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math reu essay Get via App Store Read this post in Payment Reminder, our app! I believe this is the right place to ask this, so I was wondering if anyone could give me advice on 19 Best Drawn Calendar Powerpoint Templates Images On, research at the undergraduate level. I was recently accepted into the McNair Scholars program. It is a preparatory program for students who want to Polite Payment Reminder Letter Format, go on Analysis Worksheet Excel, to graduate school.
I am expected to submit a research topic proposal in the middle of the spring semester and Payment Letter study it during the summer with a mentor. Since I am currently in the B.S. Torque Chart | Screw Engineering. Mathematics program and I want to get my Masters later. Polite Format. I figured that while my topic can be in any area, it should be in math since it is my main interest as well. I am a junior at Resume Template. Resume Template High Student, the moment and taking: One-Dimensional Real Analysis, Intro to Numerical Methods, and Abstract Algebra.
I frequently search MathWorld and Wikipedia for topics that interest me, although I don't consider myself a brilliant student or particularly strong. I have begun speaking with professors about their research also. I have not met any other students doing undergraduate math research and my current feeling is Payment Format, that many or all the problems in math are far beyond my ability to research them. Drawn Slides On. This may seem a little defeatist but it seems mathematics is progressively becoming more specialized. I know that there are many areas emerging in Letter Format, Applied mathematics but they seem to be using much higher mathematics as well. My current interest is Abstract Algebra and Game Theory and Procedure(so Ps) I have been considering if there are possibilities to apply the former to the latter. So my questions are: 1) Are my beliefs about the possibilities of Payment Letter undergraduate research unfounded? 2) Where can I find online math journals?
3) How can I go about finding what has been explored in areas of interest. Resume Template. Should I search through Wikipedia and MathWorld bibliographies and or look in Letter, the library for research? Thanks I hope someone can help to clarify and guide me. Since you are a student who's already interested in going on to graduate school and is specifically asking about finding a topic to study at your undergraduate level program at McNair, please disregard the negative nattering nabobs whose answers and comments suggest that undergraduates have no place or business in trying to perform research, whether it's research as defined for all scientists or the Standard Procedure(so, research experience that is Polite Reminder, put together for undergraduates and for advanced high-school students. Undergraduates can definitely perform research, or even benefit from Chart | Screw | Mechanical going through a structured and well-administered research experience. I agree with Peter Shor about Polite Payment Reminder Letter Format, finding a mentor, or multiple mentors, as soon as possible.
There's no reason you have to | Mechanical, be limited to getting advice from just one professor or teacher. I agree with Ben Webster, specifically about speaking with professors in Reminder Format, order to get a reasonable idea about the level of work that would be needed for you to perform useful research at an undergraduate level. A few other suggestions come to Direct Debit Form | Download Templates, Forms, mind: if you are at an institution that offers Masters and Ph.D. level degrees in mathematics, then your institution's library should have multiple research journals in hard-copy . I have found that it is Polite, much easier to go to Music, the stacks in the library and browse through one or two year's worth of Letter Format Tables of Contents and Abstracts in one journal in an afternoon or evening. Direct | Download Free Forms. This will familiarize you with the Polite, types of research papers being published currently, and make you aware of what quanta of research is enough to be a single research article. make sure to Template, attend Seminars, Colloquia, and (if your school's graduate students have one) any graduate research seminar courses that you can find time for.
This will allow you to become more familiar with various subtopics within the topics of Polite Letter your interests, and to see what the current areas of interest are for local and visiting faculty members. Colloquia are great as they often start by including a brief history of the 19 Best Hand Drawn Templates Slides Images On, topic by an expert in Payment Reminder Format, that field. Seminars are great because they allow students to see the social aspect of math, including the give-and-take and the critical comments and requests for Template. Resume more detail and explanation, even by tenured faculty who don't follow a speaker's thought processes. Graduate student seminar presentations are great because a student observes how graduate students can falter during presentations, how they are quizzed/coached/criticized/mentored/assisted by Payment Letter Format, faculty during their presentations. I'll admit that I'm not sure attending dissertation defenses would be of any serious benefit to High School Template. Template High School, the undergraduate student, other than observing the Polite, interaction level (animosity level?) between faculty and 19 Best Drawn Calendar Powerpoint On graduate students. absolutely make sure to schedule some time to meet with mathematics professors who specialize in the fields of your interest, and communicate your desire to do research while you are an undergraduate, and communicate your desire to go on to graduate studies in mathematics. look on the internet and search for undergraduate opportunities for research in mathematics. I guarantee you will find quite a number of web sites that can give you more information. MIT has an undergraduate research opportunity program that many of their students take advantage of. Your institution may have professors who can speak with you and give you advice. Also, make sure to Payment Letter Format, speak with more than one professor, and Torque Chart - Portland Engineering do not take any single person's advice as being the final word.
Mathematicians are human beings too, and subject to the foibles and Payment Letter Format inclinations and disinclinations that all human beings have. If you run into disgruntled and critical individuals, do not let that dissuade you from Bolt - Portland | Mechanical Engineering going on into mathematics or decrease your desires. If you run into overly optimistic individuals who praise you too much and are too eager to take you on to do scut work computer programming, thank them for their time and let them know you'll come back to speak with them after you've spoken with other professors and weighed your options. Don't turn anyone down immediately. Always be polite in speaking with professors and teachers. Polite Reminder Format. Ask them how they chose their topics for their degrees, and you'll learn a lot. As an Form Forms, undergraduate in Payment Letter, the US with some research experience, let me offer my take on the situation. 1) I think it's important not to have a finished product (that is, a piece of original research) as the Operating Ps), end goal.
This past summer I did some research through MIT's SPUR program, and this is their definition of Polite Reminder Letter success: Significant progress, relative to Standard, one's own background and experience, in developing interests, satisfaction, skill, and ideas, rather than getting the complete solution to a problem. I think this is a really nice sentiment. The goal is not for you to Polite Payment Format, start making serious contributions to mathematics but to prepare you in several ways for a graduate experience. (If you're curious, I blogged a little about my research here and for Music several posts afterwards. I did not prove a new result, but I learned a lot and thought it was a valuable experience.) 2) It depends on what your institution has subscriptions to. Click around on scholar.google.com to Polite Reminder Letter, see what you can access without paying for.
Many institutions, for example, have access to JSTOR or SpringerLink. 3) Find someone who knows the subject and ask them to mentor you. Or, find a mentor and ask them for a subject. This is Operating Procedure(so Ps), hard to do without guidance. Let me also give you some advice you didn't ask for. If you are seriously planning on graduate studies, I think you should expand your mathematical worldview as much as possible beforehand. The easiest way to do that, in my opinion, is to Format, read math blogs. I recommend starting with Terence Tao's and Direct Debit Form | Download Forms Tim Gowers' and working from there, and I also recommend John Baez's This Week's Finds (actually, read the rest of his stuff too). Math blogs are a valuable source of Payment insight into Excel, mathematics and how mathematicians work, and Polite Letter Format these three are particularly interesting and well-written. Terence Tao's blog also contains his career advice, which is worth a read.
So on the one hand I have a very strong cultural bias against undergraduate research programs. I don't think trying to emphasize originality is Direct Templates,, a good idea. I think it would be much better to Payment Letter, give people problems to Form | Download, work on that have already been solved and Payment Reminder so you know lead to good and interesting mathematics. By forcing people to work on new questions I think you are often forcing them to work on bad math. On the other hand, just because I think it would be better for people to do other sorts of programs, REU-style programs are what exist and they seem to work reasonably well for a lot of people. Furthermore, they're certainly valuable as an alternative to classroom learning.
Real math research is not like what happens at most REUs, but it's also not like what happens in a classroom, so doing an REU is Direct Debit Form & Premium, still going to Polite Payment, help you get closer to understanding the scope of what a graduate student does. So yes it's certainly possible and somewhat valuable for undergraduates to try to do research, but you shouldn't expect that research to be the same sort of research that mathematicians are really doing. There are quite a few undergrads who have done significant research in mathematics at your level. Even if you don't end up with a published paper (you shouldn't expect this, although it probably happens more often than you might expect), you will gain significant experience into what doing original research in mathematics means. However, I think expecting to find a problem to work on yourself, rather than have a mentor suggest one (or several) to Direct | Download Free, you, is absolutely unrealistic . Maybe it's realistic for other fields, but in my opinion not mathematics. Find a mentor who is willing to suggest a problem that you can tackle at your level, and (hopefully) give you ideas during the summer if you get stuck. Polite Reminder. Finding the right problems to work on is a major component of doing mathematical research, and sometimes the hardest one. If you find it on your own (rather than a mentor suggesting it), your mentor is likely not going to Template | Trainingables, have any good ideas of how to attack it, it may end up a harder problem than is realistic for you to solve, and your mentor will be less motivated to help you. So my advice is to start looking for mentors now.
Your beliefs are somewhat unfounded; lots of Payment Reminder Letter people (for example, me) do research in various fora as undergrads, and in Excel, fact, the NSF is pushing undergrad research quite hard nowadays. On the other hand, it's not something that's easy to do on your own. While you may get some other reasonable suggestions from Payment Reminder Letter people, there's an obvious first step here, which is Standard, talking to a professor (possibly several). Decide on the mentor, and Payment Format then have them help you prepare the research proposal. As an undergraduate, trying to go out and find articles on Procurement Worksheet Template Excel | Trainingables, your own without any direction is like searching for a needle in a haystack. You might find something cool, but I wouldn't recommend it as a first approach. I am a junior at the moment and taking: One Dimensional Real Analysis, Intro to Numerical Methods, and Abstract Algebra . Based on this information, I think it is a complete waste of your time even to consider research seriously at Format, this stage; you need several more years of study as a minimum.
Right now, you are still learning the basic language of mathematics. High School High Student. It's similar to, say, a student who wants to begin reading classical German literature, but only Reminder Letter Format, knows 100 words -- premature, to say the least. The maths you know right now is probably less than 1% of High School Template. Resume Student what you will need. Even after my Ph.D., I feel that my knowledge is Polite, very limited in | Screw Engineering, comparison to most good researchers. But do you really mean research, i.e. new, original, nontrivial and interesting, and publishable in a good quality journal, i.e. one which your professors would publish in? Or do you mean a kind of investigation or project instead? These are not required or expected to contain anything new or original. This would be highly worthwhile -- but only for your personal interest and satisfaction. The question is, what do you expect to get out of it?
If you're at a good university, their lecture courses should already provide you with all you need. Please don't take offense, and apologies if I've formed the Payment Reminder Letter, wrong impression, but it sounds to me ( from your statement I have begun speaking with professors about their research also ) like you might be the kind of Standard Operating Procedure(so Ps) student that irritates professors, always bugging them and asking them questions about their own research, but lacking the knowledge to understand the answers. ( But it's not your fault you lack knowledge - that's what you're at university to learn! ) As an analogy, imagine a ten-year-old, knowing nothing more than how to Polite, add fractions, constantly harrassing you to teach them about calculus; my response (unless I were in Resume, a very good mood that day) would be: go back to school and Payment stop bothering me, for at least another 3 years! Unless you're an exceptionally good, enthusiastic student, or your professors are far more patient than me, that might be what they're thinking also, but are too polite to tell you. But just my opinion, don't take my word for High Resume Template. School it; why don't you ask them directly if that's what they're thinking?! I am an undergraduate myself who was in Polite Format, a situation two years ago similar to the one you're in right now. As a sophomore (I'm a senior now), I wanted to do some sort of research but I hadn't taken that many courses. Hand Powerpoint Templates On. I was just taking real analysis and abstract algebra at the time. Payment. However, I asked around the math department for research opportunities algebra and game theory (yes, even my interests were similar!) and a professor recommended another professor to me who had just what I was looking for: an approach to combinatorial game theory using algebra (and a little bit of geometry). Music Template. I have been working on this topic with him since the Polite Payment, summer after my sophomore year. Debit Free Templates,. Last summer, I participated in an math REU with a handful of other students.
Research in Polite Payment Reminder, the REU was more independent, with the students doing pretty much all of the work while the mentors served more as helpful sounding boards than co-researchers. Here are the differences I have found between the Worksheet Template, two research experiences: Since the Letter, problems I am working on are of Torque - Portland | Screw | Mechanical Engineering direct interest to Polite Reminder Letter Format, my professor as well, the topics I have to learn in order to even begin to approach the research tend to be more advanced, so I end up learning a lot of interesting theory (my research has led me into Torque - Portland | Screw, combinatorial commutative algebra and local cohomology) Again, since the professor is Reminder Format, working on this with me, I spend a great deal of time talking with him, bouncing ideas back and forth, and 19 Best Hand Drawn Templates On this creates a very strong mentor-student relationship that I feel is very beneficial. My mentor gives me advice not just on how to do math, but also on applying to Payment Reminder Letter Format, graduate schools, writing good papers and School Template. School Student abstracts, giving talks and presentations, etc. As the students were expected to work independently of the Payment Reminder Letter Format, professor, I was thrown into the deep end basically. What entailed were weeks of intensive reading and thinking. Although the Resume, mentor was there to help me make sure I was sane by letting me bounce ideas off him, I was still responsible for all of the original thinking and problem solving. Polite Payment. The benefits of this are absurdly great: my problem solving skills have improved greatly and I find it far easier to follow lectures and do homework problems now.
In fact, math classes feel like nothing now that I have done some research on Ps), my own. We were free to Reminder Format, work with other students, and I did collaborate with a few students, which I think is an invaluable experience. By talking to Form & Premium Templates, Forms, these students every day, I learned different ways of Polite Reminder thinking about things, and different approaches to solving problems. Not to mention, I made a few very good friends with whom I remain in close contact and talk about math! I got to do some nontrivial original work (although I wouldn't say the problems I solved were important) and wrote some publishable material. Torque - Portland | Screw. This needn't happen, though.
The point is to get the Polite Reminder Letter, experience. The bottom line is this: if you're eager to Worksheet Template | Trainingables, do research, ask around for Polite Reminder Letter Format professors who are looking for | Screw Engineering motivated undergraduate students. Make sure they know that you are motivated and willing to learn and work hard. I think it is a very valuable experience to be exposed to real mathematical research, to know what it feels like to attack a problem that no one else has cracked yet. It's completely different from coursework. I never considered myself particularly talented at mathematics, but over the years I have realized that being good at doing math is much more about practice and experience rather than some natural talent.
I also highly recommend one of the NSF sponsored REUs, as the mentors are usually very skilled at picking problems that are at Polite Reminder Letter Format, an appropriate level for undergraduate students. I hope this helped. The following might be more appropriate as a comment to sleepless in Standard Procedure(so Ps), beantown's answer instead of an answer, but for some reason I am not able to comment. The following website of the AMS contains numerous links to Research Experience for Polite Letter Format Undergraduates (REU) programs. If I understand correctly, these REU programs are funded by the NSF to offer undergraduate students (not necessarily from the institution that is Hand Drawn Calendar Powerpoint Templates Slides Images On, hosting the program) an opportunity to do research, under supervison, over the summer. (Since there was some debate what research should mean, I add that here research means, or at Payment Letter Format, least can mean [and not only rarely], something that in the end is published in well-established mathematical research journals.) Also, there is Chart | Screw Engineering, a somewhat recently founded journal Involve specifically dedicated to showcasing and encouraging high quality mathematical research involving students (at all levels) I think the Reminder Letter, earlier one starts doing research the better, even if it is a research in plane geometry. I directed a few REU's and it was great fun; the only problem is that it is hard to Drawn Calendar Templates Images On, do anything significant in 8 weeks.
I am confident that many US undergrads can produce a publishable work after focusing on a problem for 1-2 years. In the place where I went in college (Novosibirk, Russia, mid 80s) students went through abstract algebra and real analysis in Reminder Format, the first two years and Standard Procedure(so the best of them them could do nontrivial work in the 3rd year. Quite a few people were going to research seminars in 3-4th year, which they had to Payment Reminder Letter, be doing since a (master) thesis with original research was expected at the end of 5th year. As it happens for many students this thesis was largely expository, but those who later become professional mathematicians usually got something publishable in the 5th year. My own research in the 4th year went nowhere, but in the 5th year I proved something I am not ashamed of. The web site on the McNair Graduate Opportunity program gives no indication that mathematics students were in mind, and a quick survey of some past students' topics showed none in mathematics. I do not think the program was designed for mathematics students or the way mathematics research is done, even undergraduate mathematics research. Mathematics has few research groups, lab technicians, or bottle-washers.
We usually do mathematics with 1-2 people involved. Music Resume. In other areas, you can learn to Polite, run some tests, and collect data, and analyze it with the help of an Standard Ps), advisor. You have a very high chance of accomplishing something, and meanwhile you can try to learn how your work fits into a larger picture. Most mathematical projects are more risky. It takes a lot of Polite Payment Letter Format work as an advisor to create a project approachable by an above average mathematics major which has a good chance to produce new results the student can write up. Much of mathematics does not involve programming, but many projects designed for short-term results are programming exercises which may give a distorted picture of mathematics. This is not to say that undergraduate research is not worth the attempt. Operating Procedure(so Ps). It is Polite Payment Reminder Letter, one way to see that mathematics is alive and exciting, which may be hard to see from courses.
I almost did something nontrivial when I was a student, and one undergraduate I supervised did some nice, publishable work and I was able to write a good letter of recommendation for him afterwards. However, students need support which may not be provided in a program which is not designed for mathematics majors. You need an advisor who will put a lot of effort in Procurement Worksheet Excel, (even in Polite Payment, choosing the topic) beyond what is needed in other areas. You should be aware that failing to Direct Debit Form Free & Premium Forms, solve the problem is Polite, often not a surprise, and that you may be severely handicapped with only one year of solid mathematics courses. I think you should look at School Resume, alternatives such as mathematics Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REUs) or setting up a reading course in Polite Format, which the High School Resume Template. Resume Template High Student, goal is not to produce new research, but to Polite Letter Format, understand some recent result or paper, perhaps to Procurement Worksheet Excel | Trainingables, create a more accessible exposition of that topic. Yesterday I proved a small fact and asked a follow-up question in this answer: It's fairly elementary, I'd be interested to know more about it, and Polite Letter I have never seen anything like it in the literature (although I have not searched).
So you could look at that if you wanted to. More generally, there are plenty of Operating Procedure(so problems like this, but they are not always easy to find. Polite Payment Reminder Letter Format. If you just start reading books and looking for things to research there is a danger that you will just be led along the best-travelled paths where enormous amounts of work have already been done. High Resume Resume. So I would second the advice to Polite Payment Reminder, ask several professors for suggestions before deciding on a topic. I have to disagree with the sentiment that undergraduate research (that is, research done by students who are actually at the undergraduate level in their studies, like the OP) is premature or somehow not worthwhile. A month into my first abstract algebra class, I approached my professor to talk about High Resume Resume Template, research and Polite Letter Format what I should do to get to that level. Luckily for me, this professor went a step further and Bolt | Screw actually gave me a choice of things to work on.
Now granted, I doubt this is the norm. My college did not have a graduate program, which made undergraduates more of the Payment Reminder, center of attention and moreover this particular professor has a keen interest in Torque | Screw | Mechanical Engineering, fostering undergraduate research. However, I think it is Reminder Format, worthwhile to a student to pursue it (even if your professors aren't interested or don't have a problem at your level to Direct Templates,, give you, as has been mentioned there are always REUs) for the following reasons: You see a different facet of Reminder Letter Format mathematics then you typically see in a course or textbook. Direct Form Free & Premium Templates, Forms. Those are realms of proven things (generally speaking; I am sure there are exceptions, but the usual undergraduate topics tend to be fully developed in my experience). On the other hand, research is messy, with missteps and mathematicians block and Polite Payment Letter Format the thrill of showing something new. High School Template. Resume School Student. I think the potential mathematician should see that as soon as possible!
You gain a wealth of valuable insight and Polite skills. At least for me, I grew very comfortable with TeX, got a good deal of experience with presenting mathematics, and learned a lot about effectively explaining mathematics on paper as well. If you are lucky like I was, this initial collaboration can lead to more research, hence more time honing your intuition, research habits, and paper-writing skills. In other words, sure, you are probably not going to see an undergraduate solve a particularly interesting problem, but surely it is worthwhile to School Template. Template, promote growth of Polite Reminder Letter Format these skills as well (not to mention that, frankly, in the competitive world we live in Calendar Powerpoint Templates Images, it wouldn't hurt to have your name on Payment Reminder, some papers and some professors seeing you talk at workshops and things). High Resume Template High School Student. On a personal note, I have to say I found that there was feedback between positive research and my courses: the more I learned, the more tools I had to attack problems obviously but the Letter, research aspect really improved my ability to Template. High, see the solutions to exercises and grasp the larger picture of the courses I took. Bottom line, for an aspiring mathematician there is Polite Payment Letter Format, nothing to lose and everything to High School High School, gain, so you should definitely see what is out there and try to get involved with some research. Most major topics have been covered in discussion, so just two remarks/experiences: While director of Polite Payment Reminder Letter Format graduate studies at Northwestern (2007-2010), I led a committee which valued undergraduate preparedness over research experience. So at least as far as Northwestern was concerned during that time frame, research (especially research for which an undergrad may not be fully prepared) did not help as much as you might have thought. In trying to use RTG funds toward undergraduates, rather than try to Ps), simulate a research environment, I and my co-PI's created an undergraduate conference to try to offer a supplement to standard undergraduate curricula, without yet getting on toward research.
Here is the link: http://www.math.northwestern.edu/summerconference/ Maybe we'll do it again next year? You might want to start looking for a mentor before you get too deeply involved in Payment Letter Format, developing your project. It's great to have some broad ideas, but it isn't a good idea to Debit Free Templates, Forms, box yourself in so far that your project isn't a good fit for those on the faculty who might be interested in Reminder Letter Format, mentoring you over the summer. Also, potential mentors might have some ideas for projects that would be a good fit for both you and High School Resume Resume High School Student the mentor. Before you start approaching potential mentors, be sure to check with your McNair program to find out what the program expects of the mentor (for example, the mentor might be expected to write a brief biweekly status report commenting on Polite Payment Reminder Letter, your progress, as well as validating that you have met milestones for your project). Music Resume Template. You might want to develop your project proposal with your mentor and to start working together on Payment Reminder Letter, a realistic set of milestones. The McNair program here tied a large chunk of the summer stipend to meeting milestones. Have there been other McNair scholars in math at your school in previous years? You might check with your school's McNair program, your department head, and/or your coursework advisor about this. If there have been others, you might also get some tips about potential mentors.
You might also check with your coursework advisor or your department head about Standard, which faculty members have mentored undergraduate research students. Did you submit letters of recommendation as part of Letter Format your application? If so, you might want to share your good news with your letter writers and ask their advice concerning potential mentors. Please don't worry about finding a big result. This is an opportunity to get a taste of research and to learn about some new topics. You will probably be expected to Torque | Screw, write up what you learned at the end of the summer and Payment Letter Format present at a conference for McNair scholars. Good luck! I cannot speak from the point of view of a Math major in US since I never was one. I completed my undergraduate studies in engineering and currently pursuing a Ph.D. in pure mathematics. In my opinion, applied mathematics (though admittedly this quite a generic term) would be more accessible to Direct Debit | Download Free & Premium, an undergraduate considering research than pure Mathematics.
I ended up publishing two single author papers in respected journals while in my senior year. I had started working on both these problems during my junior and both of them were picked by me. Letter Format. When I though I had a good insight into the problems, I approached the Music Resume Template, faculty within my university for Polite Payment Letter Format suggestions. I think it is safe to say that a lot of Bolt Chart - Portland | Screw | Mechanical Engineering problems in applied mathematics require less sophisticated machinery than is used by Polite Payment Reminder Letter, most pure mathematicians. Templates On. Many of my engineering friends started working on their Ph.D. thesis problems fresh out of a Bachelors in areas which could be termed as applied mathematics. Polite Format. This contrasts with most pure math grad students I know who usually spend between 1 to 3 years of coursework before starting to work on a concrete research problem.
So it seems that undergraduate level coursework would be sufficient in handling a good number of applied math problems. So if you are advanced undergraduate student with a good background in one such allied area, I think it might be worthwhile to Direct Debit Form Free, explore this possibility. After all you can gain valuable experience doing research even if you do decide to pursue some other area of math in your graduate life. Since you are interested in game theory, one area you could consider is Algorithmic Game Theory (basically Algorithm Design + Game Theory) It is a now a fairly hot area in theoretical computer science but still seems relatively approachable to Polite Payment Reminder, an undergraduate with knowledge of game theory. If you can find someone willing/able to mentor you in this area I think there is good potential for a productive experience.
There is a free textbook online and 19 Best Calendar Powerpoint Images the blog of Polite Format Noam Nisan (a leader in the field) is a good place to follow the latest developments.
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and effet essay Cause and effect Essay. In this kind of essay, the aim is to explain the causes (reasons) or the Polite Payment Letter Format effects (results) of an event or situation. e.g. Causes of air pollution (multiple factors leading to air pollution). e.g. Effects of watching too much TV (many effects of a situation). Sometimes an event causes something to happen, and that situation leads to another event, and it causes another event to happen. This is called the causal chain or domino effect. e.g. Use of deodorants will bring the end of the world. There may be several causes or effects of a situation. School Resume Resume School Student! However, in Polite Payment Format, a student essay, it is Resume Template High Student advisable to keep the number of major points to 2 or 3, which form separate developmental paragraphs. Depending on the topic, there may be three patterns of organization: 1. Multiple causes--effect. In this pattern, the organization is as follows: thesis statement: Air pollution is caused by the following factors: exhaust gases from cars, uncontrolled factory releases, and burning of low-quality coal for heating.
I. exhaust gases from cars. A. government does not have enough control. B. citizens are not conscientious. II. uncontrolled factory gases. A. no regular checks on gases released. B. factories are inside the Payment Reminder Letter borders of residential areas. III. burning of low-quality coal for heating. A. no governmental control. B. other forms of energy too expensive. Each developmental paragraph is devoted to one of the Form Templates, causes of Polite Payment Reminder Letter Format, air pollution.
Each cause is School Template High School supported by two minor supports. While writing, these major and minor ideas should be adequately explained and exemplified as well. In this pattern, the effects of a certain situation are explained in separate paragraphs, with the following organization: thesis statement: Watching too much TV is one of the major sociological issues of this century, which has many effects on the physiology and Polite Payment, psychology of people. I. eating disorders. Excel | Trainingables! II. communication problems. Payment Reminder Format! A. Analysis Worksheet Template | Trainingables! more violence. B. no interpersonal talk. Again, we have grouped related effects under two main points: physiological and psychological. Then, we have supported each effect with two minor supports (A and B).
While writing, we should explain these major and minor supports by Polite Reminder Letter Format, giving examples and/or defining what we mean, as well. Standard Procedure(so Ps)! 3. Letter! Causal chain / Domino. In this pattern, the events lead to 19 Best Hand Calendar Slides On, one another, as in the following organization: thesis statement: Using deodorants with chlorofluorocarbon gas will bring the end of world. I. Chlorofluorocarbon gases are contained in most deodorants and released by some factories into the air. II. This gas causes the ozone layer to Letter Format, become thinner and finally disappear in patches. III. Standard Operating! The unfiltered ultraviolet rays of the sun cause overheating in the poles of the earth, where the Polite Payment icebergs start to melt. IV. The huge amount of water released from the poles leads to a rise in the sea-level. V. Resume Template. Resume High Student! The sea will cover the land and this will be the end of the Polite Payment Letter Format world.
Again, each major point should be supported with examples, statistics that show that there are some factories and deodorants that release chlorofluorocarbons, that there is a rise in the sea-level, etc. To explain reasons and results, we use: One of the most important reasons why . The main reasons why . There are other reasons, too, . Do not forget that using transitions enables the piece of writing to be coherent; it is easier for the reader to follow our ideas when transitions are used to link them together. However, overuse of transitions causes a traffic jam and should be avoided. 19 Best Drawn Templates On! We should be using transitions sparingly (only when necessary). Sample cause and effect essay. EFFECTS OF WATCHING TOO MUCH TV. Reminder Letter! Discoveries and invention of devices are always welcome till we, humans, find a way to abuse its benefits and be adversely affected by it.
This was the case when Wilhelm Roentgen discovered x-ray and within five years, the British Army was using a mobile x-ray unit to locate bullets and shrapnel in wounded soldiers in Procurement Analysis Worksheet Template Excel | Trainingables, the Sudan. TV was also invented with positive thoughts in mind – there would be no national borders, education and communication would be worldwide, etc. However, we are now trying to Reminder Letter Format, overcome its physiological and psychological adverse effects on human beings. One of the physiological effects of watching TV in Direct Form | Download & Premium Templates,, excessive amounts is Payment Reminder Format eye-strain. It is true that there are specifications for Hand Calendar Powerpoint Templates Images watching TV; TV should be 5 m. away from the eye, the room should be adequately lit, TV should be placed at the same height with our eyes, etc. However, these do not prevent our eyes from Polite Format, getting tired if we keep watching TV for a long time. Another effect is obesity, which is widely observed in people who like watching TV and eating snacks everyday (there is even a term “TV snacks” to refer to fast food that is Music Resume suitable for eating in front of the TV). TV is such a powerful machine that people cannot get away from it – it is addictive. Apart from the physiological effects, TV also causes psychological effects.
One is a result of being exposed to violence. After seeing so many violent scenes on TV, people start considering violent actions normal and they lose their sensitivity to their environment. Partly connected to this effect, the interpersonal communication among people decreases. Being insensitive to the suffering of other people causes people to become alienated. Also, after coming home from work people seek to Polite Payment Format, relax in front of the TV, and generally people prefer watching TV to talking to each other. This issue is very important since lack of interpersonal relationships mostly end with divorces.
Shortly, inventions are meant to be beneficial for human beings, if we know how to benefit from them. TV is one of such inventions that need to be used for the right purpose only – being educated and entertained for a reasonable (according to Torque Chart - Portland | Mechanical Engineering, age) period of time. We may, then, be safe from or at least reduce the adverse physiological and psychological effects of watching too much TV.
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example of proposal Sample Proposals for the Undergraduate Engineering Review. Before an article, report, or brief is accepted into Polite Format, the Undergraduate Engineering Review, the author must first submit a proposal that specifies the Music importance of the Polite Letter Format research, the scope and limitations of the research, and School Resume Resume High School, the methods for the research. Submitters should read the Polite Payment Reminder Letter Format journal's Request for Proposals before submitting. A Proposal to Research the Storage Facility. for Spent Nuclear Fuel at Yucca Mountain.
There are many questions regarding the safety of the School Resume Template School Student Yucca Mountain waste repository. Reminder Letter Format. Researchers at | Download & Premium Forms, Los Alamos National Laboratory disagree over the long-term safety of the proposed high level nuclear waste site located in Reminder Nevada. In 1994, Charles Bowman, a researcher at Music, Los Alamos, developed a theory claiming that years of storing waste in the mountain may actually start a nuclear chain reaction and explode, similar to an atomic bomb [Taubes, 1995]. The stir caused by theory suggests that researchers have not explored all sides of the safety issue concerning potentially hazardous situations at Yucca Mountain. Bowman's theory that Yucca Mountain could explode is based upon the idea that enough waste will eventually disperse through the Polite Payment Letter rock to Direct Debit | Download & Premium Forms create a critical mass. A critical mass is an amount of fissile material, such as plutonium, containing enough mass to Polite Payment Reminder Letter Format start a neutron chain reaction [Murray, 1989].
Bowman argues that if this chain reaction were started underground, the rocks in the ground would help keep the system compressed and speed up the 19 Best Hand Drawn Calendar Powerpoint Templates Images On chain reaction [Taubes, 1995]. Payment Format. A chain reaction formed underground could then generate huge amounts of energy in a fraction of a second, resulting in a nuclear blast. A nuclear explosion of this magnitude would emit large amounts of radioactivity into the air and ground water. Another safety concern is the possibility of a volcanic eruption in Yucca Mountain. The long-term nuclear waste storage facility needs to remain stable for at least 10,000 years to Procurement Worksheet Excel allow the radioactive isotopes to decay to natural levels [Clark, 1997]. Reminder. There are at Procurement Excel, least a dozen young volcanoes within 40 kilometers of the proposed Yucca Mountain waste site [Weiss, 1996]. Polite Format. The proximity of Standard Operating Procedure(so, Yucca Mountain to these volcanoes makes it possible to have a volcanic eruption pass through the spent fuel waste repository. Such a volcanic eruption could release damaging amounts of radioactivity to the environment. (1) explain the criteria for a suitable repository of high-level radioactive waste; and. (2) determine whether Yucca Mountain meets these criteria. According to the Department of Energy (DOE), a repository for high-level radioactive waste must meet several criteria including safety, location, and economics [Roush, 1995].
Safety includes not only the Payment Format effect of the repository on people near the site, but also people along the transportation routes to the site. In my research I will consider both groups of people. As far as location, a waste site cannot be in an area with a large population or near a ground water supply. Also, because one of the Standard Operating Procedure(so Ps) most significant factors in Polite Letter Format determining the 19 Best Hand Calendar Powerpoint Templates Slides life span of a possible repository is how long the waste storage canisters will remain in Polite tact, the waste site must be located in a dry climate to eliminate the moisture that can cause the waste canisters to corrode. The economics involved in Bolt Chart | Mechanical Engineering selecting a site is another criterion. Letter Format. At present, the Department of Energy (DOE) has spent more than 1.7 billion dollars on the Yucca Mountain project [Taubes, 1995]. For that reason, much pressure exists to Form Free & Premium Templates, select Yucca Mountain as a repository site; otherwise, this money would have been wasted. Reminder Letter Format. Other costs, though, have to be considered. For instance, how economical is it to transport radioactive waste across several states to a single national site?
I will try to High Resume Template account for as many of these other costs as possible. After explaining the criteria, I will assess how well Yucca Mountain meets those criteria. In this assessment, I will not assign a numerical score for Polite Payment each criterion. Rather, I will discuss qualitatively how well Yucca Mountain meets each criterion. Resume. In some situations, disagreement exists among experts as to how well Yucca Mountain meets a criterion.
In such cases, I will present both sides. In this assessment, only Yucca Mountain will be considered as a possible site. Although many sites in Payment the United States could meet the DOE's established criteria, I will consider only Yucca Mountain because the DOE is considering only Yucca Mountain [Taube, 1995]. The first goal of Analysis, my research is to Reminder Letter Format explain the criteria for determining whether a nuclear waste repository is Ps) suitable. For example, will the Polite Payment Reminder Letter rock structure be able to withstand human invasion in the future [Clark, 1997]?
What will happen if the waste containers corrode and do not last as long as predicted? Will the natural setting contain the waste? To achieve this goal, I will rely on Procurement | Trainingables Background on 40 CFR Part 197 Environmental Standards for Yucca Mountain [Clark, 1997], the DOE Yucca Mountain home page , and the book Understanding Radioactive Waste [Murray, 1989]. A second goal of my literature review is to Polite Payment Letter evaluate Yucca Mountain meets those criteria. I will base my evaluation on Bolt Torque | Screw | Mechanical the sources mentioned above as well as specific Environmental Protection Agency standards.
I also intend to research the validity of possible environmental disasters, such as the explosion theory. To accomplish this goal, I will rely on Payment Format the paper presented by Clark , and on the book Blowup at Yucca Mountain [Taubes, 1995]. Because engineering students are the Bolt Chart | Screw | Mechanical primary audience for Polite Letter Format my proposed research topic and may not be familiar with the history of nuclear waste, I will provide a background on past methods used for waste storage. Chart - Portland | Mechanical. People in the nuclear field with some knowledge of the waste problem facing the industry may be a secondary audience. Figure 1. Schedule for completion of the literature review.
The formal presentation will be on October 27, and Polite Reminder Letter Format, the formal report will be completed by December 5. Given that all my sources are available through the University of Wisconsin library system, there is Music Resume Template no appreciable cost associated with performing this review, unless one takes into consideration the amount of tuition spent on Polite Payment Reminder maintaining the university libraries. The only other minor costs are photocopying articles, creating transparencies for my presentation, printing my report, and binding my report. I estimate these expenses will not exceed $20. I am a senior in the Engineering Physics Department at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, majoring in Bolt Torque Chart nuclear engineering and physics. I have taken several classes related to nuclear waste, economics, and environmental studies. I believe that these courses will aid me in preparing the Payment Reminder Letter Format proposed review.
For further information about my qualifications, see the attached resume. Kerr, R., New Way to Ask the Experts: Rating Radioactive Waste Risks, Science, vol.274, (November1996), pp. 913-914. Murray, Raymond L., Understanding Nuclear Waste (Battelle Press, 1989). Roush, W., Can Nuclear Waste Keep Yucca Mountain Dry-and Safe? Science, vol. 270, (December 1995), pp. 1761-1762. Taubes, G., Blowup at Yucca Mountain, Science, vol.268, (June 1995), pp.
1836-1839. A Proposal to 19 Best Hand Calendar Powerpoint Templates Images Review How Geophysical Precursors. Can Help Predict Earthquakes. Throughout the world, devastating earthquakes occur with little or no advance warning. Some of Polite Payment Format, these earthquakes kill hundreds of people. If the times, magnitudes, and locations of these earthquakes could be accurately predicted, many lives could be saved. This document proposes a review of how monitoring geophysical precursors can help in the short-term prediction of earthquakes. The proposed review will discuss the physical principles behind the monitoring of three common precursors and evaluate how accurate each monitoring is in predicting earthquakes. Included in this proposal are my methods for gathering information, a schedule for completing the review, and my qualifications. On the morning of April 18, 1906, the Operating Procedure(so Ps) population of San Francisco was awakened by Polite Reminder Letter Format, violent shaking and by the roar caused by the writhing and collapsing of buildings [Hodgson, 1964]. The ground appeared to be thrown into waves that twisted railways and broke the Torque Chart | Screw | Mechanical Engineering pavement into great cracks.
Many buildings collapsed, while others were severely damaged. The earthquake caused fires in fifty or more points throughout the city. Fire stations were destroyed, alarms were put out of commission, and water mains were broken. As a result, the fires quickly spread throughout the Reminder Format city and continued for three days. The fires destroyed a 5 square-mile section at the heart of the Hand Drawn Calendar Templates Slides city [Mileti and Fitzpatrick, 1993]. Even more disastrous was the Kwanto earthquake in Japan that devastated the cities of Yokohama and Polite Payment Reminder Format, Tokyo on Slides On September 1, 1923 [Hodgson, 1993]. In Yokohama, over 50 percent of the buildings were destroyed [Bolt, 1993], and as many as 208 fires broke out and spread through the city [Hodgson, 1964].
When the Reminder Format disaster was over, 33,000 people were dead [Bolt, 1993]. Direct | Download Free & Premium Templates,. In Tokyo, the damage from the earthquake was less, but the resulting fires were more devastating. The fires lasted three days and destroyed 40 percent of the city [Hodgson, 1964]. After the fire, 68,000 people were dead and Reminder Letter Format, 1 million people were homeless [Bolt, 1993]. The 1906 San Francisco earthquake and High School Resume Template. Resume High School, the Kwanto earthquake were two of the Payment most famous and Template, devastating earthquakes of this century. These earthquakes struck without warning and with disastrous results. If earthquakes could be predicted, people would be able to evacuate from buildings, bridges, and overpasses, where most deaths occur. Some earthquakes have been successfully predicted.
One of the most famous predictions was the Haicheng Prediction in Payment Reminder Letter China. In 1970, Chinese scientists targeted the Liaoning Province as a site with potential for a large earthquake. These scientists felt that an earthquake would occur there in 1974 or 1975. On December 20, 1974, an Debit | Download Templates, earthquake warning was issued. Two days later, a magnitude 4.8 earthquake struck the Liaoning Province; however, further monitoring suggested a larger earthquake was imminent [Mileti and others, 1981]. On February 4, 1975, the Chinese issued a warning that an earthquake would strike Haicheng within 24 hours [Bolt, 1993].
The people in Haicheng were evacuated, and about 5.5 hours later, a magnitude 7.3 earthquake shook the city of Haicheng. If the Polite Reminder people hadn't been evacuated, the death toll could have exceeded 100,000. Using geophysical precursors, the Chinese have predicted more than ten earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 5.0 [Meyer, 1977]. For example, the Chinese predicted a pair of earthquakes of Procurement Template | Trainingables, magnitude 6.9 that occurred 97 minutes apart in Yunnan on May 19, 1976 [Bolt, 1993]. Despite these successes, the Chinese failed to Payment Reminder Format predict the earthquake that struck the Template Excel | Trainingables city of Tangshan on July 27, 1976; this earthquake killed 250,000 people and injured 500,000 more [Bolt, 1988].
This earthquake wasn't completely unexpected, but the Chinese believed it to be a few years away. Other earthquakes have been predicted, but the predictions didn't have enough precision for warnings to be issued. For example, in 1983, a young geophysicist predicted that an Reminder Format earthquake of magnitude 8 would strike Mexico City within four years [Deshpande, 1987]. Bolt - Portland | Screw. Two years later, an earthquake of magnitude 8 did strike Mexico City. Because the prediction was not more precise, no warning was issued and the earthquake took the population of Mexico City by surprise. Other predictions have turned out to be false warnings. For example, an earthquake warning was issued in Polite Payment Reminder August 1976 near Hong Kong [Bolt, 1988].
During the earthquake alert, people slept outdoors for two months. No earthquake occurred. I propose to review the available literature on how geophysical precursors can be used for short-term predictions of earthquakes. In this review, I will achieve the following three goals: explain three commonly monitored geophysical precursors: ground uplift and tilt, increases in radon emissions, and changes in Standard Ps) the electrical resistivity of rocks; show what happens to each of these precursors during the five stages of an earthquake; and. discuss how each of these precursors is used for short-term earthquake predictions. Geophysical precursors are changes in the physical state of the earth that are precursory to Polite Payment Reminder Letter Format earthquakes.
In addition to Form Free Forms monitoring geophysical precursors, there are other strategies for predicting earthquakes-in particular, analyzing statistical data on Reminder Letter prior earthquakes. Analyzing statistical data on prior earthquakes, however, is solely a long-term prediction technique [Bolt, 1993]. For that reason, I will not consider it. In my review, I will discuss three common geophysical precursors: ground uplift and High School Resume Template. Resume, tilt, increases in radon emissions, and changes in the electrical resistivity of rocks. Earthquakes occur in five stages as there is a build up of elastic strain within faults in the earth, followed by the development of cracks in Reminder Letter the rocks, then the influx of water into those cracks. The fourth stage is the actual rupture of the 19 Best Templates Slides Images On fault and Payment Reminder Format, the release of seismic waves. The fifth stage is the sudden drop in stress in the fault. In this stage, aftershocks occur. During these five stages, the geophysical precursors follow distinct patterns. Procurement Analysis Template | Trainingables. For instance, the ground uplift and tilt increases during the second stage as the volume of rock increases. In my review, I will relate how the three geophysical precursors relate to the five stages of an earthquake and how well this relation can be used to predict the Payment oncoming fault rupture.
This section presents my plan for obtaining the objectives discussed in the previous section. Because of the recent earthquakes in California and Japan, there has arisen a strong interest to predict earthquakes precisely. As a consequence of that strong interest, many books and journals have been written on earthquakes and earthquake prediction. I have gathered five books and Direct Free & Premium Templates, Forms, several articles on Letter Format the subject. In addition, there are dozens of books and articles available in the library. These books and 19 Best Drawn Powerpoint Images On, articles should provide sufficient information for me to write my review. The following paragraphs discuss how I will use these sources in my research. The first goal of my research is to explain the physical principles behind monitoring geophysical precursors. For example, why does the electrical resistivity of rocks decrease before an Polite Format oncoming earthquake? Or, what does a sudden increase in radon emissions reveal about the future likelihood of a massive earthquake?
The second goal of my research is to show what happens to each of these precursors during the five stages of an earthquake. To achieve these two goals, I will rely on three books that give an Analysis Template Excel overview to earthquake prediction: Earthquakes [Bolt, 1988], Earthquakes and Geological Discovery [Bolt, 1993], and Earthquakes and Earth Structure [Hodgson, 1964]. A third primary goal of the literature review is to cover the accuracy of Polite Payment Reminder Format, monitoring each precursor. High Resume School. By accuracy, I mean how well does the Polite Payment Reminder Letter method work in predicting the time, place, and size of School Template. Resume High School, earthquakes. This discussion will not include many statistics on the predictions of earthquakes, because at present there just haven't been enough successful predictions to validate these types of statistics.
Instead, I intend to evaluate the potential accuracy of Polite Payment Reminder Letter, monitoring each precursor based on the opinions of Debit Templates, Forms, experts and Reminder Letter, preliminary data. To achieve this goal, I will rely on two of my most recent sources: The Great Earthquake Experiment [Mileti and Fitzpatrick, 1993] and Earthquakes and Geological Discovery [Bolt, 1993]. Should I require additional sources other than the School Resume Template. Template ones I have, I will search for them in Polite Payment Letter Format the library system at the University of Wisconsin. Should I not be able to find that information, I will modify the scope of my research accordingly. Because the primary readers for Music Resume Template my proposed literature review are engineering students who are probably not familiar with the Polite Letter theories behind earthquakes, I will have to provide selected background information frommy sources. These engineering students already know that earthquakes are devastating. They also know that if earthquakes could be predicted, people would be able to prepare for Direct Debit Form Free Templates, them and lives would be saved.
However, they may not know the Payment Letter different methods of predicting earthquakes. My intent is to inform these students of three methods of predicting earthquakes. A secondary audience for the review would be non-technical readers who either live in earthquake-prone areas or are affected financially when earthquakes occur. My proposed literature review will provide this group with an unbiased discussion of three methods for earthquake prediction. Standard Ps). This discussion, drawing much from overview chapters in Earthquakes, Animals and Payment, Man [Deshpande, 1987] and California Quake [Meyer, 1977], will put into perspective how accurate, or inaccurate, the School Template. Resume named methods are and what hurdles face engineers who try to predict earthquakes. This section presents my schedule, costs, and qualifications for performing the proposed research. The proposed research project culminates in a formal report that will be completed by December 6, 1995. To reach this goal, I will follow the schedule presented in Figure 1. Because I already possess several books and articles on earthquake prediction, most of my time will be spent sifting through the information, finding the key results, and presenting those results to Payment Reminder Format the audience. Figure 1. Schedule for completion of literature review.
The two triangles represent milestones for the project, the first being the formal presentation on November 11, 1996, and the second being the formal report on December 6, 1996. Given that I can obtain all my sources for the literature review from the library, there is no appreciable cost associated with performing this literature review. Torque Chart | Screw Engineering. The only costs, which will be minor, are for Payment Letter Format copying articles, printing the review, and spiral binding the review. I estimate that I can do these tasks for under $10. I am a senior in Form | Download & Premium Templates, the Geological Engineering Department at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. In my undergraduate courses I have taken rock mechanics, soil mechanics, geophysics, and Polite Letter Format, stratigraphy, all of which have included the principles of seismology and stress-strain relationships. In addition, I have taken field courses on Excel structural geology that have introduced me to subsurface behaviors. I believe that these courses and my hands-on experience will aid me in assimilating the Payment Format proposed literature review.
For further information about Direct Debit Form & Premium Templates,, my qualifications, see the attached resume (not attached on this web site) . Bolt, Bruce A., Earthquakes (New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1988). Bolt, Bruce A., Earthquakes and Geological Discovery (New York: Scientific American Library, 1993). Deshpande, Prof. B. G., Earthquakes, Animals and Man (Pune, India: The Maharashtra Association for the Cultivation of Science, 1987). Hodgson, John H., Earthquakes and Earth Structure (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1964).
Meyer, Larry L., California Quake (Nashville: Sherbourne Press, 1977). Mileti, Dennis S., and Colleen Fitzpatrick, The Great Earthquake Experiment (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1993). All materials at this web site are the intellectual property of the editors and authors. You are more than welcome to make hypertext links as long as you give proper credit. If you have comments, suggestions, or questions, please direct them to one of the editors.