une base de donnee gouvernementale australienne avait ainsi revele un taux d’erreur de 1 sur 300, ce qui souleve un certain nombre de questions au regard des opportunites manquees d’aboutir sur certaines enquetes . A contrario, l’article que Linda Geddes, du New Scientist , a consacre a cette lettre ouverte, met plutot l’accent sur les risques d’erreurs judiciaires. Sample Of Interest | Resume Name? Elle cite ainsi plusieurs experiences, menees sur pres de 300 000 profils genetiques extraits de trois bases de donnees ADN americaines. Board Report Orders Revised? A la grande surprise des scientifiques, plus de 2000 profils partageaient des caracteristiques qui, normalement, auraient du rendre leurs profils uniques . Interroge a ce sujet, Bruce Budowle, ancien responsable scientifique du fichier genetique du FBI, explique que selectionner le profil d’un suspect afin de le comparer a un echantillon preleve sur une scene de crime est a peu pres aussi pertinent que de tenter d’identifier un suspect a partir de sa seule date de naissance: plus la base de donnees contient de profils genetiques, plus grandes sont les chances d’en voir un certain nombre partager certaines caracteristiques. En decembre 2008, la Grande-Bretagne etait condamnee par la Cour europeenne des droits de l’homme a detruire les profils ADN de 850 000 personnes, soit pres de 13% des 6,3 millions d’individus presents dans le fichier genetique de la police britannique. Les juges avaient en effet estime que leur fichage genetique etait une atteinte disproportionnee au respect de la vie privee , au motif que leur casier judiciaire etait vierge, et qu’ils n’avaient pas ete condamnes dans l’affaire qui leur avait valu d’etre fiches, et qu’ils devaient donc toujours etre presumes innocents. Le Fichier national automatise des empreintes genetiques, son equivalent francais, ne comporte, lui, que 1,6 million de profils. Sample Of Interest Name? Cree en 1998 afin de ficher les criminels sexuels, et lutter contre la recidive, il a depuis ete elargi a la quasi-totalite des personnes a l’??encontre desquelles il existe des raisons plausibles de soupconner qu’??elles aient commis un crime ou un delit (a l’exception notable de la delinquance routiere et financiere). En decembre 2009, alors qu’il n’en recensait que 1,2 million de profils, le nombre de personnes condamnees enregistrees etait de 280 399, soit 23%.

Dit autrement: 77% des personnes fichees genetiquement, en France, n’ont ete que mises en cause et suspectees, mais jamais condamnees. Quit-Claim Deed Husband And Wife To Husband Now? Elles sont donc toujours presumes innocentes … Comme le soulignait l’an passe Matthieu Bonduelle, secretaire general du Syndicat de la magistrature, au sujet du FNAEG, “ Il faut reconnaitre qu’il permet de resoudre des affaires, mais on Of Interest | Resume Name est maintenant dans une logique d’alimentation du fichier. Social Media Plan. Social For? Personne ne prone le fichage generalise, mais, de fait, on Sample Letters Of Interest | Resume est en train de l’effectuer “ (voir Objectif: ficher l’ADN de toute la population). Condamnes par le code: l’immunite logicielle en question. Les algorithmes sont-ils une nouvelle forme de bureaucratie? Les donnees suffisent-elles pour piloter la ville?

Ou en est le Nudge (1/3)? Tout est-il nudgable ? Bodyware: pour une augmentation ordinaire. Les correlations en leurs limites. La toute petite bonne nouvelle de cet article, c’est que 77% des empreintes genetiques contenus dans le fichier francais des empreintes genetiques sont illegales. Mais il faudrait qu’un avocat, ou une association porte l’affaire devant les tribunaux europeens pour que ces empreintes soient effacees. Merci pour cet article d’une densite, d’une clarte et d’une precision rares.

Je suis epoustouflee par la qualite de ce que je viens de lire. Income Statement Template? J’ai appris enormement de choses et en suis d’autant plus choquee par ce que j’ai compris du danger du fichage generalise. tres bel article! Merci beaucoup pour toutes ces informations et mises en lumiere.