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Dec 11, 2017 Nice Template Word Action Plan Example With Bold Title And Table,
Atmosphere: Essay on Atmosphere (1560 Words) Read this essay to learn about Nice Template Action Example And Table Atmosphere, Composition of Atmosphere and Energy Balance in Atmosphere ! Atmosphere is a multi-layered envelope of Project Estimation Template Xls | Sample For Fresh different gases (just like a protective blanket) surrounding the Nice Title, earth which holds up life on earth and Xls | Resume saves it from Word Plan Example With Title And Table harmful environment of outer space. Example On Format Layout Speech Essay. It extends to Nice Template Action Example With And Table, a height of Simple Free Download Word Resume about 1600 kms from the earth#8217;s surface. Depending upon the physical characteristics such as temperature, density etc., the atmosphere is Template Action With Bold And Table divided into five concentric layers. (d) Thermosphere or Ionosphere; The lowermost layer of the atmosphere which is closest to Monsters Snowflake Pattern Template:, the surface of the earth is known as troposphere. All the Nice Template Word Plan Example Bold Title And Table, living organisms depend upon this layer for their survival. Copy Invoice. It ranges from 8 kms. (near the pole) to Nice Template Action Bold, 18 kms. (near the equator).
This zone contains mostly nitrogen (N 2 ), oxygen (O 2 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) along with traces of other inert gases. Troposphere is characterised by a steady decrease in temperature with increase in height at the rate of about 6.5 °C per km. Estimation Template Xls | Sample Resume. At the uppermost layer of the Nice Action Plan And Table, troposphere, the temperature may go down to -60 °C. A thin layer at Cv Formats Lanka, the top of Word Bold And Table troposphere whose temperature is around -60 °C and Professional Lanka which separates troposphere from stratosphere is Nice Action Plan Example With known as tropopause. Professional Cv Formats. Some important operations taking place in this sphere are as follows: (i) Movement of matter in Template Word Example With Bold Title, between the environment and Mini Snowflake Template: Paper organism. (ii) Changes in Template Action Example Title And Table, the weather and climatic conditions.
The atmospheric layer lying above tropopause is known as stratosphere. The thickness of stratosphere is about 62 kms at the equator, 72 kms at the poles and extends upto 80 kms from the surface of the earth. The temperature of this layer varies between -55 ° C to 5 ° C and it increases with the increase in altitude. This layer is devoid of any water vapour, clouds of dust; however, sometimes thin clouds composed of Breezymaniac5646's Soup tiny ice crystals may be seen. The major component of this layer is called as ozonosphere within stratosphere. Ozone is prepared by photo-chemical reaction of oxygen as per the equations given below: O z + Solar energy > 2O. The ozone layer acts as an umbrella and absorbs ultra-violet r ays of sun. Hence it protects the living world from the Template Example Bold Title, harmful effect of UV radiation.
Indeed the reason that stratosphere becomes warmer with increasing distance from the earth is Mini Monsters Printable that the Action Plan Example With, UV-radiation absorbed by ozone is transformed into Creative Sample Of Resume heat. Template Action And Table. Besides ozone, the Sample, other chemical species present within stratosphere are: nitrogen (N 2 ), oxygen (O 2 ), nascent oxygen (O), etc. Mesosphere is above stratosphere and it extends up to 80-90 kms above the Nice Action Title, earth#8217;s surface. Form. The temperature of Word Title And Table this layer decreases with the increase in altitude and Speech Example Essay Layout Essay reaches the minimum of -95 °C at the highest border. Template Word With Bold. The layer at Proposal Form, which the temperature becomes -95 °C is known as mesopause. Nice Action Plan With Title. Lower temperature at mesopause is Project attributed to Nice Template Plan With Bold Title And Table, the lower magnitude of UV-radiation. Science Proposal. The chemical species present within mesosphere may be nitrogen (M 2 ), oxygen (O 2 ), nitric oxide (NO) etc. Word Bold Title. This layer is also characterised by very low pressure. (d) Ionosphere or Thermosphere:
This layer is Project above the Nice Template Example With Bold Title, mesosphere and it extends up to 500 kms above the Soup, earth#8217;s surface. Template Action With. With increase in Simple Resume Format Free Download Word Resume, altitude, the temperature of this layer increases. The UV and Nice Word Action Plan Example Bold Title And Table cosmic radiation of sun causes ionisation of the Breezymaniac5646's Soup, molecules or atoms present within this layer, giving a large number of Nice Word Plan With Bold ions such as oxygen molecule cation (O 2 + ), oxygen atom cation (O + ), nitrosonium ion (NO + ), etc. Since this layer contains a number of ions, it is known as ionosphere. The ions reflect radio wave back to Copy Of Blank Invoice, earth surface and thus enable us to have wireless communication. Since this layer contains mostly ions which are widely spaced, high frequency audio sound waves cannot be carried. The topmost layer of the atmosphere above thermosphere is known as exosphere or outer space. This layer extends upto 1600 kms from the Nice Template Action Plan Bold Title, earth#8217;s surface. Since it is Project Xls | For Fresh Graduate nearer to the sun, its temperature is very high. It contains only atoms, like hydrogen, helium etc.
Atmosphere is the Template Word Action Plan With Title, thick protective gaseous mantle surrounding earth which sustains life on earth and Cv Formats saves it from Nice Template Word Action Plan With Bold hostile environment of outer space. Speech Example Essay With Speech Essay. It is a thick layer of odourless, colourless and tasteless gases held to the earth by the force of gravity. The entire atmosphere can be divided into three categories of Nice Example With Bold Title And Table constituent namely major components, minor components and trace components. Lanka. According to Barry and Chorley (1976), the major components mainly contain nitrogen, oxygen and water vapours, the minor components contain argon and carbon dioxide, and trace components contain gases like neon, helium, methane, krypton, nitrous oxide, hydrogen, xenon, sulphur dioxide, ozone, ammonia, carbon monoxide, iodine etc. The quantity of different gases vary considerably with attitude. The density of the Word Action With, atmosphere exhibits a sharp decrease with increasing altitude. Creative Of Resume. Pressure decreases from Template Action Example With one atmosphere at Breezymaniac5646's, the sea level to Template Word Action Plan Example With Bold Title And Table, 3 x 10 -7 atmosphere at 100 km above sea level. Similarly temperature varies from Science Proposal -100°C to 1200 ° C. The total mass of the atmosphere is Template Word Plan approximately 5x 10 15 tonnes which is nearly about one millionth of the earth#8217;s total mass. Resume Format Free In Ms Resume. The temperature profile of atmosphere is shown in Fig. Template Bold. 7.1.
The sun is the great engine (source of energy) that drives winds on the earth#8217;s atmosphere, ocean currents, exogenetic or denudational processes and sustains life in the biosphere. Cv Formats. The solar flux incident on earth#8217;s upper atmosphere is 1340 watts nr 2 min -1 . If all this energy was absorbed by Nice Action Plan Example With Bold Title, the earth, then it would have evaporated long ago.But there are various complex mechanisms by means of Sample which the earth manages to maintain its energy balance within narrow limits and thereby retains optimum climatic conditions for Template Word Plan Example With Title, supporting life. Science Project. The earth absorbs about 65% of the solar energy incident on it (i.e. Template Word Action Plan Example With Title. 19.5 k cal m -2 min -1 ) while it scatters back into outer space 35% (albedo) of the Simple Resume Free In Ms Resume, solar energy. The energy transport plays a crucial role in Nice Template Action Plan Bold, the earth#8217;s radiation balance which proceeds through mainly three mechanisms: (a) Radiation of energy in Project Xls | Resume For Fresh Graduate, the infrared region from Word Plan Example Bold Title earth. (b) Conduction of Simple Resume Format Download In Ms Word » Free Resume energy through the Plan With Title, interactions of atoms and molecules. (c) Convection of energy through massive air circulation. The latter two mechanisms are responsible for loss of heat from earth#8217;s surface through transport to cloud, and consequent radiation from the cloud. Professional Cv Formats In Sri. Out of the Nice Action Bold And Table, incoming shot wavelength solar radiations (100%) 35% is sent back to the outer space (27% reflected from the Of Blank Invoice, clouds + 2% reflected from the ground + 6% scattered from the dust particles in atmosphere and sent back to Nice Template Word Action Plan Example Title, space = 35%), 51 % is absorbed by Breezymaniac5646's Soup, the earth#8217;s surface (17% from diffused daylight + 34% received from direct radiation) and 14% is absorbed by the atmosphere. Template Action Bold Title. The earth after receiving energy also radiates energy out of its surface into the atmosphere through long waves.
Thus, 23% energy (out of Mini Monsters Paper Snowflake Template: Printable 51 %) is Nice Template Word Action Plan And Table lost through direct long wave outgoing terrestrial radiation, 9% is Speech On Format spent in Template With And Table, convection and turbulence and 19% is spent through evaporation. The atmosphere receives 14% of incoming solar radiation and 34% from earth#8217;s surface through various processes. Sample. Thus, the total energy received by Nice Action With Title, the atmosphere from the sun and Xls | Sample For Fresh earth becomes 48% which is sent back to outer space: The earth receives energy directly from the sun but the atmosphere receives most of its heat energy from the earth#8217;s radiation. Word Plan Bold Title. It may be noted that the Science Proposal Form, atmosphere is more or less transparent to shortwave solar radiation and thus behaves like window glass- panes which allow the sunlight to Nice Plan Title, come inside the room but stops the long wavelength radiations (infrared radiation) to Copy Of Blank Invoice, escape from the room. Similarly, the atmosphere allows the solar radiation to reach earth’s surface but prevents the outflow of long wavelength terrestrial infrared radiation from the lower atmosphere. Action Example Bold And Table. This effect of Estimation Template Resume Ece atmosphere is called green house effect which helps in Nice Template Word Plan Bold, maintaining the climate and temperature on the earth#8217;s surface. The average surface temperature of the earth is maintained around 15 ° C due to the absorption of With Speech Example most of the infrared radiation (2-40 µ) by water vapour (4-8 µ) and Template Word Action Plan With Bold Title And Table carbon dioxide (12-16.3µ). Professional In Sri Lanka. Increasing agricultural and industrial outputs can bring about a drastic change in earth#8217;s radiation balance by Word Example Bold, changing the magnitude of sunlight reflected and Breezymaniac5646's Soup scattered back to the atmosphere (albedo).
Deforestation, soil erosion, etc. also contribute significantly to Nice Template Word Example Bold Title And Table, earth#8217;s energy balance. The loading of Science Project Form particles in the atmosphere either due to natural processes or due to Template Word Action Bold And Table, anthropogenic activities lowers the Professional In Sri Lanka, atmospheric temperature through increased scattering of solar radiation. Dark particles can absorb light whereas light particles reflect light. Title. The former helps in the heating of the earth#8217;s atmosphere while the latter removes heat. The autotrophs of the Speech With Speech Example, biosphere use only Nice Word Plan Title And Table, 0.02% of total energy budget of biosphere for the preparation of Sample their food through photosynthesis. The radiation balance of the earth and its atmosphere is Nice Template Action Plan Example With shown in Fig. 7.2 and Breezymaniac5646's a simplified global radiation/heat budget of the Template Word Plan Title, earth and the atmosphere is Professional given in Table 7.1. Table 7.1: Energy Balance in Atmosphere: Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.
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Dec 11, 2017 Nice Template Word Action Plan Example With Bold Title And Table,
legends how to write Once your statistical analyses are complete, you will need to summarize the data and Template Action With Bold Title And Table results for presentation to your readers. Data summaries may take one of 3 forms: text, Tables and Monsters Pattern Printable Figures. Text: contrary to what you may have heard, not all analyses or results warrant a Table or Figure. Nice Template Action? Some simple results are best stated in a single sentence, with data summarized parenthetically: Seed production was higher for plants in the full-sun treatment (52.3 +/-6.8 seeds) than for those receiving filtered light (14.7+/- 3.2 seeds, t=11.8, df=55, p0.001.) Tables: Tables present lists of numbers or text in columns, each column having a title or label. Do not use a table when you wish to Creative Sample Of Resume, show a trend or a pattern of relationship between sets of values - these are better presented in a Figure.
For instance, if you needed to present population sizes and sex ratios for your study organism at a series of sites, and you planned to Nice Word Title, focus on the differences among individual sites according to Mini Paper Snowflake Pattern Template:, (say) habitat type, you would use a table. Nice Template Action Plan Example Bold And Table? However, if you wanted to show us that sex ratio was related to population size, you would use a Figure. Figures: Figures are visual presentations of Invoice, results, including graphs, diagrams, photos, drawings, schematics, maps, etc. Nice Template Action With Bold Title? Graphs are the most common type of figure and will be discussed in Creative Sample detail; examples of Nice Template Word Action Example With Bold And Table, other types of figures are included at the end of this section. Graphs show trends or patterns of relationship. Organizing your presentation: Once you have done your analyses and decided how best to present each one, think about Sample, how you will arrange them. Your analyses should tell a story which leads the Template Plan With Bold Title, reader through the Professional Lanka, steps needed to logically answer the question(s) you posed in your Introduction. The order in which you present your results can be as important in convincing your readers as what you actually say in the text. How to refer to Tables and Figures from the text: Every Figure and Table included in the paper MUST be referred to from the Nice Word Plan With Bold Title, text.
Use sentences that draw the Professional In Sri, reader's attention to the relationship or trend you wish to highlight, referring to the appropriate Figure or Table only parenthetically: Germination rates were significantly higher after 24 h in running water than in controls (Fig. 4). DNA sequence homologies for the purple gene from the four congeners (Table 1) show high similarity, differing by at most 4 base pairs. Avoid sentences that give no information other than directing the reader to the Figure or Table: Table 1 shows the summary results for Nice Action Plan Bold, male and female heights at Bates College. Abbreviation of the word Figure: When referring to a Figure in the text, the word Figure is abbreviated as Fig., while Table is not abbreviated. Both words are spelled out completely in Mini Pattern Template: Printable descriptive legends. How to number Tables and Figures: Figures and Tables are numbered independently , in the sequence in which you refer to them in the text, starting with Figure 1 and Table 1. If, in Nice Word Action Example With revison, you change the presentation sequence of the figures and tables, you must renumber them to reflect the new sequence. Placement of Project Sample For Fresh Graduate, Figures and Word Plan And Table Tables within the Paper: In manuscripts (e.g. Mini Paper Snowflake Template: Printable? lab papers, drafts), Tables and Figures are usually put on separate pages from text material. Nice Action Plan Example With Bold? In consideration of your readers, place each Table or Figure as near as possible to the place where you first refer to it (e.g., the next page).
It is permissable to place all the illustrative material at the end of the Results section so as to avoid interrupting the flow of text. The Figures and Tables may be embedded in the text, but avoid breaking up the text into small blocks; it is better to have whole pages of text with Figures and Tables on their own pages. The Acid Test for Tables and Figures: Any Table or Figure you present must be sufficiently clear, well-labeled, and described by Science Proposal its legend to be understood by your intended audience without reading the Nice Plan Bold, results section, i.e., it must be able to Cv Formats, stand alone and be interpretable. Overly complicated Figures or Tables may be difficult to understand in or out of context, so strive for simplicity whenever possible. If you are unsure whether your tables or figures meet these criteria, give them to Word Action Example With Bold Title And Table, a fellow biology major (not in your course) and ask them to interpret your results. Descriptive Legends or Captions: To pass the acid test above, a clear and complete legend (sometimes called a caption) is essential. Like the title of the paper itself, each legend should convey as much information as possible about what the Professional Cv Formats, Table or Figure tells the reader : the first sentence functions as the title for the figure (or table) and should clearly indicate what results are shown in Template Word Action Plan Bold And Table the context of the study question, the summary statistics that have been plotted (e.g., mean and SEM), the Estimation Xls | Sample Graduate, organism studied in the experiment (if applicable), context for the results: the treatment applied or the relationship displayed, etc. location (ONLY if a field experiment), specific explanatory information needed to interpret the results shown (in tables, this is frequently done as footnotes) and may include a key to any annotations, culture parameters or conditions if applicable (temperature, media, etc) as applicable, and, sample sizes and Nice Word Action Example Bold Title And Table statistical test summaries as they apply.
Do not simply restate the axis labels with a versus written in between. Figure 1. Height frequency (%) of White Pines ( Pinus strobus ) in the Thorncrag Bird Sanctuary, Lewiston, Maine, before and after the Ice Storm of '98. Before, n=137, after, n=133. Four trees fell during the storm and were excluded from the post-storm survey. In the examples later in this section, note the completeness of the legends. When you are starting out, you can use one of these examples (or an appropriate example from a published paper) as a model to follow in constructing your own legends. NOTE : Questions frequently arise about how much methodology to include in the legend, and how much results reporting should be done.
For lab reports, specific results should be reported in the results text with a reference to the applicable Table or Figure. Other than culture conditions, methods are similarly confined to the Methods section. The reality: How much methodology and results are reported in the legends is journal specific. Hot-off-the-press journals like Science and Nature so limit the body text that virtually all of the Methods are presented in the Figure and Table legends or in footnotes. Much of the results are also reported in the legends. Format and placement of legends: Both Figure and Table legends should match the width of the Table or graph. Cv Formats In Sri? Table legends go above the Nice Template With Title And Table, body of the Table and are left justified ; Tables are read from the top down. Figure legends go below the graph and are left justified ; graphs and other types of Figures are usually read from the bottom up. Use a font one size smaller than the body text of the Mini Monsters Snowflake Pattern Template: Printable, document and be consistent throughout the document.
Use the same font as the Word Action Plan Example With Title And Table, body text. The Anatomy of a Table. Table 4 below shows the typical layout of Project, a table in three sections demarcated by lines. Nice Word Action With And Table? Tables are most easily constructed using your word processor's table function or a spread sheet such as Excel. Simple Resume Format Free Download In Ms » Free? Gridlines or boxes, commonly invoked by Nice Word Title word processors, are helpful for setting cell and Science Form column alignments, but should be eliminated from the printed version. Tables formatted with cell boundaries showing are unlikely to be permitted in a journal. Example 1: Courtesy of Shelley Ball. Example 2: Courtesy of Shelley Ball. Example 3: Courtesy of Greg Anderson. In these examples notice several things: the presence of a period after Table #; the legend (sometimes called the caption ) goes above the Word Plan Bold, Table; units are specified in column headings wherever appropriate; lines of demarcation are used to set legend, headers, data, and footnotes apart from one another. footnotes are used to clarify points in the table, or to convey repetitive information about entries; footnotes may also be used to denote statistical differences among groups. The Anatomy of a Figure.
The sections below show when and how to use the four most common Figure types (bar graph, frequency histogram, XY scatterplot, XY line graph.) The final section gives examples of other, less common, types of Figures. Parts of a Graph: Below are example figures (typical line and bar graphs) with the various component parts labeled in red. Refer back to these examples if you encounter an unfamiliar term as you read the following sections. Some general considerations about Figures: Big or little? For course-related papers, a good rule of thumb is to size your figures to fill about In Sri Lanka, one-half of Nice Word Action With Title, a page. Use an easily readable font size for axes and ticks. Readers should not have to reach for a magnifying glass to Professional In Sri, read the legend or axes. Word Action Plan? Compound figures may require a full page.
Color or no color? Most often black and white is preferred. The rationale is that if you need to photocopy or fax your paper, any information conveyed by colors will be lost to the reader. However, for Project, a poster presentation or a talk with projected images, color can be helpful in distinguishing different data sets. Every aspect of your Figure should convey information; never use color simply because it is pretty. Title or no title?
Never use a title for Figures included in a document ; the legend conveys all the necessary information and the title just takes up extra space. However, for posters or projected images , where people may have a harder time reading the small print of Nice Action Plan With Bold And Table, a legend, a larger font title is very helpful. Of Blank Invoice? Offset axes or not ? Elect to offset the axes only Nice Word Plan Example, when data points will be obscured by being printed over the Y axis. Error bars or not ? Always include error bars (e.g., SD or SEM) when plotting means. In some courses you may be asked to Format Free Resume, plot other measures associated with the mean, such as confidence intervals. When plotting data analyzed using non-parametric tests, you will most likely plot the median and quartiles or the range.
These might be dotplots or box and whisker plots. Tick marks - Use common sense when deciding on major (numbered) versus minor ticks. Major ticks should be used to reasonably break up the range of values plotted into Word Example With Title integer values. Within the major intervals, it is usually necessary to Word, add minor interval ticks that further subdivide the scale into logical units (i.e., a interval that is a factor of the major tick interval). For example, when using major tick intervals of 10, minor tick intervals of 1,2, or 5 might be used, but not 3 or 4. Nice Word Example Title? When the data follow a uniform interval on Format Free In Ms » Free, the x-axis (e.g., a times series, or equal increments of concentration), use major ticks to match the Word Action Plan Bold Title And Table, data. No minor intervals would be used in this case. Legend width - The width of the figure legend should match the width of the graph (or other content. Format In Ms Resume? Style considerations - When you have multiple figures, make sure to standardize font, font sizes, etc. such that all figures look stylistically similar.
When you have multiple graphs, or graphs and others illustrative materials that are interrelated, it may be most efficient to present them as a compound figure. Template Action Plan Bold Title And Table? Compound figures combine multiple graphs into one common figure and share a common legend. Each figure must be clearly identified by Science Project Proposal capital letter (A, B, C, etc), and, when referred to from the Results text, is specifically identified by that letter, e.g., . Template Action Plan Example Bold Title? (Fig. Copy Invoice? 1b) . The legend of the compound figure must also identify each graph and the data it presents by letter. Four Common Figure Types. Bar graphs are used when you wish to compare the value of a single variable (usually a summary value such as a mean) among several groups.
For example, a bar graph is appropriate to show the mean sizes of Action Plan Example With Title, plants harvested from Of Resume, plots that received 4 different fertilizer treatments. (Note that although a bar graph might be used to show differences between only 2 groups, especially for pedagogical purposes, editors of many journals would prefer that you save space by presenting such information in the text.) In this example notice that: legend goes below the figure; a period follows Figure 1 and the legend itself; Figure is not abbreviated ; the measured variable is labelled on the Y axis. In most cases units are given here as well (see next example); the categorical variable (habitat) is labelled on the X axis, and each category is designated; a second categorical variable (year) within habitat has been designated by Nice Plan With And Table different bar fill color . The bar colors must be defined in a key , located wherever there is a convenient space within the graph. error bars are included, extending +1 SD or SEM above the Proposal Form, mean. statistical differences may be indicated by Template Word Action Example Bold And Table a system of letters above the bars, with an accompanying note in the caption indicating the Invoice, test and the significance level used. the completeness of the legend, which in this case requires over 3 lines just to describe the Nice Template Action Plan Bold And Table, treatments used and variable measured. Form? axis labels, with units; treatment group (pH) levels specified on X axis; error bars and group sample sizes accompany each bar, and each of these is well-defined in legend; statistical differences in Template Action Plan Bold And Table this case are indicated by lines drawn over the bars, and the statistical test and Sample significance level are identified in the legend. Frequency histograms (also called frequency distributions) are bar-type graphs that show how the Template Action With Bold, measured individuals are distributed along an axis of the measured variable. Frequency (the Y axis) can be absolute (i.e. number of counts) or relative (i.e. In Sri? percent or proportion of the sample.) A familiar example would be a histogram of Template Word Example Bold, exam scores, showing the number of Simple Resume Format Free Download Word Resume, students who achieved each possible score. Frequency histograms are important in describing populations, e.g. size and age distributions. Notice several things about this example: the Y axis includes a clear indication (%) that relative frequencies are used. (Some examples of an absolute frequencies: Number of stems, Number of birds observed) the measured variable (X axis) has been divided into categories (bins) of appropriate width to visualize the population size distribution.
In this case, bins of 1 m broke the population into 17 columns of varying heights. Setting the bin size at 0.5 m would have yielded too many columns with low frequencies in each, making it diffcult to visualize a pattern. Conversely, setting the bin size too large (2-3 m) would have yielded too few columns, again obscuring the underlying pattern. Template Plan Example With Bold Title And Table? A rule of Simple Resume Free Download In Ms » Free Resume, thumb is to start with a number of bins that is equal to the square root of the largest value in Action With Bold Title And Table your data set(s) to be plotted. the values labeled on the X axis are the bin centers ; in this example, bin 10 m contains values that range from 9.50 -10.49 m. sample size is Cv Formats, clearly indicated, either in Template Plan Title And Table the legend (as in this case) or in the body of the graph itself; the Estimation Resume, Y axis includes numbered and minor ticks to Nice Template Bold Title And Table, allow easy determination of bar values. These are plots of X,Y coordinates showing each individual's or sample's score on two variables. When plotting data this way we are usually interested in knowing whether the two variables show a relationship, i.e. do they change in value together in a consistent way? Note in this example that: each axis is labeled (including units where appropriate) and includes numbered and minor ticks to Creative, allow easy determination of the values of plotted points; sample size is included in the legend or the Template Word Example Title And Table, body of the graph; if the data have been analyzed statistically and a relationship between the Creative Sample, variables exists, it may be indicated by plotting the regression line on the graph, and by giving the equation of the regression and its statistical significance in the legend or body of the figure; the range of each axis has been carefully selected to maximize the spread of the points and to minimize wasted blank space where no points fall. For instance, the Nice Template Word Action With Title And Table, X axis is truncated below 50 g because no plants smaller than 52 g were measured. Copy Invoice? The ranges selected also result in labeled ticks that are easy to read (50, 100, 150#133;, rather than 48, 96, 144#133;)
Which variable goes on the X axis? When one variable is Template Word With Bold Title, clearly dependent upon another (e.g. height depends on age, but it is hard to imagine age depending on height), the convention is to plot the dependent variable on the Y axis and the independent variable on the X axis . Creative Sample? Sometimes there is Word Example With Bold Title, no clear independent variable (e.g. In Ms » Free Resume? length vs. width of leaves: does width depend on width, or vice-versa?) In these cases it makes no difference which variable is on which axis; the Nice Template Word Plan Example With And Table, variables are inter -dependent, and an X,Y plot of these shows the relationship BETWEEN them (rather than the effect of one upon Of Blank Invoice, the other.) In the example plotted above, we can imagine that seed production might depend on plant biomass, but it is hard to Action With Bold And Table, see how biomass could depend directly on seed production, so we choose biomass as the X axis. Alternatively, the relationship might be indirect: both seed production and plant biomass might depend on some other, unmeasured variable. Our choice of axes to demonstrate correlation does not necessarily imply causation . Line graphs plot a series of related values that depict a change in Professional Cv Formats In Sri Y as a function of X. Two common examples are a growth curve for an individual or population over Nice Template Word Action And Table time, and a dose-response curve showing effects of increasing doses of a drug or treatment. When to connect the dots? If each point in the series is Professional, obtained from the Nice Template Action Plan And Table, same source and Copy is dependent on the previous values (e.g. a plot of Word Example And Table, a baby's weight over the course of Professional Cv Formats In Sri Lanka, a year, or of muscle strength on successive contractions as a muscle fatigues), then the points should be connected by a line in a dot-to-dot fashion.
If, however, the Action Plan Example With And Table, series represents independent measurements of a variable to In Sri Lanka, show a trend (e.g. Example With Bold Title? mean price of computer memory over time; a standard curve of Professional In Sri, optical density vs. solute concentration), then the trend or relationship can be modeled by Example With calculating the Science Project, best-fit line or curve by regression analysis ( see A Painless Guide to Statistics ) Do not connect the dots when the Template Plan Bold Title And Table, measurements were made independently. In this example notice: a different symbol is used for each group (species), and the key to the symbols is placed in Invoice the body of the Template Word With, graph where space permits. Creative Sample? Symbols are large enough to be easily recognizable in the final graph size; each point represents a mean value, and this is stated in the legend. Error bars are therefore plotted for each point and defined in Template Action With Bold And Table the legend as well. because measurements were taken on independent groups for each species, the points are NOT connected dot-to-dot; instead a curve is fitted to Project Estimation Template Resume Graduate, the data to show the Nice Action Plan With Bold Title And Table, trend. Notice here that: this time the Creative Sample, dots ARE connected dot-to-dot within each treatment, because cumulative percent germination was measured within the same set of seeds each day, and thus is Nice Template Word Plan, dependent on the measurements of the prior days; a different symbol is used for each treatment, and symbols are large enough (and connecting lines fine enough) so that all can be easily read at the final graph size; in addition to the key to symbols, two other kinds of Snowflake Pattern Template: Printable, helpful information are supplied in the body of the figure: the values of the highest and Nice Action Plan Example With Title And Table lowest final cumulative percents, and a dashed line (baseline) showing the lowest cumulative % germination achieved. Science Project Proposal Form? This baseline is Action Example Bold And Table, defined in the legend. Some Other Types of Figures. Figure 9. Project? Aerial photo of the study site ca.
1949 and in 1998 (inset) showing the regeneration of the forest. Photos courtesy of the USDA Field Office, Auburn, Maine. Notice here that: A photograph is a figure. Any photograph from another source requires attribution in the legend.
Photos must have sufficient resolution to reproduce well by standard photocopying.
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Dec 11, 2017 Nice Template Word Action Plan Example With Bold Title And Table,
95 theses text on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences. by Dr. Martin Luther, 1517. Earthquake victims in Haiti need your help! Disputation of Action With, Doctor Martin Luther. on Format Free Download Word Resume, the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences. by Dr. Martin Luther (1517) Works of Martin Luther: Adolph Spaeth, L.D. Reed, Henry Eyster Jacobs, et Al., Trans.
Eds. (Philadelphia: A. J. Holman Company, 1915), Vol.1, pp. 29-38. Out of love for the truth and the desire to Template Word Plan Example With Title, bring it to light, the following propositions will be discussed at Wittenberg, under the presidency of the Reverend Father Martin Luther, Master of Arts and of Sacred Theology, and Lecturer in Ordinary on the same at that place. Wherefore he requests that those who are unable to be present and debate orally with us, may do so by letter. In the Name our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen. 1. Our Lord and Master Jesus Christ, when He said Poenitentiam agite, willed that the whole life of believers should be repentance. 2. Mini Monsters. This word cannot be understood to mean sacramental penance, i.e., confession and satisfaction, which is administered by the priests. 3. Template Word Action Plan Example Bold Title And Table. Yet it means not inward repentance only; nay, there is no inward repentance which does not outwardly work divers mortifications of the flesh. 4. The penalty [of sin], therefore, continues so long as hatred of self continues; for this is the Project Estimation Xls | Sample Resume For Fresh Graduate Ece, true inward repentance, and continues until our entrance into the kingdom of heaven.
5. The pope does not intend to remit, and cannot remit any penalties other than those which he has imposed either by Word Action Example With his own authority or by that of the Canons. 6. The pope cannot remit any guilt, except by Creative Of Resume declaring that it has been remitted by Nice Template Word Action Plan Example And Table God and by assenting to Template Sample For Fresh Ece, God's remission; though, to be sure, he may grant remission in cases reserved to his judgment. If his right to grant remission in Nice Action Plan such cases were despised, the guilt would remain entirely unforgiven. 7. God remits guilt to no one whom He does not, at the same time, humble in all things and bring into subjection to His vicar, the priest. 8. The penitential canons are imposed only on the living, and, according to them, nothing should be imposed on the dying. 9. Therefore the Holy Spirit in the pope is kind to us, because in his decrees he always makes exception of the article of death and of necessity. 10. Ignorant and wicked are the doings of Cv Formats In Sri, those priests who, in the case of the dying, reserve canonical penances for purgatory. 11. This changing of the canonical penalty to the penalty of purgatory is quite evidently one of the tares that were sown while the Nice Template Action Example Bold Title, bishops slept.
12. In former times the Creative Of Resume, canonical penalties were imposed not after, but before absolution, as tests of true contrition. 13. The dying are freed by death from Template Word Action With Bold Title, all penalties; they are already dead to canonical rules, and have a right to be released from them. 14.
The imperfect health [of soul], that is to say, the Monsters Snowflake Template: Paper, imperfect love, of the dying brings with it, of necessity, great fear; and the smaller the love, the greater is the fear. 15. This fear and horror is sufficient of itself alone (to say nothing of other things) to Template Word Action Example Title, constitute the penalty of purgatory, since it is very near to the horror of despair. 16. Hell, purgatory, and heaven seem to differ as do despair, almost-despair, and Copy Of Blank the assurance of safety. 17. With souls in purgatory it seems necessary that horror should grow less and love increase. 18.
It seems unproved, either by reason or Scripture, that they are outside the state of merit, that is to say, of increasing love. 19. Again, it seems unproved that they, or at least that all of them, are certain or assured of their own blessedness, though we may be quite certain of it. 20. Therefore by full remission of all penalties the pope means not actually of all, but only of those imposed by himself. 21. Therefore those preachers of indulgences are in error, who say that by the pope's indulgences a man is freed from every penalty, and saved; 22. Whereas he remits to souls in purgatory no penalty which, according to the canons, they would have had to pay in this life.
23. If it is at all possible to grant to any one the remission of all penalties whatsoever, it is certain that this remission can be granted only to the most perfect, that is, to the very fewest. 24. It must needs be, therefore, that the greater part of the people are deceived by Word Plan With Bold Title And Table that indiscriminate and highsounding promise of release from penalty. Template Xls | Sample Resume For Fresh Graduate Ece. 25. The power which the pope has, in Nice Word Example Title And Table a general way, over purgatory, is just like the power which any bishop or curate has, in a special way, within his own diocese or parish. 26.
The pope does well when he grants remission to Project Estimation Template Sample Resume For Fresh Graduate, souls [in purgatory], not by the power of the keys (which he does not possess), but by way of intercession. Nice Template Word Example With Bold Title And Table. 27. They preach man who say that so soon as the penny jingles into the money-box, the soul flies out [of purgatory]. 28. It is certain that when the penny jingles into the money-box, gain and avarice can be increased, but the result of the Invoice, intercession of the Church is in the power of God alone. 29. Who knows whether all the souls in purgatory wish to be bought out of Bold Title And Table, it, as in the legend of Sts. Severinus and Paschal. Copy Invoice. 30. No one is sure that his own contrition is Word Action Plan Example Bold And Table sincere; much less that he has attained full remission. 31.
Rare as is the man that is truly penitent, so rare is also the man who truly buys indulgences, i.e., such men are most rare. 32. They will be condemned eternally, together with their teachers, who believe themselves sure of their salvation because they have letters of pardon. 33. Men must be on their guard against those who say that the pope's pardons are that inestimable gift of God by Simple Format Free In Ms Resume which man is reconciled to Him; 34. For these graces of pardon concern only the penalties of Example Bold Title And Table, sacramental satisfaction, and these are appointed by man.
35. Paper Template: Printable Paper. They preach no Christian doctrine who teach that contrition is not necessary in those who intend to buy souls out of purgatory or to buy confessionalia. 36. Every truly repentant Christian has a right to Nice Template Word Action With Bold Title And Table, full remission of penalty and guilt, even without letters of Mini Paper, pardon. Template Plan Example With Bold Title And Table. 37. Every true Christian, whether living or dead, has part in all the blessings of Christ and the Church; and this is granted him by God, even without letters of pardon.
38. Nevertheless, the remission and participation [in the Creative Of Resume, blessings of the Church] which are granted by Nice Template Word Plan Example With And Table the pope are in no way to be despised, for they are, as I have said, the declaration of divine remission. 39. Creative Of Resume. It is most difficult, even for the very keenest theologians, at one and the same time to commend to the people the abundance of pardons and [the need of] true contrition. 40. True contrition seeks and Nice Word Plan Example Title loves penalties, but liberal pardons only relax penalties and cause them to be hated, or at least, furnish an occasion [for hating them]. 41. Apostolic pardons are to be preached with caution, lest the people may falsely think them preferable to other good works of love. 42.
Christians are to be taught that the pope does not intend the buying of pardons to be compared in any way to works of mercy. Resume Format In Ms Word » Free. 43. Christians are to be taught that he who gives to the poor or lends to the needy does a better work than buying pardons; 44. Nice Template Action Example. Because love grows by Project Estimation Template Xls | Sample Graduate works of love, and man becomes better; but by pardons man does not grow better, only Word Plan Bold And Table, more free from penalty. 45. 45. Christians are to Mini Monsters Paper Snowflake Template:, be taught that he who sees a man in need, and passes him by, and gives [his money] for pardons, purchases not the indulgences of the pope, but the indignation of God. 46.
Christians are to be taught that unless they have more than they need, they are bound to keep back what is necessary for their own families, and by no means to squander it on pardons. Nice Template Action Plan Example With Title. 47. Christians are to be taught that the buying of pardons is a matter of free will, and not of commandment. 48. Christians are to be taught that the Format Word Resume, pope, in granting pardons, needs, and therefore desires, their devout prayer for him more than the money they bring. 49. Christians are to be taught that the pope's pardons are useful, if they do not put their trust in them; but altogether harmful, if through them they lose their fear of Word Action Plan Example With Bold And Table, God.
50. Christians are to be taught that if the pope knew the exactions of the pardon-preachers, he would rather that St. Peter's church should go to ashes, than that it should be built up with the skin, flesh and bones of his sheep. 51. Christians are to Mini Monsters Paper Printable, be taught that it would be the pope's wish, as it is his duty, to give of his own money to Nice Template Word Action Example With And Table, very many of Monsters Pattern Template:, those from whom certain hawkers of pardons cajole money, even though the church of Example Title, St. Peter might have to Copy Of Blank, be sold. 52. The assurance of salvation by letters of pardon is vain, even though the Template Action Example With, commissary, nay, even though the Lanka, pope himself, were to stake his soul upon Action Example Bold, it. 53.
They are enemies of Christ and of the pope, who bid the Word of God be altogether silent in some Churches, in order that pardons may be preached in others. 54. Injury is done the Word of God when, in the same sermon, an equal or a longer time is spent on pardons than on Creative Sample, this Word. 55. It must be the Nice Word With Title, intention of the pope that if pardons, which are a very small thing, are celebrated with one bell, with single processions and ceremonies, then the Gospel, which is the very greatest thing, should be preached with a hundred bells, a hundred processions, a hundred ceremonies. 56. The treasures of the Church, out of which the pope. grants indulgences, are not sufficiently named or known among the people of Christ. Mini Snowflake Pattern Printable. 57. That they are not temporal treasures is Nice Template Action Example Title And Table certainly evident, for many of the vendors do not pour out such treasures so easily, but only gather them. 58. Nor are they the merits of Christ and the Saints, for even without the pope, these always work grace for the inner man, and the cross, death, and hell for the outward man.
59. St. Lawrence said that the treasures of the Church were the Church's poor, but he spoke according to the usage of the word in his own time. 60. Without rashness we say that the keys of the Church, given by Science Form Christ's merit, are that treasure; 61. For it is clear that for the remission of Template Plan Example Bold Title And Table, penalties and Resume Download In Ms » Free of reserved cases, the power of the pope is of itself sufficient.
62. The true treasure of the Church is the Most Holy Gospel of the Nice Template Example Bold And Table, glory and the grace of God. Format Download In Ms Word » Free. 63. But this treasure is naturally most odious, for it makes the first to Template Example Title, be last. 64. On the other hand, the Estimation Template Xls | Resume For Fresh Ece, treasure of indulgences is naturally most acceptable, for it makes the last to be first. 65. Therefore the treasures of the Gospel are nets with which they formerly were wont to fish for men of riches. 66. The treasures of the Nice Word Plan Bold And Table, indulgences are nets with which they now fish for the riches of Form, men.
67. The indulgences which the preachers cry as the greatest graces are known to be truly such, in so far as they promote gain. 68. Action Plan Example Bold Title And Table. Yet they are in truth the very smallest graces compared with the grace of Sample, God and the piety of the Cross. 69. Bishops and curates are bound to admit the commissaries of apostolic pardons, with all reverence. 70. But still more are they bound to strain all their eyes and attend with all their ears, lest these men preach their own dreams instead of the commission of the pope. 71. He who speaks against the truth of apostolic pardons, let him be anathema and accursed!
72. But he who guards against the lust and license of the Template Action And Table, pardon-preachers, let him be blessed! 73. The pope justly thunders against those who, by any art, contrive the injury of the traffic in pardons. 74. But much more does he intend to thunder against those who use the pretext of pardons to contrive the injury of holy love and truth.
75. To think the papal pardons so great that they could absolve a man even if he had committed an Sample, impossible sin and violated the Mother of God -- this is madness. 76. We say, on the contrary, that the papal pardons are not able to Nice Action With And Table, remove the very least of Simple Format In Ms Word Resume, venial sins, so far as its guilt is concerned. 77.
It is said that even St. Peter, if he were now Pope, could not bestow greater graces; this is blasphemy against St. Peter and against the pope. 78. We say, on the contrary, that even the present pope, and any pope at all, has greater graces at his disposal; to Nice Word With, wit, the Monsters Snowflake Template: Printable Paper, Gospel, powers, gifts of healing, etc., as it is written in I. Corinthians xii. 79. Nice Template Word Action Plan Example With Title And Table. To say that the cross, emblazoned with the papal arms, which is set up [by the preachers of indulgences], is of equal worth with the Cross of Christ, is blasphemy.
80. The bishops, curates and theologians who allow such talk to be spread among the people, will have an account to render. 81. Project Sample Graduate Ece. This unbridled preaching of pardons makes it no easy matter, even for learned men, to rescue the reverence due to the pope from Template Action Plan Bold, slander, or even from the shrewd questionings of the laity. 82. To wit: -- Why does not the pope empty purgatory, for the sake of holy love and Creative Sample Of Resume of the dire need of the souls that are there, if he redeems an infinite number of souls for the sake of miserable money with which to build a Church? The former reasons would be most just; the latter is most trivial. 83. Again: -- Why are mortuary and Template Word Action Plan Title And Table anniversary masses for the dead continued, and why does he not return or permit the withdrawal of the endowments founded on their behalf, since it is wrong to Simple Resume Format Free Download In Ms Word » Free Resume, pray for the redeemed?
84. Again: -- What is this new piety of God and the pope, that for Template Word Action Plan With Bold And Table money they allow a man who is Estimation Template Xls | Sample Graduate Ece impious and their enemy to buy out of Nice Template Action Example With, purgatory the pious soul of a friend of God, and Project Estimation Template Xls | do not rather, because of that pious and beloved soul's own need, free it for pure love's sake? 85. Again: -- Why are the penitential canons long since in actual fact and Nice Word Action Plan Example With Bold Title And Table through disuse abrogated and dead, now satisfied by the granting of indulgences, as though they were still alive and in force? 86. Again: -- Why does not the pope, whose wealth is to-day greater than the riches of the richest, build just this one church of St. Peter with his own money, rather than with the money of poor believers? 87.
Again: -- What is it that the pope remits, and what participation does he grant to those who, by perfect contrition, have a right to full remission and participation? 88. Again: -- What greater blessing could come to the Church than if the pope were to do a hundred times a day what he now does once, and bestow on every believer these remissions and participations? 89. Since the pope, by his pardons, seeks the salvation of souls rather than money, why does he suspend the indulgences and pardons granted heretofore, since these have equal efficacy? 90. To repress these arguments and scruples of the laity by force alone, and not to resolve them by giving reasons, is to expose the Church and the pope to the ridicule of their enemies, and to make Christians unhappy. 91.
If, therefore, pardons were preached according to the spirit and mind of the pope, all these doubts would be readily resolved; nay, they would not exist. 92. Away, then, with all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, Peace, peace, and there is no peace! 93. Blessed be all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, Cross, cross, and there is no cross! 94. Christians are to be exhorted that they be diligent in following Christ, their Head, through penalties, deaths, and hell; 95. And thus be confident of Copy Of Blank, entering into heaven rather through many tribulations, than through the assurance of peace. Word Plan With. This text was converted to ASCII text for Project Wittenberg by Allen Mulvey, and is in the public domain. You may freely distribute, copy or print this text.
Please direct any comments or suggestions to: Rev. Robert E. Smith. Concordia Theological Seminary. Surface Mail: 6600 N. Clinton St., Ft. Wayne, IN 46825 USA.
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Current research projects in the Discipline of Orthodontics. The high quality of research produced by the Discipline of Orthodontics at Otago is Nice Example With Title, internationally regarded. Areas of research strength include: craniofacial biomechanics, mechanobiology of the periodontal ligament, randomized controlled trials for Creative Of Resume, growth modification treatments, biomechanics of closing loops, sleep studies, obstructive apnea, and clinical oral physiology, including the function of the masticatory muscles and the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Nice Template Word With Title. Important emerging lines of research include craniofacial genetics, carried out in conjunction with Genetics Otago (A/Prof. T. Merriman), and craniofacial imaging in conjunction with the Department of Computer Sciences (A/Prof. B. McCane). Research projects are generally carried out in collaboration with internal and external research groups with multiple supervisors, who provide differing areas of Mini Monsters Paper expertise.
Examples of local collaboration include the Sir John Walsh Research Institute (Prof. J.Kieser, Dr. W.Duncan), Department of Psychology (Prof. R. Knight), Department of Nice Word Example Bold Medicine (Prof. T. Doyle), Department of Sample Economics (A/Prof. P.Hansen), and the School of Physiotherapy (A/Prof. S. Nice Action Plan With Bold Title. Milosavljevic). International collaborations involve the Department of Orthodontics and Clinical Gnathology, University of Naples Federico II (Prof. R. Martina, A/Prof. Cv Formats Lanka. A. Michelotti), the Department of Odontology, University of Template Word Action With And Table Copenhagen (A/Prof. Simple Free In Ms. M. Bakke), Laboratory for Biomechanics, University of Zurich (Emeritus Prof.
S.Palla, Prof. L.M. Gallo), and the Institute of Word Action Plan Title Surgical Technology and Biomechanics, University of Invoice Bern (PhD candidate M.E. De Oliveira). Orthodontic students are involved in research projects under the supervision of senior researchers. Examples of current research projects performed by undergraduate or postgraduate students are given below. Identifying the genes that cause the long face. Postgraduate research project by Plan, Joseph Antoun et al.
Predicting factors of orthodontic pain. Postgraduate research project by Victoria Beck et al. Under pressure: generic and individual intra-oral pressure profiles in liquid swallows. Postgraduate research project by Guy Farland et al. Salivary pH variation over a 24-hour period.
Postgraduate research project by Jennifer Lee et al. The effect of lip displacement on Simple Format Download Resume intra-oral pressures. Postgraduate research project by Hannah Jack et al. Activity pattern of neck and trunk muscles during orthodontic clinical work. Postgraduate research project by Cameron McNee et al. Aspects of growth and Nice Example With Bold, development in New Zealand Polynesian children and adolescents. Postgraduate research project by Joe Petelo et al. Impact of care-seeking behaviour on personality traits in orthodontic patients. Postgraduate research project by Ali Ukra et al.
Effect of Copy Of Blank examiner expectation on cephalometric measurements in skeletal class II malocclusions. Undergraduate research projects by Word Plan Example With Bold Title And Table, Mickey Zhou, John Jo et al. Exploring tooth movements with four dimensions. Undergraduate research project by James Au, Austin Kang, Kevin Oh. Finite Element Model to evaluate the effect of masticatory forces on the human nasal septum. Undergraduate research project by Nadeem Hamadani et al. Three-dimensional analysis of craniofacial growth in a Rabbit Model. Undergraduate research project by Inah Kim et al.
Grey analysis of the lateral pterygoid muscle in patients with temporomandibular disc displacement. Undergraduate research project by Phil McClea, Karan Taneja, et al. Neck and shoulder muscle activity during work-related postural tasks. Undergraduate research project by Doreen Ng et al. Chewing activity and Paper Pattern Template: Printable, sleep bruxism: an insight into the rhythmic contraction of the Nice Word Action Example Bold masticatory muscles in the natural environment. Undergraduate research projects by Jessica Po et al. Identifying the genes that cause the Creative Sample Of Resume long face.
The orthodontic treatment of Nice With Bold Title And Table long face patients with open bite malocclusions can often be very challenging, with poor aesthetic and functional outcomes. The purpose of Simple Resume Format Free Download Word » Free Resume this multicenter study is to Word Plan Bold And Table investigate the relationship between genes and long face patterns (increased facial height). We are interested in finding out which genes play a role in the development of long faces and how external or environmental agents may affect this process. The ability to identify genetic markers that predispose individuals to excessively long faces can provide us with a clinically important window of opportunity to predict facial growth at a very early age, and possibly, to provide personalized orthodontic treatments. Data for this project is being collected internationally by web site.
Postgraduate research project by Joe Antoun Joe Antoun. [email protected] et al. Predicting factors of orthodontic pain. Up to 95% of orthodontic patients report pain at Simple Resume Free Download In Ms » Free Resume, some stage during their treatment. This is an Template Word Plan With Bold, important, yet unpredictable factor, with some patients reporting mild discomfort, whereas others experience such pain that they choose to Simple Format Free Download » Free discontinue orthodontic treatment.
This research aims to identify high pain responders and low pain responders, who will be further screened for anxiety levels, dental fear, sensitivity of their teeth, and several pain thresholds. A cheek swab will also be collected to test for Nice Action Plan Example With Bold And Table, genetic differences that can affect dental pain sensitivity. It is expected that some of Monsters Paper Snowflake Pattern Printable Paper these factors can be used in Nice Word Example Bold Title And Table the future to predict factors contributing to orthodontic pain. Postgraduate research project by Simple Download In Ms Word » Free, Victoria Beck Victoria Beck. [email protected] et al. Under pressure: generic and individual. intra-oral pressure profiles in liquid swallows. A fundamental tenet of tongue function is that, during the oral phase of Nice Word Action Example With swallowing, the tongue transports the bolus from the front of the mouth to the entrance of the oropharynx by an orderly sequential contact of its dorsal surface against the palate. But what, exactly, is the pattern and extent of lingual pressure applied to the palate? Despite considerable progress in understanding how food consistency, jaw posture and movements, sex and age can significantly affect how humans swallow their food, the answer to this fundamental question remains unknown.
This project is looking at the effect of bolus viscosity on Sample Of Resume tongue pressures generated during swallowing. Postgraduate research project by Guy Farland Guy Farland et al. Salivary pH variation over Template Action Example Bold Title And Table, a 24-hour period. Dental erosion is a major and common dental problem caused by exposure to a variety of acids. Further, the consumption of Invoice acidic beverages and the incidence of gastro-oesophageal reflux are on the increase. To date, little is known about salivary acidity variation as related to dietary habits in the natural environment. This research aims to collect normative values for intra-oral pH using miniaturized in-vivo equipment and will provide an insight to understanding the aetiology of tooth erosion due to Nice Template Plan Example Bold Title pH variation. Postgraduate research project by Jennifer Lee Jennifer Lee. [email protected] et al.
The effect of lip displacement on intra-oral pressures. Orthodontic relapse is a major issue in orthodontics. The causes are still unknown, however it is thought to be related to an imbalance of forces between lip and tongue. Using custom-made intra-oral pressure-recording devices we aim to compare the Mini Monsters Template: Printable Paper immediate and delayed responses of lip musculature to stretch between participants who have retrusive and protrusive profiles. Postgraduate research project by Hannah Jack Hannah Jack. [email protected] et al. Activity pattern of Nice Bold And Table neck and Cv Formats, trunk muscles during orthodontic clinical work. Previous epidemiological research indicates that dental vocational activities, including orthodontics, represent risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders, especially of the neck and trunk. The aim of this research is to describe the contraction pattern of the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles by means of portable electromyographic recorders (KFS-ZZM) during day-today clinical orthodontic work. Word Action Example With Bold. The contraction episodes will be compared with those collected during a day of Monsters Pattern Template: Printable Paper unrestricted non-vocational activities and under partially restrained conditions with video-surveillance.
Postgraduate research project by Cameron McNee Cameron McNee. [email protected] et al. Aspects of growth and development in New Zealand Polynesian children and adolescents. Knowledge of growth and Template Word Plan Example Bold And Table, development of children and adolescents is an important aspect that is relevant to the entire dental profession. With particular reference to Orthodontics, assessment of chronological age alone has been shown not to Resume In Ms » Free Resume be an Nice Template Word Action With Title, accurate predictor of ones physiological development. Growth velocity, dental development and skeletal maturation, in Simple Resume Format In Ms Word » Free Resume particular cervical vertebral maturation, are methods used that influence treatment decisions. Current literature supports variability in timing of maturation between different ethnic groups. This project is looking at New Zealand Polynesian children and adolescents dental development and skeletal maturation. Postgraduate research project by Joe Petelo Joe Petelo et al. Effect of examiner expectation on cephalometric measurements in skeletal class II malocclusions.
After more than a century of Nice Word Action Plan Example With Bold craniofacial research, the Monsters Pattern Template: Printable Paper overall findings on the effects of growth modification appliances in skeletal class II patients remain debatable. Nice Template Word Action With Bold Title And Table. The uncertainty on the ability of functional treatment to modify mandibular growth is largely due to Mini Template: inconsistencies in results, which may be attributable to Template Example Bold poor methodology of the studies rather than to treatment effectiveness. Simple Resume Free » Free Resume. Major flaws of most studies include: the lack of Nice Template Word Plan With Title randomization, the use of small sample size, and the lack of blinded measurements. We hypothesized that the Proposal Form outcome of cephalometric analysis is influenced by subconscious expectations of the treatment results. A repeated measures study design was used to determine the measurement biases occurring in orthodontists evaluating the cephalometric features of skeletal Class II patients. Impact of care-seeking behaviour on personality traits in orthodontic patients. The request of Plan With Bold And Table patients for orthodontic treatment is not always commensurate with the severity of malocclusion. Project Proposal. In some cases the patient may over-emphasize minor orthodontic problems, thus indicating possible alterations in the self-perception of body image and Word Plan Example With Bold, smile.
The aim of this research is to compare the personality traits and the occlusal features of care-seeking adolescents, who are the core of the orthodontic patient base, with those adolescents in the community with similar malocclusions who do not seek any treatment. Hence this research will shed light on the controversial association between malocclusion and temporomandibular disorders by identifying the possible confounding effects of somatization and Estimation Xls | For Fresh Ece, propensity towards body dysmorphic disorders in clinic cases versus community cases. Postgraduate research project by Ali Ukra Ali Ukra. [email protected] et al. Exploring tooth movements with four dimensions. Orthodontic movements are generally described in Word Plan Example With Bold two dimensions using a single center of rotation. Invoice. However, in reality this is an over-simplification as during the Nice Word Plan Example With Bold Title application of forces, movements occur in 3D along an axis of Project Proposal rotation constantly changing over Template Bold Title, time. The finite helical axis (FHE) can be used to describe complex tooth movements allowing a deeper understanding of the Project Estimation Sample For Fresh biomechanics of Nice Template Word Action Plan With Title orthodontic appliances. The aim of this project is to explore the relevance of the fourth dimension (time) in Professional orthodontic biomechanics using advanced CAD software (Autodesk 3ds Max) under controlled clinical simulations. Finite Element Model to Plan With And Table evaluate the In Sri effect of masticatory forces on the human nasal septum. Previous theories have emphasized the role of the nasal septum as a primary centre for craniofacial growth.
Recent evidence suggests that the Nice Template Word Example And Table septum does not act as a vertical strut, and instead may rather act by absorbing loads generated during oral function. The resulting stress and strain pattern may also be implicated in the regulation of Project Estimation Xls | Sample Ece craniofacial growth. The Finite Element Modelling (FEM) technique makes use of computers to solve large numbers of equations, which simulate the physical properties of the structure being analysed. The non-invasive nature of FEM allows the modelling of forces, stress, and strains in a manner that is suitable for evaluating the effect of masticatory forces on an appropriate human model. To date little is known about how the nasal septal cartilage responds to everyday forces, such as those experienced during mastication, clenching, swallowing and rest. It is the aim of this study to describe these stress and strain patterns through the Nice Example Bold And Table use of a Finite Element Model. It is Project Estimation Template Xls | Graduate, hypothesised that a significant extent of these functional forces will be transmitted to the nasal septum. Undergraduate research project by Nadeem Hamadani Nadeem Hamadani et al. Three-dimensional analysis of craniofacial growth in a Rabbit Model.
Predicting and Nice Template Plan Example With, modifying mandibular growth is an important aspect of orthodontics. Our current knowledge of the Professional Cv Formats In Sri extent to which the mandible changes and rotates during growth is derived from classical longitudinal radiographic studies with metallic markers. While the information obtained from these landmark studies is substantial, there are limitations associated with a two-dimensional image. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is Nice Word Example With, becoming widely available and is a diagnostic tool in dentistry. It is hypothesized that the implant method of analysis combined with CBCT three-dimensional (3D) imaging will provide more information with respect to mandibular growth over time, than previous studies that used conventional radiographs.
The purpose of our study is to describe mandibular remodelling in Project Xls | Sample Graduate Ece a growing rabbit model using metallic bone markers and three-dimensional colour growth maps. This study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of the proposed method, in order to plan future treatment intervention studies. Undergraduate research project by Inah Kim Inah Kim et al. Grey analysis of the lateral pterygoid muscle in patients with temporomandibular disc displacement. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is an ideal tool for Bold Title And Table, soft tissue imaging including the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc and masticatory muscles. The purpose of our research was to compare the grey scales of the In Sri Lanka upper and lower heads of the lateral pterygoid muscles between TMJs with internal disc derangement and healthy joints. Three dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the Nice Template Word Action lateral pterygoid muscles (LPM) were obtained by manual and semi-automatic segmentation techniques, and rendered in 3D. Regions of interest for the upper and lower lateral pterygoid muscles were defined and the grey histograms were calculated. The mean and Project Proposal Form, median values of the resulting scales were used as outcome measures.
Significant changes of the histograms were found between the affected and unaffected joints, thus indicating the possible occurrence of disuse atrophy of LPM as well as fatty infiltration. The grey analysis may have interesting applications in craniofacial imaging that need to be fully explored in Template Word Example With Bold Title future studies. Neck and shoulder muscle activity during work-related postural tasks. The aim of this study is to describe the pattern of Resume Free Download In Ms » Free neck and shoulder muscle contractions during a series of work-related postural tasks and secondly, to explore whether the contraction levels differed between sexes. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded using specifically designed software unilaterally from the sternocleidomastoid and upper trapezius muscle in 17 participants, who were instructed to perform 44 different postural tasks. EMG amplitude was measured by the root mean square values of the raw signals and normalized to peak maximum contractile values for each muscle (EMG%MVC). Muscle co-activation was assessed by a co-activity index of both investigated muscles. During most tasks the two muscles contracted lightly to moderately and were mildly co-active. Tasks such as head leaning and shoulder shrugging, which are commonly performed during dental work, activated both muscles considerably.
The sternocleidomastoid muscle produced substantial activity during tasks involving head movements whilst the trapezius muscle yielded greater muscle activity during arm tasks. Muscle activity did not differ significantly between male and female participants. Undergraduate research project by Doreen Ng Doreen Ng et al. Chewing activity and sleep bruxism: an insight into the rhythmic contraction of the masticatory muscles in the natural environment. Chewing is the result of a complex interaction between neural pathways, a central pattern generator, which generates an intrinsic rhythm, and modulation from Template Word Action Example peripheral feedback.
Sleep bruxism is highly prevalent in the general population and its consequences include tooth wear, orofacial pain, and destruction of dental work. The aetiology of sleep bruxism is Monsters Pattern Template: Printable Paper, still unknown but it is nowadays accepted to have a central origin unrelated to dental occlusion. Given the available information in the existing literature, the Nice Template Word Action Plan Example Bold question arises as to whether there could be a relationship between chewing and sleep bruxism activities. Pattern Paper. However, little information currently exists regarding the features and variability of human chewing activity and the features and mechanism of sleep bruxism as they occur in the natural environment, resulting in an inability to compare the two. In recent years, portable EMG recorders have been developed and used to gather data on rhythmic masticatory muscle activity, and an algorithm for Nice Action Plan With, the automated detection of this activity from EMG signals was developed and validated. These recent developments allow for accurate time-frequency analysis of rhythmic episodes as they occur in the natural environment thus enabling us to investigate the question posed above.
The objectives of two research projects were firstly to Form investigate the Nice Template Action Example With Title variability of the human chewing pace, both between and within individuals as assessed in their natural environment, and secondly to then compare human rhythmic masticatory muscle activity in the natural environment, including sleep bruxism and chewing, in a separate cohort. Undergraduate research project by Jessica Po Jessica Po et al.