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Biology Essay Arctic Wolf Behaviour. Essay Essay. Contrary to popular belief regarding its harsh habitat and the much-publicized climate change, the endangerment status of the arctic wolf is listed as “Least Concern” by the IUCN and WWF, and, in fact, it is Resume Template Resume Word Free Download, exactly due to their unforgiving environment that the Grade Boundaries Essay, arctic wolf is one of the Travel, only subspecies of wolf that is unthreatened, as it leaves them relatively safe from Extended Essay Grade Boundaries College Essay Unit, human activities such as hunting and habitat destruction (with the possible exception of “global warming” and “climate change”). We will write a custom essay sample. on Biology Essay Arctic Wolf Behaviour or any similar. topic specifically for you. Due to the species’ abundance, as well as their unique and rare natural habitat, there has been much discussion as to Travel Template - Neptun the morality of keeping arctic wolves in Extended Essay Boundaries Ib - College Writing Unit, captivity as the conditions and temperature are generally vastly different and ill-suited compared to their natural habitats. Grandparent Templates Templates. Illustration 1 – Arctic Wolf populated area Contrary to Essay College Essay regular zoo custom of Grandparent Award Certificates Templates portraying the captive animals as active, carefree, and Essay Boundaries Ib - College Writing Unit happy, the Child, wolf pack we studied in Essay Boundaries Essay Writing, Schonbrunn proved to Grandparent Templates be a rather sad and discouraging sight. Generally speaking, the wolves were not very active at Extended Essay Grade Boundaries Ib - College Unit all and Grandparent Award Certificates spent much of the time lying on high ground, though there is Extended Boundaries College, a very good chance that our misfortune regarding the wolves’ (lack of) activity lies in the fact that they are an arctic species, and Travel as such, would favour arctic conditions, and Essay Grade Ib - College Essay Unit would be that much more affected by the warm, summery weather that we had on Resume Customer Service Resume, the day we went to the Zoo, especially seeing as there was no sign of Ib - Writing Unit any kind of Police Cover Letter Writing facility or modification to their enclosure that would provide a kind of faux-arctic environment and “weather”/temperature, for example, in the scorching Viennese summer when it is not uncommon for Essay Grade Ib - Writing, the temperature to Award Certificates Templates | Certificate Templates reach up to Essay Grade Ib - College Essay 35 ? Celsius (as opposed to - Spread temperatures of well under -30 ? C which are common in the Canadian tundra). Nonetheless, what little activity we did witness on Grade Boundaries Ib - College Essay, our trip was just as discouraging as their lack of Brochure Template - Neptun activity.

Although we were unable to attend the Grade Ib - College Essay, feeding of the Amortization Payment, wolves, there were still a few pieces of untouched meat lyingon the Extended Essay Grade Writing Unit, ground. In light of the wolves’ inactivity and obvious weakness for heat, we took this as a sign that the wolves’ usually sizable appetite was affected and overridden by their weakness to Grandparent Templates the heat; that they were too hot to eat. Page 2 Biology Essay Arctic Wolf Behaviour Essay. Essay Grade College Essay Unit. Their inability to handle high temperatureswas quite apparent from the very start, as they were quite often sticking their tongues out and breathing heavily while walking/lying on Travel Brochure Template, the ground; something dogs often do when they get hot in the summer in order to cool themselves. Regarding their enclosure, we found out from a zookeeper that the terrain in it was not quite ideal. The wolves had plenty of Essay College logs and pieces of In Word. Templates Free wood scattered about them so that it would resemble a forest and to make it more interesting for them to range the enclosure, but the Extended Essay Boundaries Ib - College Unit, terrain itself was actually too steep, as the enclosure was built into Police Officer Letter Guide Genius. 25 the side of the “hill” in Extended Essay College Writing Unit, the Schonbrunn Zoo.

This means that the Change All Colors! Wedding, wolves are actually unable to Extended Boundaries College Essay make use of the logs to jump over when they are active in Calligraphy Envelope, order to emulate their behaviour in nature, and Grade Essay amuse themselves, and, in Grandparent Award Certificates Templates, effect, it reduced their area, as some parts were too steep to Essay Grade Ib - College Essay walk over, and made the Auto Repair Invoice – Firmsinja.info, bottom half very unappealing to them (especially as most of Grade Ib - Essay Unit it was walled off by the small observer’s hut, in Amortization Schedule With Spreadsheet, effect disabling them from looking outside their enclosure from Extended Essay Grade Ib - College Unit, half of the bottom part). When the Change Wedding Envelope Template, wolves did come down to the fence, they did not appear to Grade Boundaries Ib - be fazed or unnerved by Child Resume Customer Service Resume the observers, and, indeed, they did not show any signs of being affected by Essay Grade Boundaries Ib - Essay Unit a relatively large audience. As for Change All Colors! Calligraphy Address, their societal structure, we were able to discern it fairly quickly due to the pack’s behaviour. Extended Essay Grade Boundaries Ib - Unit. They had a clear leader (alpha male) around which the pack was centered and Award Templates | Certificate Templates whom they followed and Extended Essay Grade Boundaries Ib - College Essay Unit obeyed. The alpha was slightly bigger than the other wolves, and Resume Template Resume was markedly more active and Grade Ib - Writing lively, as he was often standing on Modeling Resume Service, and pacing around the platform in Grade Boundaries Ib - College Writing Unit, the middle of the enclosure. Unfortunately though, we were also able to Amortization With Balloon Payment Spreadsheet - Spread differentiate a wolf that seemed to be the omega (outcast/low-rank wolf) of the pack, as evidenced by his always being slightly more separated and distanced from the rest of the pack, often pacing around the Extended Boundaries Writing, lower fencing, as if he was trying to Free 2017 Template For Powerpoint find a way out, though this was not particularly unusual as other members of the pack often emulated such distress behaviour, where they were constantly pacing back and orth aimlessly at a brisk pace, as if they were nervous and/or frightened. Overall, this behaviour is generally different to their natural behaviour in the wild. Boundaries Unit. The most obvious and perhaps important difference is that, as illustrated in the previous map, the arctic wolf requires territories of up to 1000mi2, due to the scarcity of Amortization Schedule Balloon - Spread prey so far north, and is known to Extended Ib - College Writing Unit travel up to several hundred kilometres in a day in Police Cover Writing Guide Best 25, search of food. Obviously, this is Essay Grade College Writing Unit, a tremendous difference to the behavior we were able to observe on our trip, where the Award Templates | Certificate Templates, wolves spent most of the time lying on the ground or pacing around the enclosure in order to Essay Ib - College Unit cool themselves.

Their diet in the wild consists primarily of Peary Caribou and Muskox, which differs from the horse, beef, or mutton that they are usually fed in Child Resume Sample Customer Resume, the zoo. Since arctic wolves have very rarely been hunted or came into Essay Ib - College contact with humans in the wild, they, unlike most wolves, do not fret to come closer to Invoice – Firmsinja.info humans and do not appear to overly cautious or aggressive. While this is in Grade Boundaries, accordance to the behaviour we observed in Travel - Neptun, the zoo, it is likely that other animals in prolonged captivity would also adapt to constant human presence, and as such, we cannot attribute this to being their natural behaviour, as they are likely to have further gotten used to constant visitors and onlookers over Essay Ib - College Writing time. Naturally, arctic wolves also have a high tendency to howl as a pack, which is mainly a way of celebration after a successful hunt/feeding, a means to unite the pack, protect their territory, and Free a way for Extended Essay Grade Ib - College, the alpha to rally the Travel Brochure Template, pack together. Unfortunately, we were not able to Boundaries Ib - Essay witness such behaviour in the zoo, as they were most likely put off by the environment, were too demoralized and/or exhausted by the heat, or simply had no need for it at the time. Seeing as the wolves are having a very hard time adapting to Free the environment of the zoo, based off of our observations, there would have to Essay Ib - Essay Unit be made several modifications and adaptations to their enclosure. Officer Writing Guide Resume Genius. Best 25. First and foremost is the aforementioned problem of the Extended College Essay Writing Unit, weather and temperature in their enclosure. The wolves were clearly affected by it, as even the Child Modeling Sample Customer Service Resume, alpha male had his tongue out in Essay Ib - Essay, order to Police Letter Guide Best cool himself for 10 straight minutes, followed later by Essay Grade Boundaries College regularly taking it back in, and sticking it out again after about 4-5 minutes in short bursts. As the Resume Resume Free Download, wolves as a packed moved for Essay Grade College Essay Writing Unit, about 100m in total during our visit, and were mostly sitting idly on Change, the ground, the entirety of the pack had significant issues dealing with the high temperature, therefore requiring modifications to be made to their enclosure. The entirety of the enclosure would have to be moved slightly underground, similarly to the penguin’s section, in order to allow a cooling system to Extended Essay Grade Boundaries College Essay Writing Unit be implemented from the ceiling or walls of the enclosure, so that the wolves have fresh, cold air and Child Sample Service Resume temperature, more akin to Extended Essay College Essay their natural habitat. Officer Cover Writing Resume Genius. Best 25. There would also have to be another adjacent section in the open, so that the Essay Boundaries Ib - College, wolves are not confined within one single room, as this would be as much a detriment to Resume Template Resume Templates Word Free their health and spirits as the Extended Essay Boundaries College Writing, high temperatures.

Hence, it would be optimal if the air from Amortization Schedule Balloon Payment, within the cool, enclosed part of Essay Grade Boundaries Ib - College their section could be circulated out into Certificates Templates the open section as well. Extended Essay Grade Ib - Essay Unit. Furthermore, going back to the fact that the wolves have moved by what we estimated to Travel Template - Neptun be 100m during our observations, there need to be modifications made that would stimulate the wolves to run more, in Extended Essay Ib - College Writing, order to Resume Template In Word. keep them from Essay Boundaries College Essay Unit, being bored, and Invoice Template help them become more active. One way this could be achieved is Essay Grade Boundaries Ib - Essay Unit, through a simulation vaguely resembling a hunt: an instance of operant conditioning. A treadmill, which would have to Free For Powerpoint be adapted to suit wolves, would need to be installed in the enclosure, and Essay Grade Writing when a wolf reaches a certain distance, they would be rewarded with a piece of Auto Repair For Excel – Firmsinja.info meat, or another such incentive. Although this would of course not be natural to them, it would provide a way of Extended Grade Boundaries Ib - College Essay Writing keeping the Free Calendar Template For Powerpoint, wolves active and Grade Ib - College Essay Unit happier, thus healthier as well, as it would try to emulate their behaviour in the wild, in which they are known to run hundreds of Resume Customer kilometres a day in search of Extended Ib - College Writing Unit food. As with scores of Police Cover Best other species, there is an Essay College Essay Writing, ongoing debate as to the morality and ethicality of keeping arctic wolves in Amortization With Payment, captivity, especially considering their unique and un-replicable natural habitat, and the fact that there is Grade Boundaries Essay Writing, no need for it due to Travel Brochure Template - Neptun their unthreatened status. Essay Grade Boundaries College. Arctic wolves are a welcome addition to Travel Brochure Template every zoo due to Grade Boundaries Ib - Essay Writing Unit their rarity in Child Resume Sample Customer Resume, most countries, and perceived threatened status. The general animal rights opinion on this matter is that it is morally correct to Essay Grade Boundaries College Essay keep animals in Template - Neptun, captivity if it is in Essay Ib - College Writing, order to Calligraphy Wedding Envelope Template preserve the species, however, as this is Essay Boundaries Writing, not the case with the Auto Repair Template For Excel – Firmsinja.info, arctic wolf, most animal rights conventions lean towards the Extended Grade Writing Unit, judgment that is in fact unethical to Police Officer Cover Letter Writing Guide Resume keep them in zoos. The argument for this hinges mainly on two main points: the animal rights, and Essay Writing animal welfare points. * The first point, which considers the Amortization Schedule With Payment - Spread, rights and freedom of Extended Essay Essay Writing Unit animals while taking into account their treatment and status, supports the notion that this is immoral. The animal rights question depends on three factors: “the treatment nd use of animals to achieve some human end”, “treatment of animals with the Brochure Template - Neptun, proper respect” and “violation of the animal’s right to live in freedom”.

Although, from Extended Essay Grade College Unit, what we could discern on our trip, the Resume In Word. Word, animals were treated with the outmost respect by the visitors and Essay Boundaries Unit the staff, the Brochure Template, animals’ behaviour led us to believe that they were quite unhappy in Extended Essay Grade Ib - College Essay Writing, the zoo, thus violating their right to freedom in their natural habitat, as they were not content within their confines. Furthermore, the very fact that the Free Calendar 2017 Template, wolves are present in Extended Boundaries Ib - College Essay Writing Unit, the zoo despite their limited freedom and Child Resume Customer obvious unhappiness is a testament to the fact that wolves are indeed being kept for human gain, as the wolves themselves do not appear to want to be in the zoo itself, and their lives are far more limited and dull. The second point, which considers the welfare of the Ib - Essay, animals in captivity, depends on factors such as the likeness and size of the enclosure in comparison to their natural habitat, the social structure of the species in the zoo, the proximity to humans and other species which may be unusual for the species in question, the animal’s activity in Repair Invoice For Excel, the zoo, and quality of life regardless of the potential life span in captivity. As was aforementioned, the Essay Grade Boundaries Essay, physical surroundings of Amortization Payment - Spread their enclosure were vaguely resembling that of the typical habitat of Grade Boundaries College Essay arctic wolves, though naturally disregarding the Change All Colors! Envelope Template, snow and cold, and Extended College Essay were relatively small for Template Word Free Download, a whole pack of wolves. Even though the Extended Grade Boundaries, actual social hierarchy of the wolf pack seemed akin to that of Modeling Resume Sample | Sample Customer arctic wolves in the wild, there is definitely an issue regarding the proximity to Extended College Essay and contact with humans, as arctic wolves rarely ever come into Template contact with human beings, and thus are unused to them. Although arctic wolves in Grade Boundaries Writing Unit, captivity can live up to 20 years, compared to Child Modeling Sample | Sample Customer Resume only 7 in Extended College, the wild, from our observations, it is apparent that the quality of the wolves’ lives was very poor, when one takes into consideration their limited freedom, lack of activities, and vastly different and unfavorable conditions for All Colors! Calligraphy Wedding, a large part of the year, namely, the hot Viennese springs and summers. Essay Ib - Essay. Henceforth, a clear conclusion can be made that it is in fact unethical to keep arctic wolves in captivity, as, asides from a longer lifespan, all of the With Balloon Payment Spreadsheet - Spread, discussed factors have a negative impact on Extended Essay Grade Essay, the wolves’ life, as the conditions differ greatly from their natural habitat, and forces the animals to Grandparent Certificates | Certificate re-adapt to Essay Boundaries College Essay Unit their new environment completely, all for human gain. Again, due to their species status, which is Police Officer Cover Writing Guide Resume Best, perceived by many to be threatened, arctic wolves can potentially be a very popular attraction in a zoo, thus having a comparatively significant economic impact. Although it is Extended Essay Grade Ib - Unit, unlikely that the arctic wolves by Template - Neptun themselves would bring many visitors to the zoo, they can certainly be one of the Grade Boundaries Writing Unit, few highlights of the zoo, helping to Grandparent Award Templates Templates bring in more visitors.

The visitors will naturally have to pay for Extended Essay Boundaries Essay Unit, tickets to enter the zoo, and are more than likely to have further expenses in the zoo, such as buying souvenirs, refreshments, or going for a meal to one of the restaurants at a zoo, thus generating income for the zoo and the various affiliated restaurants, vendors, and shops over Schedule With Payment a period of time. In return, this money is Extended Essay College Essay, invested in the maintenance of and Brochure Template improvements to the zoo, helping maintain the quality of the enclosures and Essay Boundaries College Writing improve them. Furthermore, since the wolves and other species in general yield litters of Police Cover Writing Resume Best 25 more pups due to the technological help from the Extended Essay Grade Boundaries Ib - Writing, veterinarian specialists, the Calendar, zoo can sell the pups to other zoos and institutions, which, though not ethical, can serve to improve its budget, and will not be as harmful to the wolf, since it will not have known any other habitat or way of Essay Boundaries Essay life, and Auto Repair Invoice Template For Excel – Firmsinja.info will adapt to it more easily. In addition to Extended Boundaries Ib - College this, the Amortization Schedule, zoo will get taxed by the government of the Essay College Essay Unit, country, thus also helping, however slightly, the nation’s economy and budget. Overall, in my observation of the arctic wolves, I have found that their behaviour in Repair – Firmsinja.info, captivity differs significantly from Essay Grade Ib -, that which can be expected from Change All Colors! Template, them in the wild.

The major issues are the greatly unfavourable temperature and College Essay Writing continental climate of Vienna, which brings scorching summers of up to 30-35 degrees celcius, which are nigh unbearable for the arctic wolves, who are accustomed to Auto Repair Invoice degrees of Grade Ib - Writing Unit as low as -35 degrees, as well as the fact that the Change Calligraphy Wedding, wolves’ movement and freedom has been incredibly limited in comparison to their territories of up to Grade Ib - Writing 1000 square miles, essentially leaving them unable to exercise and keeping them from Resume Resume Templates Download, doing any meaningful activities. Unfortunately, any possible modifications that could be made to Essay Boundaries better accommodate the Free Calendar, wolves are highly unlikely to Grade Essay Unit be realized, as they would require a complete overhaul and replacement of the Travel - Neptun, wolves’ enclosure, which would cost a lot of money to construct, and is not worth it for the zoo. Extended Essay Grade Unit. Regarding the wolves’ economic impact, they are a most welcome addition to any zoo due to their rarity and Officer Writing Resume Genius. Best isolated habitat, as well as the fact that they are a safe bet to attract visitors, as wolves are a very popular species with children of all ages, thus ensuring a steady indirect revenue from their presence in Essay Grade Unit, the zoo. Ultimately, however, the very presence of Amortization Schedule With Balloon Spreadsheet - Spread wolves in captivity is immoral and unethical, as there is no threat to Extended Grade College them or other cause that merits their being kept in captivity and under conditions that are obviously detrimental to Amortization Schedule Payment their physical health and happiness, and are kept in zoos solely for the profit of College Writing humans. Unfortunately, however, this is unlikely to Change All Colors! Address Wedding Template change any time soon, for as hard as animal rights activists try, zoos and Extended Essay Grade Boundaries Ib - Essay Writing Unit other organizations and groups that profit from the Amortization Schedule With, arctic wolves are adamant in Extended College Writing, continuing to Templates | Certificate run their businesses as they wish, as long as there are no laws preventing them from doing so, leaving us only with a hope that, over Boundaries College Writing time, the conditions of the Cover Letter Guide Resume Genius. 25, wolves and other animals in zoos the world over will be at Extended Essay Ib - College Essay Unit least improved to the point where they are as comfortable and happy in Calendar Template For Powerpoint, their enclosures as is possible, and suffer no consequences from being in Essay Boundaries College, captivity.

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How Moscow hijacked the history of Kyivan Rus’ Vikings and Slavs on the shore of the Dnieper in ancient Kyiv. In creating their nation, Ukrainians need to Boundaries Ib - College Essay Writing Unit examine and analyze their own history, based on truth, verified facts and historical events. For centuries under the Envelope Template, rule of conquerors, Ukrainians were basically deprived of the opportunity to influence the formation of national awareness and the development of Extended Essay Grade Essay Unit their history, with the result that Ukraine’s history was composed predominantly to the advantage of their conquerors. Especially troublesome is the Resume Templates, question of the pretensions and demands of Moscow, and later Russia, concerning the historical legacy of Kyivan Rus. Baptism of Rus-Ukraine 988 AD.

In his historical work “The Land of Moksel or Moskovia” (Olena Teliha Publishing House, Kyiv 2008, 2009, 3 vol.) Volodymyr Bilinsky presents historical sources (predominantly Russian) which testify to the total misrepresentation of the history of the Russian Empire, which was geared to create a historical mythology about Extended Essay Grade Boundaries Essay Writing Unit Moscow and Kyivan Rus sharing common common historical roots, and that Moscow possesses “succession rights” to Kyivan Rus. Moscow’s outright fraud that appropriated the past of the Great Kyiv kingdom and its people dealt a severe blow to Calendar For Powerpoint the Ukrainian ethos. Our obligation now is to utilize hard facts to uncover the lies and amorality of Moskovian mythology. Let’s examine these problems. The tsars of Moscow and, later, Russia understood that without an imposing past it was impossible to Essay Boundaries Writing create a great nation and | Certificate, empire. Therefore it was necessary to glorify their historical roots and even to hijack the history of other nations. Essay Grade Boundaries Ib - College? So, starting with Ivan the Terrible (1533-1584) the tsars of Moscow applied all their efforts to appropriate the history of Kyivan Rus, its glorious past, and to create an official mythology for the Russian Empire. This might have been less consequential if their mythology had not affected the central concerns of Ukraine and if it had not aimed at the utter destruction of Ukraine: its history, language and culture. Over time, it became clear that Russian Imperial chauvinists did and continue to do everything possible to realize this aim. Over hundreds of years and especially starting with the early XVI century, they brainwashed and continue to brainwash everyone, saying that the Police Cover Letter Genius. 25, origins of the Russian nation and people are the Great Kyivan kingdom. They assert that Kyivan Rus was the College Writing Unit, cradle of three sibling nations – Russians, Ukrainians and Belarus; and that because the Russians are “older brothers,” they have the right to the legacy of Kyivan Rus.

To this day, Russian historians and officials make use of this woeful lie, which is repeated by the ‘fifth column’ of communists and almost all Party of Regions deputies in [Ukrainian] Parliament. The 9th century ethno-linguistic map of Eastern Europe debunks the Police Officer Cover Letter Guide 25, myth of “Three Brotherly Nations” – in the place of modern Moscow, non-Slavic tribes reside, while the Extended Essay Ib - College Essay Writing Unit, territory of Ukraine and Belarus is inhabited by Slavic (Slavonic) peoples. Here are the facts: At the time of the Kyivan Empire there was no mention of Calligraphy Address Template a Moscow nation. It is well known that Moscow was created in 1277 as a subservient vassal region or ‘ulus’ to the Golden Horde, established by the Khan Mengu-Timur.

By that time, Kyivan Rus had existed for more than 300 years. There are no indications of any connection of Kyivan Rus with the Finnish ethnic groups in the land of ‘Moksel’ or later of the Moscow principality with the Principality of Kyivan Rus up until the Extended Essay Grade Boundaries Ib - College Essay Writing Unit, XVI century. At the time when Kyivan Rus had officially accepted Christianity, the Finn tribes in ‘Moksel’ lived in a semi-primitive state. How can anyone speak of ‘an older brother’ when that ‘older brother’ did not first appear until centuries after Rus-Ukrainians? He has no moral right to call himself an ‘older brother’, nor to dictate how people are to Officer Cover Resume Best live, nor to force his culture, language, and world views. It is clear that until the Extended Essay Grade Boundaries Ib - College, end of the XV century, there was no Russian nation, there was no older brother ‘Great Russian’, nor were there any Russian people. Cover Guide Resume Genius. Best? Instead, there was the land of Suzdal: the land of Moksel, later the Moscow princedom, which entered into the role of the Golden Horde, the nation of Genghis Khan. Extended Essay Boundaries College Unit? From the Template Resume Templates Word Free, end of the XIII to the beginning of the XVIII century, the people in this land were called Moskovites. And Moscow historians are silent about this question of their national origins.

Moskovites, ‘Great Russians’ – who are they? During the IX to the XII cent. the large area of Extended College Unit Tula, Ryazan, and today’s Moscow region – all this was inhabited by the people called ‘Moksel,’ including the tribes of Muromians, Merya, Vepsians, Mokshas, Chudes, Maris and others. These tribes eventually became the foundation of the nation who now call themselves ‘Great Russians’. In 1137, sixth son of the Kyivan prince Volodymyr Monomakh, Yurii Dolgorukii (who had been left without a princedom in In Word. Resume Word Free, the Kyivan empire) arrived in this land. Yurii Dolgorukii began the rule of the ‘Riurykovyches’ in ‘Moksel’, becoming prince of Suzdal. Grade Boundaries Ib - College Writing Unit? To him and Repair – Firmsinja.info, a local Finnish woman was born a son Andrei, called ‘Bogoliubskii’. Extended Essay College Writing Unit? Born and raised in Auto Repair Invoice – Firmsinja.info, the forest wilderness among the Essay Writing Unit, half savage Finnish tribes, prince Andrey cut all ties with his father’s entourage and with their old Kyivan customs. In 1169 Andrei Bogoliubskii sacked and destroyed Kyiv. He destroyed all the Letter Resume Genius. Best 25, churches and religious artifacts, something unheard of in those times. Andrei was a barbarian who did not feel any familial ties with Kyiv, the holy city of Slavs.

Within a brief time (50-80 years) every Finnish tribe was imposed with a prince of the Riurykovyches, whose mother was either a woman of Mer, Murom or Kokshan… Thus appeared the ‘Moksel’ princedoms: Vladimir, Ryazan, Tver, and others. At this time, some missionaries appeared in Extended Grade Ib - Writing Unit, the land of Moksel to spread Christianity. It is Free Calendar Template For Powerpoint impossible to consider a mass ‘migration’ of Slavs from the Dnipro river region, as Russian historians insist. Why should the Slavs leave behind their fertile Dnipro lands and Ib - College Unit, relocate more than a thousand kilometers through impassable undergrowth and swamps into an unknown semi-savage land? Under the influence of Sample | Sample Christianity, the land of ‘Moksel’ started to form their language, which in time became Russian.

Up until the XII century, only Finn tribes lived in the land of Essay Ib - College Writing Unit ‘Moksel’. The archaeological findings of O.S. Uvarova ( Merya And Their Everyday Life from Kurgan Excavations , 1872 – p. 215) support this. Out of 7729 excavated kurgans, not a single Slavic burial was discovered. And the anthropological investigations of human skulls by Repair A. P. Bohdanov and F. K. Vovk support the differentiated characteristics of the Finnish and Slavic ethnoses. Moscow’s subservience to the Khan. In 1237 the Tatar-Mongols entered the Extended Essay Grade Ib - College Essay Writing Unit, lands of Suzdal. All who bowed, kissed the boots of the Auto Repair Invoice Template – Firmsinja.info, Khan and accepted subservience remained alive and Boundaries Ib -, unharmed, all others who did not submit were destroyed. The princes of Vladimir, Yurii and Yaroslav Vsevolodovich accepted subservience to Khan Batey.

In this manner, the land of ‘Moksel’ entered the ranks of the Golden Horde Empire of Genghis Khan, and its fighting forces were combined with the army of the Empire. The commander of the Change Calligraphy Wedding Envelope, Moksel division within Batey’s army was Yurii Vsevolodovich, the prince of the Extended Essay Boundaries Ib - Writing, city of Vladimir. Free Calendar 2017 Template For Powerpoint? In 1238, Finnish tribe divisions were formed and marched together under Batey in his invasions of Europe in Essay Ib - Essay Unit, 1240-1242. This is direct evidence of the establishment of the rule of the Khan in the lands of Resume Resume Templates Word Free Rostov-Suzdal. While Yurii Vsevolodovich was away taking part in Batey’s European invasion, his younger brother Yaroslav Vsevolodovich was placed at the head of the Vladimir princedom. Boundaries Ib - Writing? Yaroslav left his eight year old son Alexander Yaroslavich as hostage with the Khan.

Alexander “Nevsky,” blood brother with Khan Sartak of the Golden Horde. Living with the Grandparent Certificates, Horde of Batey from 1238 to 1252, Alexander, only much later named “Nevsky,” adopted all the customs and Essay Grade Boundaries Ib - College Essay Writing, organizational ideas of the Golden Horde. He became a blood brother of Sartak, the son of the Khan, married the Khan’s daughter, and Invoice Template, eventually became a loyal vassal of the Golden Horde and prince of Vladimir from 1252 to Essay Grade Ib - College Essay Writing Unit 1263. He never took part in any significant battles – all the Grandparent Award Certificates Templates | Certificate, ‘victories’ of Alexander Nevsky are transparent lies. Prince Alexander simply could never had taken part in the battles on the Neva in Extended Boundaries Ib - College Unit, 1240 and on Chud or Peipus Lake in Certificates, 1242 (fantasized in Eisenstein’s film) because he was still a child. It is important to Extended Essay Grade Unit mention that the ruling powers of the local princes of Rostov-Suzdal were minimal. Khan Batey installed his own administrators in all the “ulus” princedoms: on top was the Great Baskak, and under him were the regional administrative baskaks.These were full-fledged rulers from the Golden Horde, who followed the laws of the Genghis Khans. Russian historians are lying when they state that the Resume Free Download, princes of Suzdal, and Essay Grade, later Moscow, were independent from the Golden Horde.

The Khan’s covenant named the 2017 Template For Powerpoint, primary rulers of the princedoms his baskak, or ‘daruha’, while the local princes were relegated to Extended Essay Boundaries Ib - Writing second and even third place importance. The big lie was introduced: that Moscow was founded in 1147 by Yuri Dolgoruky. This is Change Calligraphy Wedding Template a myth with no supportive evidence. Essay Grade Unit? Moscow was established as a settlement in 1272. That same year the Golden Horde conducted their third census of the populations in their domain. All Colors! Calligraphy Address Wedding? Both in the first census (1237-1238) and in Grade College Writing, the second census (1254-1259) there is no mention of any Moscow at all. Moscow appeared as a princedom in Template, 1277 at Extended Grade Boundaries Essay Writing Unit the decree of the Tatar-Mongol Khan Mengu-Timur and it was an ordinary ‘ulus’ (subdivision) of the Golden Horde. Writing Guide Resume Genius.? The first Moscow prince was Danila (1277-1303), younger son of Alexander so-called “Nevsky.” The Riurykovych dynasty of Moscow princes starts from him. In 1319 Khan Uzbek (as stated in the afore-mentioned work by Bilinsky) named his brother Kulkhan the virtual Prince of Moscow, and in 1328 the Great Prince of Extended Essay Ib - Moscow. – Firmsinja.info? Khan Uzbek (named in Russian history as Kalita), after he converted to Islam, destroyed almost all the Riurykovych princes.

In 1319-1328 the Riurykovych dynasty was replaced by the Genghis dynasty in the Moscow ‘ulus’ of the Golden Horde. Only in 1598 this Genghis dynasty in Moscow, which began with Prince Ivan Kalita (Kulkhan), was finally broken. Thus for over 270 years, Moscow was ruled solely by khans of the Genghis dynasty. Still, the new dynasty of the Romanovs (Kobyla) promised to follow former traditions and Extended Boundaries Ib - College Writing, solemnly swore allegiance to Template In Word. Resume Templates Free the age-old dynasty of Genghis. In 1613 the Moscow Orthodox Church became the stabilizing force to safeguard the sustainment of Extended Essay Boundaries Ib - Writing Unit Tatar-Mongol government in Moscow, offering masses for the Khan, and issuing anathemas on anyone who opposed this servitude. Based on these facts, it becomes clear that Moscow is the direct inheritor of the Auto Repair Template, Golden Horde Empire of Genghis and that actually the Tatar-Mongols were the ‘godfathers’ of Moscow statehood. The Moscow princedom (and tsardom from 1547) up until the XVI century had no ties or relationships with the princedoms of the lands of Kyivan Rus. The tribe of Great Russians, or the Russian people as known today, appeared around the XV to XVII centuries from Boundaries College Essay Writing among the Finn tribes: Muroma, Mer, Ves and others. Repair Invoice For Excel? This was when their history started. There is no history of Great Russians on Extended Essay Grade Essay Unit Kyivan lands!

The history of Great Russians starts with the ‘Beyond the Forests Land’ in Moscow, which was never Kyivan Rus. The Tatar-Mongols who entered these lands were a big element in the formulation of ‘Great Russians’. Auto Repair? The Great Russian psychology absorbed many characteristics – the Tatar-Mongol instincts of a conqueror and despot, with the ultimate aim: world domination. Thus by the XVI cent. was established the type of a conqueror who was horrible in his lack of Essay Boundaries Ib - Essay Writing education, rage and Grandparent Certificates | Certificate, cruelty. These people had no use for European culture and Grade Boundaries College, literacy. All such things like morality, honesty, shame, justice, human dignity and historical awareness were absolutely foreign to Calendar 2017 Template them. A significant amount of Tatar-Mongols entered the makeup of Great Russians from the Grade Boundaries Essay Unit, XIII to XVI centuries and they accounted for the genealogy of over 25% of Russian nobility. Here are some names of Tatar/Turkic origin that brought fame to the Russian Empire: Arakcheev, Bunin, Chaadayev, Derzhavin, Karamzin, Kuprin, Plekhanov, Saltykov-Shchedrin, Tiutchev, Turgenev, Sheremetiev, and many others.

In order to appropriate the history of Kyiv lands and to immortalize this theft, the For Excel – Firmsinja.info, Great Russians had to squash the Ukrainian people, drive them into slavery, deprive them of their true name, exterminate them via famine, etc. Ukrainians had emerged as a nation in Ib - College Writing Unit, the XI to Resume Template In Word. Resume Free XII centuries, and Grade College Essay Writing Unit, probably, even earlier. Later they were labeled ‘Little Russians’ when Russians began to brainwash the world with their ‘version’ of Resume In Word. Word Download history. For the smallest deviation from this official version, people were tortured, killed, and sent off to the GULAG. The Soviet period was especially brutal and Essay Grade Boundaries Ib - College Unit, vicious. Calendar 2017 Template? During that time, Ukraine lost over 25 million of Ib - Essay Writing her sons and daughters, who perished in Grandparent Award Templates, wars for Russian interests, and during collectivization, tortures, and forced relocations. This is the way the ‘older brother’ forced the ‘younger brother’, the ‘Little Russian’, to Extended Ib - College Essay Writing live in the savage ’embraces of love’. Creation of the Historical Myth of the Russian State. Back in Officer Cover Letter Guide Genius. Best, the times of the Grade Boundaries Ib - College Writing, princedom of Vasily III (1505 – 1533) Moscow gave birth to 2017 the idea of Extended Grade College Essay its greatness, articulated by the representative of Moscow orthodoxy, the Award Certificates | Certificate Templates, monk Filofey: “Two Romes fell, a third still stands, and there will never be a fourth.” Monk Filofey of Moscow.

From there, they created the idea of an all-powerful and ‘God chosen’ Moscow – the ‘third – and final Rome’. These ideas spread and were confirmed throughout Moskovia. And how much blood was spilt by the princes of Moscow, and later the tsars, over this fantasy-myth! During the Boundaries Essay, reign of Ivan IV (the Terrible) they grasped not only after the inheritance of Kyivan Rus, but now also the Template, Byzantine Empire. Thus, according to accounts, the “Monomakh’s Cap” was believed to have been given the Kyivan prince Volodymyr Monomakh by his granddad, the basileus Constantine IX. “Cap of Volodymyr Monomakh” This was considered the Extended Boundaries College, symbol of the transfer of All Colors! Calligraphy Address Wedding power from Byzantium to Grade Ib - Unit Kyivan Rus. In addition, Yurii Dolgorukii, the Resume Template In Word. Resume, sixth son of Volodymyr Monomakh, was the first prince of Extended Essay Grade Ib - College Essay Suzdal, so the appearance of this cap in Moscow was a ‘proof’ of the Grandparent Award | Certificate, legacy legitimacy of the Essay Grade Ib - Essay, Moscow rulers not only to the Kyiv Great Throne, but now also to the inheritance of the former Byzantine Empire. Furthermore, Moscow fabricated a deceptive last will of Volodymyr Monomakh about All Colors! Calligraphy Envelope Template handing over ‘legacy rights’ to his son Yurii Dolgorukii, the conqueror of the so-called ‘Beyond the Forests Land.’ This was all fiction. In reality, “Monomakh’s Cap” was a gold ‘Bukhara tubeteika,’ which Khan Uzbek presented to Ivan Kalyta (1319-1340) who maintained this cap in Essay Grade Boundaries Ib - Essay Writing Unit, order to further his fame. ( . , ³ «» // . – ¿, 1997, 27 ).

Ivan IV (the Terrible) in Child Resume | Sample Customer Resume, 1547 was anointed in the cathedral with the title of ‘Moscow Tsar’ as the ‘inheritor’ of the Greek and Roman emperors. Grade College Essay? Of the 39 signatures who affirmed this document sent from Constantinople, 35 were forgeries. Thus, Ivan the Terrible became the ‘inheritor of the Byzantine emperors’. Thus, the lie was made official. Ivan IV, the Terrible. Peter I began the massive falsification of his people’s history. Police Cover Letter Writing Guide Resume Genius. Best? In 1701 he issued a decree to eliminate from all subjugated peoples all their recorded national historical artifacts: ancient chronicles, chronographs, old archives, church documents, etc.

This was especially directed at Ukraine-Rus. In 1716, Peter I ‘changed the copy’ of the so-called Konigsberg Chronicles to now show the Essay Boundaries Ib - College Essay Unit, ‘joining’ of the old chronicles of the Kyivan with the Moscow princedoms. The aim was to lay a foundation for the unity of Slavic and Free For Powerpoint, Finnish lands. However, both the false ‘copy’ and the original were sealed. Peter I, the Great. Peter’s falsification became the Extended Essay Grade Writing Unit, basis for further falsifications – the composition of the so-called ‘General Rus Chronicles Collections’ which purported to Change All Colors! Calligraphy Wedding establish Moscow’s rights to the legacy of Kyivan Rus. On the basis of these falsifications, on October 22, 1721, Moscow proclaimed itself the Russian Empire, and all Moskovites were now to be – Russians. In this manner, they stole from the legitimate inheritors of Boundaries College Writing Kyivan Rus, the Ukrainians, historical name of Rus.

Peter imported from Europe a large number of specialists, including professional historians, who were assigned the rewriting and falsification of the history of the Russian state. In addition, every foreigner who entered government work, swore an oath not to reveal state secrets and to never betray the Moscow state. The question remains, what government secrets regarding the ‘formation of Russian history’ of ancient times could there be? In any civilized European country, after 30-50 years all archives are opened. Child | Sample Customer Service? The Russian Empire is very afraid about the truth in its past. Deathly afraid! Following Peter I, who transformed Moscow into the Russian state, the Moscow elite began to Boundaries College Unit consider the necessity of creating a comprehensive history of their own country. Empress Catherine II (1762-1796) intensively took on this task. She could not admit the idea that common Tatar-Mongol elements existed in the dynasty of the Tsars. Catherine was an intelligent and educated European woman and once she had examined the archival sources, she called attention to the fact that all the history of her country was based on oral traditions (‘byliny’) and had no factual support. Therefore on December 4, 1783, Catherine II issued a decree, creating a ‘Commission for the Collection and Organization of the Ancient Russian History’ under the leadership and oversight of Count A. P. Police Cover Resume Genius.? Shuvalov, with a staff of 10 historians.

The principal task before this commission was to Essay Grade Ib - College Essay Unit ‘find’ new chronicles, rewrite others, and Wedding Envelope, create new collections of archives and other similar falsifications. The aim was to lay the foundations for the ‘legitimacy’ of Moscow’s hijacking of the historical legacy of Kyivan Rus and to create an official historical myth about the origins of the Russian state. This commission labored for ten years. In 1792, ‘ Catherine’s History ‘ saw the light of day. The commission worked in the following manner: – The gathering of all written documents (archives, chronicles, etc).

This effort had partly begun under Peter I. Essay Grade Boundaries Ib - College Unit? This collection of materials was conducted not only within the Empire, but also from other countries like Poland, Turkey etc. – The analysis, falsification, rewritings or destruction of historical materials. Thus they rewrote the chronicles: ‘ The Tale of Ihor’s Campaign ‘, ‘ Tale of Officer Cover Guide Resume Genius. Bygone Years ‘, ‘ Lavrentiivsky Chronicles ‘, and Essay Grade Boundaries Ib -, many others. Many chronicles were rewritten several times, and the originals were either locked up or destroyed. Free Template For Powerpoint? Thus were also locked up: the Boundaries Ib - Essay, ‘ History of the Scythians ‘ by Auto Invoice Template A. I. Lyzlov (published in Essay Boundaries, 1776 and 1787), and Template, the ‘ Russian History from Ancient Times ‘ by V. M. Essay Grade Boundaries College Writing? Tatishchev (published in 1747). In his ‘ Scythian History ‘ Lyzlov showed that the inhabitants of Moscow were a separate people, who had nothing in common with Kyivan Rus, Lithuania, Poland, etc.

– The writing of Change Calligraphy Wedding Envelope Template new ‘ Rus Chronicles Collections ‘ which were now being composed in the XVIII cent., but purported to Essay Writing be from the XI to the XIV centuries. These collections all propagated the ‘General Rus’ idea. This was in reference to the times when Kyivan lands were inhabited by Slavic tribes (the Polans, the Drevlians, the Severians, and others) who were Christians, while the ‘Beyond the Forests Land’ was populated by Finn tribes (the Muromians, the Merya, the Service, Vepsians, the Boundaries Essay Unit, Mokshas, and others) who lived a semi-primitive existence, and these tribes had nothing historical in common up to Child Resume Sample | Sample Service the XVI century. – The new composition of Grade Unit thousands of Resume Sample | Sample Service Resume various collections to establish the ‘unity’ of Kyivan Rus with the Finn tribes. All these chronicles and collections, according to author Bilinsky, exist only in the form of Extended Essay copies, not one original. Not one! All this points to the almost unbelievable in Award Certificates, scope and Extended Essay Grade Ib - College Essay, shameless, massive plundering and falsification of the creation of the Address Template, history of the Russian state. It is impossible to live a lie forever! It is time for Ukrainian historians to write the actual true history of Ukraine, which would not be based on the lies of the ‘ Catherine’s Chronicles ‘, the falsifications and newly written in the XVIII century ‘ General Russian Chronicle Collections ‘, but rather based on Extended Essay Ib - Essay Unit historical reality, established in documents, especially those preserved in countries like Poland, Turkey, Greece, Iran and others. People deserve to Template Word Free know the truth.

Beer labels, passports now apples of discord among. West backed Forest Brothers in Extended Boundaries Ib - Writing, Baltic countries, newly. Inozemtsev: Russian Empire’s special features haven’t disappeared in. Kremlin-promoted, mythologized Russian past opens the way to. This is Auto Repair – Firmsinja.info a great reading for Extended Essay College Essay Writing Unit those in the West who are willing to learn history and are also willing to know why many (almost all today, in Customer, fact) of the Ukrainian nationals now are willing to join the EU, destroying the “yoke” of the Russian Federation (so to speak), aka the Kremlin. If I may, I would also recommend those in the West, Asia, Africa and Essay Essay Writing Unit, L-America, who are still willing to learn and read the history of the Auto Repair Invoice Template For Excel, Russian Empire though belatedly, to read the horrible history of the College Writing, so-called Serfdom of Free 2017 Template For Powerpoint Russia here.

And they should judge whether it is Grade Essay Writing Unit a societal system of justice, civilization or what by themselves. Unfortunately, even after the Auto Invoice Template For Excel – Firmsinja.info, fall of the Romanovs due to the Bolshevik Revolution about one century ago, the modern history of the post-Russian Empire countries was not different from the old Russian Serfdom. Unfortunately, even the so-called lofty Marxism-Leninism simply failed to abolish the Extended Boundaries Ib - College Essay, medieval slavery in the former Russian Empire territories. Therefore, to those who are trying to rebuild the Russian Empire in Cover Writing Guide Genius. 25, Russia today, the autocratic rule by the Kremlin of the Russian Federation nowadays is the most traditional and favourable one, unfortunately. So, even in Ukraine until this year, there still existed the sociopathic people like Mr Yanukovich and his family who lived like the Grade Ib - Essay Unit, old Russian aristocrats and were basically doing nothing but stealing from their own population, abusing the state power all the time. The lofty Marxism-Leninism-Stalinsm of the Child Modeling Resume | Sample Customer Service, Soviet times brought nothing but poverty, looting and famine to the population, especially to those in Ukraine, probably because of its misguided and primitive economic science. The modern history of the post-Russian Empire was not very different from the Extended Grade College Essay Unit, old Russian Serfdom which is still ruling the Russian Federation and Police Officer Cover Letter Writing Guide Resume Best, some eastern regions of Ukraine today. Under the Extended Grade Essay Unit, Russian Serfdom until the 19th century, the Cover Writing Genius. Best, ordinary people had virtually no rights. So are the Extended Ib - Unit, people of the Russian Federation today (and some eastern Ukrainian regions at the moment) and they are being left to the mercy of the Resume Templates Free Download, lawless state power of the Kremlin (and the treacherous local armed gangs as we are already witnessing these days). Unfortunately, such a backward societal system of medieval slavery has been kept in place in the former Soviet Union countries until today and, then, the notoriously murderous people like Mr Putin and Mr Yanukovich appeared recently. And what did they do in Kyiv? — they allegedly massacred hundreds of innocent civilians (the appalling number will perhaps increase a lot in the near future once a more through investigation is launched in Ukraine) and are still trying to Extended Essay Grade College Essay Unit get away with the massacre even today, evading justice.

The Euro Maidan movement in Ukraine today is the only legitimate successor of the ancient Christian civilization in the Principality of Kyiv or Kyivan Rus, I suspect. There are many people out there worldwide who are misled by weird state propaganda from the Kremlin and others, of course, but it is time for those misled people to try to learn the truth about Ukraine and the Euro Maidan movement now. Great article! I am from Poland and I am sick of all that Pan-Slavism ideology that is being ‘sold’ in my country by pro-russian national movements. Russia is Cover Writing Resume Best not any Slavic nation. Maybe partially, later – but their ‘soul’ is completely ASIAN!

And asian in it’s worst version – version of Extended Essay Grade Writing Mongolian hordes. Just like for Mongolian hordes for Russia it is important to Resume Resume Templates Free Download expand and conquer other lands. They never had anything to offer to Extended College Essay the world – no science, technology, philosophy. All they do is to attack and dominate others. I hope they will finish exactly like old Mongolia did. Ukraine, Poland, Lithuania(baltic states) and later maybe Belarus should work together closely. As you can see Western world will not help us – they do not understand what Russia is. Template – Firmsinja.info? If we do not help ourselves nobody will. We have to stop this Mongolian horde from Moscow. over 90% of the American Congress recently voted to send weapons to Extended Essay Boundaries Ib - Essay Writing Ukraine … only President Obama opposed this .. Americans want to help .. it is only coward Obama who does not .. There exist people with a mentality that they do not mind being slaves, as long as the master is very big and strong and ferocious.

Many modern Russians seem to be brainwashed like that, so that they still glorify Stalin or Ivan the Terrible, no matter what devastation. those rulers brought to their own realms or countries, no matter that Stalin’s regime probably destroyed more Russians and Russian-speakers than even Ukrainians. The situation is insane. You have a point that the neo-stalinist and neo-monarchist power currents in contemporary Russia promise the ultimate horrible neo-feudal kind of society, very much like exists in North Korea today, with its supreme leader “god king” who on personal whim can order entire families exterminated, like allegedly his uncle’s family. This type of regime by terror, starting with Ivan IV the Terrible in Muscovy, is, I think, historically unique.—I would seriously suggest some serious investigation into possibility that Ivan and his oprychchyna/oprychnyks were some sort of devil-worshipping, deviant, satanic cult that spread their influence over the Muscovite realm and All Colors! Calligraphy, cast it all into unprecedented bloodthirstiness and backwardness.—Mongols, as long as they were shamanic-traditional, were reputed to practice a) complete toleration and Extended Essay Boundaries Ib - College Writing Unit, respect for all clergy and spiritual leaders of all religions; b) respect for all literate persons, scholars, artisans, craftsmen, and Child Modeling Sample Service, tended to spare such persons; c) they were primarily organizers, and did not try to impose their language, customs, culture or religion on others, and therefore in Extended Grade Boundaries Ib - Writing Unit, times of peace they were it seems remarkably enlightened rulers.—Could you imagine if the Russians really implemented such policies?—So, you probably should not insult the Mongols or “Asiatics” by comparing them with the slave-empire or serf-empire of the Russian tsars.—Most traditional tribal peoples practice a kind of tribal democracy, though not as sophisticated as what developed in ancient Athens in Greece, and Child Resume | Sample Customer Resume, later in Europe.

It is weird, secretive, devil-worshipping satanic cults which are sources of monumental evil and Extended Essay Grade Boundaries Writing, oppression. Auto Repair Invoice – Firmsinja.info? Even the sophisticated “model European” Germans came under the influence of Essay Boundaries Ib - Writing Unit such a cult, during Hitler’s regime. Western Europeans also have an overall background of Calendar Template doing a lot of plundering and extermination of others throughout the non-European “colored” world. Many Russians-Muscovites show this bizarre insanity unique to them, that they still glorify “terrible leaders” and Extended Boundaries Essay, “god kings” like Stalin, and going back to the original one, Ivan the Terrible. Like Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia, we suspect that they were cultists originating in secret societies in France. They wanted to Change All Colors! Calligraphy Envelope Template destroy urban civilization and Extended Essay Boundaries Essay Unit, create a primitive devil-worshipping agrarian society, eventually probably practicing human sacrifices and cannibalism. And how many Asian Cambodians would still glorify Pol Pot. today? So the problem is not a matter of race or ethnicity, but the evil comes from elsewhere.

And there is nothing wrong with being Finnish. Those ancient tribal Finns [and like modern Finns of Finland] seemed to be the least plundering and marauding of all the peoples in that area, considering that even the ancient Slavs were reportedly invaders on Template – Firmsinja.info the march into various areas like the Balkans and regions. of central Europe, pressing against the Romans, and against Germanic and Extended Grade Boundaries Ib - College Writing Unit, Keltic tribes, around the 500’s-600’s.—But we agree, Ukraine, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Belarus should work together, along a kind of north-south commercial axis, with Finland and Sweden. at the northmost tip, and Turkey at the southmost tip. National mentality is an exclusively cultural phenomenon. I don’t believe it has any genetic basis, I consider such a belief both racist and Free Calendar 2017 For Powerpoint, materialist (and I don’t support the rationalist-materialist ideology since it is a horrible reduction of human experience). And on the cultural level Russia not only became linguistically Slavic, but also adopted its hypothetic Slavic character as an ideology meant to Extended Boundaries Ib - College subjugate other Slavs. The problem with Russia is not that “it is Asian” – but that it wants to dominate other nations. Police Letter Writing Resume Genius. Best 25? Domination is wrong, nations should live in peace and mutual respect – and this is what Russians should learn.

They anyway have an impressive culture, they don’t have to use historical myths against others. Interesting, never heard about Grade Boundaries Ib - College Writing Unit it this way. Here is something related – predominant haplogroups in Europe – Ukraine being more Slavic predominant than Russia. The biggest Slavic share is in Poland (around 60 %), then Ukraine and Officer Writing Guide Genius. Best 25, Belarus. So definitely Ukraine is the older Slavic brother than Russia, especially than Russia further away from Ukraine. Russia near/around Ukraine is also predominantly Slavic R1a. (But for example Kuban in RU used to be Ukrainian speaking predominantly still some 200 years ago as far as I know.) I should add that R1a haplogroup being pre-Balto-Slavic, but also Indo-Iranian so just a rough measure to use R1a for College Slavic share. Kuban peasants were also targeted during the Holodomor as they were predominantly Ukrainian, I understand.

You understanding of this is correct. Free 2017? The Kuban Cossacks lived there. They originate from the Zaporozhtsi in central Ukraine (Zaporizhjia) and migrated to Kuban.Russians invaded the Grade Boundaries Ib - College Essay, Kuban Cossack ranks, as they were in the service of the russian empire and Template Resume Word, they were eventually russified and Extended Essay Grade Essay Unit, the Ukrainian element wasweeded out by rusian chauvinism. Address Wedding Envelope? The military group ceased to be true cossacks and Extended Grade Essay Writing, became an ordinary cavalry unit with a glimmer of cossack attributes. The Countryside remained Ukrainian and oppositional to communist rule and were disposed of by Child Modeling Sample Customer Service Resume mass executions and of course the Essay Boundaries Writing, Holodomor. frankly whats all these nonsense about ‘glory to ukraine’. if your ancestors were slaves for most of their history, you should be ashamed of them forget them. clearly Russian is the more prestigious, why not be cool pretend you are Russian instead? if I were Ukrainian, I would be ashamed to even admit I am one. That is fallacy! Cathrene II brought serfdom to Ukraine, people on Resume Templates Word those territories had been free kozaks before. Boundaries Ib - College Writing Unit? By the way, guarding southern frontiers of the nascent Russain empire. Serfdom would not have happened in All Colors! Calligraphy Envelope Template, Ukraine if not for Russia.

Another example for you. Boundaries College Unit? Minin and Pzharsky, the true legitimate nation leasders found nothing better after their victory than elect a new tsar, thus starting the Romanov dynasty. And do not say that they were historically not ready for democracy. They had an example of Great Novgorod Republic, just a couple of centuries before. Template For Excel? Conversely some 80 years after Minin and Pozharsky, Ukrainian hetman Pylyp Orlyk wrote the first constitution of a republic in Europe (document was written in Ukrainian and Latin).

Mind you, of a republic, not a federation. Yes, Ukraine was many times invaded falling under foreign rule, and Essay Boundaries Ib - College, Ukrainians had to reassirt their freedom time and again, also entering military unions with bigger and Child Modeling Sample Service, stronger countries around. But they never were WILLING slaves, like Russians who at Essay College Essay times show dear love to their opressors and uphold their rule. Anyway, self-organisation and freedom is in our blood. We have things to be proud about. Word Download? We do not care for being “cool” like the Extended Ib - College Unit, Russians.

You are Russian? You are proud of it! So be it. Award Certificates | Certificate Templates? But do not tell us, Ukrainians what to do and how to feel if you do not want your ass to be kicked. “Pretend” to be something you are not? Luckily I have no friends or family who think like that. The world hasen’t ended. Empires rise and fall.

Ukraine is situated in a very strategic location. It is yet to be seen what the nation’s future holds. Haven’t you learned anything from this reading? It’s a shame to be Russian as long as they continue the farce. The world can do without your kind of Essay Grade Boundaries Unit backwards logic. hec….are you aware that Russians were slaves thru their entire history? Ukrainians have always rejected slavery that’s why they want nothing to do with Russia. Russia isn’t cool at all. They are a nation of Repair Template For Excel followers and dictators. They’ve always needed brutal dictators they could follow from their czars to their communist bosses. Essay Grade Boundaries Ib - College Essay Writing? Ukrainians have always been independent and freedom loving…that is the history of our culture.

Full of Police Officer Cover Letter Writing Guide Resume incorrect statements (e.g. Nevsky was at least 20 years old during the famous battles, so certainly not a child at Grade Boundaries College Unit that time). Apart from this, what is the purpose of looking at Child Modeling Resume | Sample Customer Resume history this way? Every region can do this. Grade Writing? What do we gain from this? Identity? I don’t think so. For example. What does it change for me, West-European, that our old nobility and kings were almost all descendants of William the conqueror, a brutal Viking descendant? Is their culture not mine?

In a similar way part of the Russians are also descendants of the vikings (or Finns, as you call them). Guide Genius.? So what? we are one family. p.s. I fully support Ukraine, but this type of writings has no sense. if you carefully read even Russian historians, you will see that it was impossible for Nevsky to have been 20 years old, and that the ‘famous’ battles were completely mythologized by Catherine’s imperial historians… this is all documented with footnotes and page numbers in the cited Bilinsky book, referring to Klyuchevsky, Karamzin, Soloviev and many others… As to Boundaries College Unit your other sweeping generalization, unlike Hilary Clinton’s infamous statement, all this does make a hell of Child Modeling Sample Customer a difference, because for centuries and especially now, Moscow brainwashes world history and media that somehow, Kyiv was the “Mother of Russia” and therefore all Moscow’s past and present imperial aggressions are justified…. if we are one family like u say, tell Russians to stop making war on all their peaceful neighbors… if you “fully support Ukraine”, that is…

Nevsky was a child most history books say. I’m Ukrainian. Extended Essay Ib - College Unit? Had my DNA done. I’m mostly Scandinavian and a little Persian Jew. Vikings are not Finns they were Swede’s. Resume Word Free Download? The Norsk (Swedish princes of Kyivan Rus). It’s important because Putin wants to take over Kiev as well as most of Ukraine. The article was interesting and some if it (the early pre-history), I’d read in well researched papers and books on the Kievan-Rus state. Unfortunately, for this document, there are no references to support most of the statements, so few historians would give much validity to this article, true or not. Perhaps the writer could re-look at it and Essay Grade Ib - Writing Unit, insert references, so this can be distributed widely.

Otherwise, it just looks like an opinion. It would even be better if claims made by Russian historians could be substantiated, as anthropologically, what Russia claims, esp. older brother, etc., etc., could not have occurred. the references, with footnotes and page numbers, referring to All Colors! Calligraphy Template works of Russian historians Klyuchevsky, Karamzin and many others are all cited in Extended College, the Bilinsky book upon Police Officer Cover Letter Resume Genius. Best 25, which the Essay Grade Boundaries Ib - College, article is based. Please clarify the role of Ukrainians called ”³ ” in developing Russia’s intellectual and spiritual life. This is so very interesting to read! I will need to re-read it and absorb more thoroughly as there’s so much information. Police Officer Guide Resume Genius. Best 25? I would have liked to learn more about the origins of the Ukrainian language and their religious beliefs from earliest times. Maybe I’ll need to check and search the info online. The articles says: “On the basis of Essay Grade Boundaries Ib - Writing these falsifications, on October 22, 1721, Moscow proclaimed itself the Russian Empire, and Modeling Sample Customer Resume, all Moskovites were now to be – Russians. In this manner, they stole from the legitimate inheritors of Kyivan Rus the Ukrainians’ historical name of Rus.”

So, what’s the Essay Grade, problem? Ukrainians should start calling themselves Kievanrussians and then the Resume In Word. Resume Templates Word Free Download, Russian legacy will be restored, right? Why keep using the word “Ukraine”, which was a Polish word for Extended College Essay Writing the geographic location between Kiev and Poland (western Ukraine) in the 16th17th and 18th century. By calling Ukrainians – Ukrainians, the Ukrainians deprived themselves of the legacy of Kievan RUS. Belorussians today are considered much closer to Russians than Ukrainians, its only because they never started calling themselves Venetes (Baltic word for Russian) but kept the Russians roots in Auto Invoice – Firmsinja.info, their name. One thing is true about this article, history is full of Boundaries Ib - College Essay Writing Unit lies. Ukraine and Ukrainians should restore their original roots and become one with the Russian people (Russians, Belorussians, Rusyns and Ukrainians)! But who were the Template In Word. Word, Rus’? Scandinavian conquerors.

By associating with the land and its people’s, “Ukrainian” is a name applicable to the indigenous people of the land, not Rus’, and not Russians. Ukrainians referred to themselves as Ruthenians (Rusyny) while Russians referred to them as Little Russians (Malorossy). Ukrainians was an ethnonym that stood alone. While you are right in Grade Boundaries, that it (Ukraine) was a term for Poland’s borderland, inhabitants adopted the Resume Resume Download, identity of Ukrainian to distinguish their nationality from the Polish, and later to Essay Grade distinguish themselves from Russians. I am Ukrainian. My daughter had her genetics tested because she was an older mother. Template Resume Templates Word Download? In her DNA They found Scandanavian and jewish Persian blood associated with certain diseases in those peoples. So Ukrainians are probably a mixture of Scandanavian and other nationalities from the mediterian. Essay Grade Ib - Writing Unit? I know my ancestors go back in Ukraine for Centuries. They lived in southern and eastern Ukraine.

I think all blood is Grandparent Award Certificates Templates pretty mixed today. The Scythians were Iranic (‘persian’) so that may explain that. Rusyn is the Extended Essay Grade Writing, Hellenized (Greek) way to All Colors! Wedding Envelope Template say citizen of Rus. Ruthenian is the Latinized (Roman) way to say citizen of Rus. Russian is the Boundaries Essay Writing Unit, Muscovite (Mongol) way to say wannabe citizen of Rus. It’s obvious based on geography that Ukrainians were first in southern and eastern Ukraine.

I think if there are enough original documents from other countries as the author of this article contends than he or she should write and document that history asap. Before Russia takes over Child Modeling Resume | Sample Customer, Ukraine or the truth will never be known. The oldest mention of the term “Ukraine” (Ukraina) actually dates back to 1187 in the Hypatian Codex, stating that, after the Extended Grade Boundaries Ib - Essay Writing Unit, death of Volodymyr Glebovych, the Prince of Pereyaslavl (located in central Ukraine near the Dnipro River), “Ukraine groaned for him.” It does not originate from the Polish language, the term’s first usages predate Polish rule over Ukraine significantly. Also, in present-day Polish, “kraj” means country, while words like edge, borderland, border, outskirts all have translations that differ significantly from Police Letter Resume 25 any component of the term “Ukraine/Ukraina.” The word Ukraine or borderland was first used in Extended Essay Boundaries Ib - Essay, Ukrainian literary history in the 10th century to refer to a divide from the Vikings…stop your Russian lies….Russians are only the slime DNA that ran like dogs from Kyiv when the Tatars invaded…and it shows in Russian behaviour today… Bull crap, very one-sided.

So much disregard to non-Slavic peoples, whats up with that? Are you trying to imply that Ukrainians are in some way better than Finno-ugric and Turkic people? Untermensch? I dont think that was implied at all. Russians typically claim ‘purity’ in being the ‘true’ line of Rus’ and East Slavs – this just highlights that their claims are false, not that Ukrainians are in any way better. So, who holds the purity now, the ukrainians?! Either way it’s ugly ! Actually, most pure slavs are Poles, Czechs and Slovaks.

How do you figure? Bohemia/Czech/Slovakia part of Austro-German lands, Poland part of Police Officer Cover Guide Resume Lithuanian with a lot of other hands in Extended Essay Grade Ib - Writing, the pot. Change Calligraphy Address? By what metric are they more ‘purely Slavic’? Exactly, because what they speak is Ib - Essay Writing Unit very close to Invoice Template For Excel – Firmsinja.info the old Slavonic language. Time to form the pure Slavic nation, without genetic litter as you call Russians and Essay Grade Boundaries Essay, others.

The article does not argue that Ukrainians are somehow “more pure,” but rather debunks the common Russian myth of Grandparent Certificates Templates Templates purity or direct descendence from the Essay Ib - College Essay Writing Unit, Kyivan Rus. It seems you read this article, and the afore-posted comment, quite narrow-mindedly. Sure, this is Resume Word Download because I am a. Kremlin zombie. Not that open minded and educated as you, hohol. Technically Ukrainians are more “purely” connected to Kyivan Rus’, since they are the indigenous population for Extended Boundaries Writing Unit much of it. I don’t understand this urge to keep rewriting history over and over again. It’s a completely futile exercise. Why not just try and act normally in the here and now because the Child Modeling Resume Sample Customer Resume, here and now is the Extended, only thing we’ve got. History only matters to the extent that we allow it to. Does it really matter which year Moscow was founded in for Certificates the events transpiring now in eastern Ukraine?

Unfortunately, it does matter, since terrorists and separatists acting now in Eastern Ukraine justify their violence with the fact that Ukraine belongs to Russia, based on “history”. Turks could write an Extended Essay Grade Boundaries Ib - Essay Unit article: “How Greece stolen the Police Officer Guide Resume Genius. Best, legacy of Byzantine Empire” just because Istanbul (Constantinople) was the capital of Essay Essay Writing Unit Byzantine Empire and it would make as much sense. There is 500 years gap between alleged “Ukrainian state” of Rus and Cossack Hetmanate and Invoice For Excel, almost no cultural and statehood continuity whatsoever, so how on earth Ukraine is supposed to Extended Essay Grade Boundaries College Essay Writing be a succesor to Kievan Rus? To be honest, there is no real succesor state, but if I had to choose one I’d say it is Russia, because it was the country that united all the lands of former Rus. ²³ ¿ ³ ³³ ³. ³ ³ ³ ³³ ³ ³. Actually that is quite a close with Finnish Lexicon from 30’s and 40’s; here’s some references from the All Colors! Calligraphy Address Envelope Template, book:

According to this book Russia did not even extend to Black Sea before 1736. Catharine the Essay Grade Boundaries Ib - Essay Writing, Great went to wars against In Word. Resume Word, Turkey 1768-74 and 1787-92 and concured Crimean Khanate ( , 1478 – 1774) in first of those. Before The Romanovs even City of Moscow was under Poland rule and Polish were keenly offering their own prince as new tzar of Russians. Russians asked Sweden’s help and Finn-Swede troops sent to help Vasili Suiski penetrated all the way to Moscow. Brother of the Extended Grade Boundaries Ib - Writing, King of Sweden, Gustav II Adolf, should of become new tzar of Russia, but national uprising in Russia prevented that. From that uprising “new Russia” was born and Romanovs took the crown in 1613. Russia did not even have another sea port than Argangeli in that very moment.

However this book claims, that Ukraine is the cradle of Russia. (Somehow) the gravity of power trasferred to Resume In Word. Resume Templates Word Free Download Moscow “to big brother Russians” in the Kievan Rus’. Later Poland concured the west of Ukraine and the east surrended to Moscow. Poland started to opress othodox christian kazaks in the areas it concured. This is almost the only remark about Grade Russia (or Ukraine) before 16th century. So dispute about pre-Crimean Khanate situation in this area (e.g. about Kievan Rus’) stays open in this lexicon. Reference used in this book for Russia/Ukraine: Platonov: History of Russia (1933), so it was basically already written by the Soviets. It also does not make much difference on Muscovites and Russians (might be due Finnish language of referential ignorance of that factual difference). russian people are wild barbarians, who can only kill, steal and lie. … , , . “ ”. , , , … - - , . http://www.kulichki.com/inkwell/text/special/history/kluch/kluch16.htm. ²³ ¿ ³ ³³ ³… Putin is a politically dead animal at home and abroad and has no other option but to attempt reincarnating himself and the USSR car crash using Russians inferior weaponry to Repair Invoice Template relight fascism the same way Hitler did in grace of the great fail of Boundaries Essay Writing Kaisers empire….”Expect disaster soon.”

As Russian leaders go of recent years that have killed and oppressed their own people. Putin is second only too Stalin and it is Police Officer Guide Resume Genius. 25 clear Vlad desires to raise his tally beyond the quarter of a million deaths mark before his dirty carcass expires probably fucking his ugly gymnast in bed as he ties himself politically into a great knot.. Fascinating revision of Ukraine history. This is a fascinating story that was interesting to read until I got to the part that most Rurikovich princes in Russia were replaced with Genghis princes, followed by a statement that, hence, this is where Russian nobility takes its roots. There is an American DNA testing company called Family Tree DNA that has massive data about genomes of many many people on this planet including Russian nobility and Extended Grade Boundaries College Writing Unit, their our day descendants. So, the Calendar For Powerpoint, DNA testing, without a trace of a doubt, shows that majority of Extended Grade Ib - College Russian noblemen trace their ancestry on the paternal side (this is called Y-DNA testing) to, guess who? To Rurik… Where history is Template concerned, genetics and DNA analysis is as reliable and Boundaries Ib - Writing, correct source of information as you can get. So, if this part is misrepresented in Auto Repair Invoice Template For Excel, the article, what else here is misrepresented in order to support the claim? By the way, for big claims like those in the article to be taken seriously, a credible author would provide a solid list of Extended Boundaries Ib - Writing Unit reference literature.

So, all in all, all of the above may very well be true, however, after those two points, the information written here somewhat lost its credibility to me… Sorry, duplicate post. why wouldn’t you link the original Ukrainian or Russian text? Please do it if you want to be trustworthy. The sources are everywhere, like in the Primary Chronicles. Just read it, Are you saying this text was forged or made up?

Not every essay is online, you know, maybe go check the book it was published in. No problem, you open the Primary Chronicles, as early as 1180s there’s the word Ukraine mentioning the Child Modeling Resume Sample Customer Service Resume, Ukrainian lands, the ancient maps also clearly put Ukraine on the place where modern-day Ukraine is. What do you know about the history of Slavs red neck? You will be better off investing some time in studying history of USA, which still is the colony of the crown. Ukraine will eventually find its own authentic identity as it fights to inspire the free world, Go Ukraine. Easy to do with many sources, I have in my collection maps from the Extended Essay Grade Boundaries College, 17th and 18th century by Guillaume Levasseur de Beauplan and – Firmsinja.info, Johann Baptist Homann that depict Ukraine and its borders–it was also called Ucraina–Terra Cossacorum or Ukraine Land of the Cossacks. You are missing the Extended Essay, point of the article which explains that Ukrainians and Russians are two different people with distinct and separate histories. That’s what I was clarifying–that even in Award Certificates Templates | Certificate Templates, the 16th and 17th centuries mapmakers viewed Ukraine as a country and Grade Boundaries Writing Unit, people independent from Muscovy Your statement that there was no independent country as Ukraine until 1991 is not the focus of this paper–the United States of America started as 13 colonies and that arguably was the early version of America, just as Kyivan Rus was the early beginning of Ukraine… And NOT of Muscovy (Russia).

this is Putin’s petrodollar troll pretending to be educated Westerner. Admin, please block this nonsense. Ukraine existed as an Calendar 2017 Template For Powerpoint independent country in 1917, and the Ukrainian SSR was a founding nation of the Extended Essay Grade Essay Writing Unit, United Nations, separate from the Soviet Union. “There is no disputing this simple fact.” As far as Kyivan Rus’ goes, it was a Ukrainian state and you’re just arguing semantics. Ukrainians referred to themselves as Ruthenians, and Ruthenia was historically the land of Kyivan Rus’, so you’re just splitting hairs. Those maps you reference regard internationally recognized states, no one has made the claim that Ukraine as a nation-state exists in the 16th century, so not sure where you’re even going on that tangent. I think you need to go re-read some history yourself and get your facts straight. Medieval texts reference Ruthenians, however, and that is synonymous with Ukrainians.

No, that’s simply not true, just because there are a dozen “separatists” with Sydor co. Free 2017? doesn’t mean they represent all Rusyns. Lemko’s dont consider themselves Rusyn, but for all intents and Essay Grade Ib - College, purposes they are a branch of Ukrainians. Transcarpathians are very much Ukrainians, only what, 10,000 “Rusyns” exist there? They declared Carpatho-Ukraine as a state for a reason. Change Calligraphy Address Wedding Template? Don’t take a fringe group with no statistical relevance and pretend they represent the millions of Extended Grade Boundaries Ib - College Writing Unit residents there who see themselves as Ukrainian. Fully Ukrainian. a) Yes, but so what? It existed. Template In Word. Word Free? Fully.

As much of Essay Boundaries a state as France is a state that’s part of the Police Officer Letter Writing Genius. Best, EU. b) Kyivan Rus’ was entirely Ukrainian and the basis for Ukraine. Who lived there, aliens? No, Ukrainians, the same Ukrainians who populate Ukraine today. c) Novgorod Republic was way up north and had absolutely nothing to do with Ukraine and Grade Boundaries Ib - College Writing, was mostly populated by Finns, Chuvash, etc.

d) Nobody said anything about supremacy, but if you interpret real history as making you feel like lesser of a person, that’s your own problem you need to sort out. e) Western Ukraine, Ukraine, Carpatho-Ukraine, etc all existed after 1917. Then came Soviet Ukraine. Period? You’re making yourself look stupid now. “Novgorod republic was populated by All Colors! Address Wedding Envelope Template Chuvash”. Hahaha! Do you know where Chuvash live and where the Novgorod republic was located? Look at the map first. Novgorod republic was populated by Ilmen Slavs. Grade Essay Writing Unit? Novgorod was the second largest and For Excel – Firmsinja.info, the second most important city of Rus.

The first prince of the Rurikid dynasty – Rurik – ruled from Novgorod. And all princes of Essay Grade Boundaries College Unit Rus were of Rurikid dynasty. Also, do you know that Northern Europeans which were trading with Novgorod in 13th-15th centuries thought that Novgorod was the main city of Certificates Templates | Certificate Rus? Such was their belief. ¿ – ¿. . It’s so interesting to see the Ukranians also search of their own past and Essay Writing Unit, roots. Their nation is young but they too have so much to say the world of it in future. Many Ukranians now make of a grave mistake. They think, they ought to prove the world their nation is Germanic, akin to a semi-barbarian tribe from Finland or from someplace in lower Scandinavia.

They think, they have to do so in order to claim exclusively for their own the Resume Resume Word Download, Saxon or Varangian Kievan Rus’. Yet, instead of Essay Boundaries Ib - Essay Writing Unit doing that which is so difficult and still very confusing, they could easily prove they connect to the Scythes and Sarmatians, and thus to Calligraphy Address Wedding the Roxolani. The latter tribe, is so much important to them because its name translates to Rus (ie, the Rossolani). Moreover, its difficult to Extended Essay Grade Boundaries College Essay Unit explain how the (Indo-Iranian) Rossolani came about to Grandparent Award Certificates Templates speak such a Slavic tongue. Another one hot spot is that of the presence of Khazars and Kiev.

The city was founded originally as a Khazarian port and most probably had a significant Khazarian population then and long before the first Varangian or either Slavs had ever gotten there. By Khazar, one shouldn’t think only of another one Turanic people. They, too, were rather a mixture and that is precisely why it’s so more complicated than that. I’m ukrainian. Had my DNA done…mostly Scandinavian and a little Jewish Persian Iran..

Grand Prince St. Andrey Bogoliubsky was a Russian prince and a Christian Saint. The modern sculpture you show depicts him as a barbarian Tatar or so, but the ancient Christian icons depict him as a Russian prince. The Horde was the regular Russian army, ruled by the Czar. Horde was called Mongol, which, in those times, meant something like “the great ones.” What we now call Mongolia never really conquered anything. Even today they would be hard-pressed to raise even one of the several hordes that supposedly rode out from there to conquer the Essay Grade Essay Unit, world. Mongolia did not even become an independent state until the XX century. As for Resume Template Resume Templates Word the ancient chronicles of Mongolia, there are none, nor did they ever find the legendary ancient capital there. This is not to Extended Grade Boundaries Ib - College Essay say the Horde was ethnically pure.

This was before the rise of nations, and the Horde was multi-racial, though mainly Slavic and Turkic stock, all ruled by the Czar. Khan is just another title. Suleiman the Magnificent, for Police Officer Cover Writing Guide example, claimed several titles as Caesar (Czar), Khan, Sultan, etc. I would appreciate this article more if there were references to back up the statements. I do not doubt them but if someone asks what is the Extended College Essay Writing Unit, basis for saying so, I can’t answer. I agree. I have read much in history books that support what this author says. Superb article! Just one more reason why the mockali fully understand that there is no Russia and there are no Russians. They are ALL mockali living in their decrepit mockovshchyna. The ONLY Rusyny are Ukrainians.

Anything and everything related to ‘Rus, as we all know, is Resume In Word. Resume Download strictly Ukrainian. As 3 of our heroic battalion leaders had shared with the press many months ago, our heroes administer a brief ‘history lesson’ to captured mockali just before they are exterminated like the vermin they are. What a distortion of history! … (((( 1. , 8-9. , , , , , , 862. . . 7 : r, , , , , . « ». , , (), r . 2. . . 3. . 879.

4. 882 r () , , oe . – o , . : . “ ” - “‘”, . (.) , .. , n “”, op “'”). Extended Essay Grade Ib - Writing Unit? . , . 5. Templates? , . 6. Boundaries Ib - Writing? , , n, . 7. . Police Officer Cover Letter Genius. Best 25? 4 ap 1147 – . , -, , , - . 1149. -, , , . .. , ( ) . 8. 1169 . , . Essay Grade Boundaries College Unit? eo , , . Resume In Word. Resume Free Download? 1243. -. Essay Grade Writing Unit? r- , - ! 1299. 1324-1362, oa . 9. 1686. , no 146000 . 1920-1921. , , .. Award Templates? . .. - , - . , - . 10. ( p.) III I. 11. “… ” IV , “ ” – , “ ” , , r . « » . 12. . 19 . The Russian imperial scheme of Essay Grade Boundaries Ib - Essay history is false and Calendar 2017, illogical. Modern-day Ukrainians are the most direct descendants of the Extended Essay Boundaries College Essay Writing, polity and civilisation known as Kyivan Rus.

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You may have better luck if you use a functional format, which will help cover up your employment gaps. Child Modeling Sample | Sample Customer Resume! Check out our guide here: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Hi! I have been a stay at home mom since 2004. Essay Grade Boundaries College Writing! I graduated in Repair Invoice Template For Excel – Firmsinja.info 2003 with a BA in Accounting. I am bilingual (Spanish/English). When my daughters went to school I volunteered in their classrooms. Also, I belong to the school’s council. For the last six months, my daughters and I have been rehearsing for a play written by the owner of a nonprofit theater company. Extended Grade Boundaries College Essay! I would like to know how to Free Template, build a resume from that lack of work experience.

Thanks in advance! Good luck on the job hunt! Hello! So I have been a stay at home mom for 21 years…..on top of that all my schooling and prior work experience happened in Grade Germany. I volunteered at my children’s school and was the treasurer for the parent club for 6 years – mind you that “job” went from taking over a handwritten note that told me that the club works with a $250 budget to Free For Powerpoint, getting everything set up for a non-profit QuickBook account after we made over $80,000.00 in Essay Unit a wine auction and so on….It still seems impossible to write a resume that does not just point out, that I haven’t worked in 21 years….How do I sell myself? Thank you in advance for trying. Helping to increase the parent club budget from $250 to $80,000 is certainly an achievement that employers would be interested to see on your resume. It sounds like your experience as a volunteer treasurer has provided you with plenty of selling points to include on your resume.

Since you are worried about your work gap, we suggest trying a functional resume format: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide#what-is-a-functional-resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi. I’ve been a stay at home mum to Auto For Excel, 5 children for the past 16 years, and full time carer to my 7 year old with cerebral palsy. We have been living on one income (my husbands), but due to unforeseen circumstances we are struggling financially. I would like to get a job in retail or similar, packing shelves or cleaning, anything is Extended Essay Boundaries Unit fine, as long as it’s in Officer Letter Guide Best 25 the evenings when hubby can be at home watching the children. My job before having kids, was as a carer, and in my late teens I worked as a checkout operator at Woolworths. How should I set up my resume to Essay Grade Ib - Writing, get into a casual retail type position? Thanks in advance,

Take a look at our retail resume samples:https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples#Customer They should give you a good idea of Repair Invoice Template For Excel – Firmsinja.info, how you can format your own resume. Best of luck! Not sure which functional formats you saw, but those that we offer on this page do not include the dates of your work history. Extended Ib - College Essay Writing Unit! https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. As long as you have the bullet points to back up your claim, then that will work. Good luck! It depends what job you are applying for. If you’re looking to get back into healthcare, then we suggest using a functional format: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Does the Officer Cover Letter Writing Resume Best job you are applying for Extended Grade Unit, have educational requirements? Even if the job description does not expressly list educational requirements, most employers want to know that you have at least graduated high school.

You’ll have to get creative with the Child Modeling Resume | Sample Customer references you choose. Friends, neighbors, people from Extended Essay Ib - Essay Writing Unit, church are all in Resume In Word. Templates play. Anyone who can speak to the quality of your character is a good choice. Good Luck on the Job Hunt! Yes, online courses help, but you should also consider doing some volunteer work as well. I’d first advise you to emphasize your cashier experience. Employers often value such experience over other parts of your resume, so be sure to highlight it. You can also try using a functional resume format to Essay Writing, downplay your work history.

Check out our page on how to make that happen — https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. You can include “stay-at-home parent” in your experience section too, but see if you can quantify that a bit. Change All Colors! Wedding! Did you handle the family finances during that time? What about Extended College Unit, volunteer work? If you have any relevant experiences from your time in Change Address high school, you could list those too (projects you were involved with, leadership roles, etc.). Also, emphasize your skills section and consider learning new skills that will make you a stronger candidate (https://resumegenius.com/job-search/learn-new-skills). There are a variety of Grade Essay Unit, ways to improve your chances of landing work, and Templates | Certificate, honing your resume (while learning some new useful abilities) is one effective approach. Good luck on the job hunt! Share How to Write a Stay at Home Mom Resume

Our code geeks and Extended Grade College, HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to Change Calligraphy Template, help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds?

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Here's an in depth analysis of For Excel – Firmsinja.info, what. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and Grade Ib - Essay Writing, career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to Child Service Resume, introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to Extended Grade Ib - College Writing Unit, help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market. HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and Change All Colors! Calligraphy Envelope, easily export to MS Word and PDF.

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alan jones homework Alan Jones: Broadcaster and Enigmatic Man. Essay College Essay? Alan Jones is difficult man to typecast. In any event he is Modeling Customer arguably Australia#146;s most successful broadcaster. Long before he assumed the number one position in the Sydney radio broadcasting market, with Radio 2GB , he was a successful world class rugby coach, and Extended Essay Boundaries Ib - speech writer for former Australian Prime Minister, Malcolm Fraser . Free Calendar 2017 Template For Powerpoint? It#146;s difficult to know if Jones#146; success was orchestrated or has been a series of Extended Essay Grade Essay lucky breaks, although he claims it was never part of Certificates | Certificate a #147;master plan#148;. Extended Essay Grade College Unit? There is no doubt, Jones has been successful in the classroom, on the footy field, in the political arena, and most definitely broadcasting, where he most often leads the pack, be it at Southern Cross Broadcastings#146; 2UE or Macquarie#146;s Radio Networks#146;, 2GB. No one can argue with Jones#146; success, but there has been many a heated discussion about the way Jones goes about Resume Template Resume Templates Free Download things, in his own unique and controversial, confronting style. In fact, he has made many enemies through his very public life, and at times seems to enjoy belittling and Boundaries Ib - besmirching reputations, if he sees fit. Even Jones staff can be in Change Wedding, the firing line. Mediaman has been told by staff who wish to remain anonymous, of many office outbursts and verbal attacks.

It's also said of Jones that he used his power and influence at times to relentlessly rubbish those who fall out of his favour. This can result in his victims reputation being forever tarnished. Jones maintains his work ethic is Boundaries Writing largely responsible for his success. This philosophy he gained from his mother. Grandparent Award Certificates | Certificate Templates? It#146;s difficult to argue about Extended Essay Ib - Jones#146; work ethic formula. Even today, Jones is reported to rise at 2am in preparation for his 6am slot on 2GB.

Jones is known to reply to all mail contact, around 5000 per year, and with his popularity and exposure, 2am starts may be the only way to maintain his workload. A graduate of Letter Guide Resume Best 25 Queensland and Oxford Universities, Jones spent three years as speech writer to former Prime Minister, Malcolm Fraser. He later went on to coach the Australian Rugby team from 1984 till 1988. In fact, out of Essay Grade Boundaries 30 tests, his team won 23 matches, tied three and lost four, each by only one point. His coaching at Officer Writing Guide Resume Balmain Tigers Rugby League Club, wasn't nearly as successful, with many pointing the accusing finger at Jones being the Ib - Essay prime reason for the club's decline on-field. Jones football success is known internationally. In England, #147;The Times#148; described Jones as #147;having the Free Template For Powerpoint most analytical brain ever in charge of a national rugby side#148;. After returning to Australia from the triumphant England tour, Jones was invited to deliver the Australia Day Address as Guest of Honour of the Extended Boundaries Ib - Australia Day Council at the National Press Club in Canberra. Jones reputation as a formidable public speaker had already become legendary. In 1989, Jones was elected to the Australian Sports Hall of Resume In Word. Resume Templates Word Fame.

He is Extended Writing also Deputy Chairperson of the Australian Sports Commission and Deputy Chairman of the Resume Resume Templates New South Wales Institute of Sport. March 1985 saw Jones join radio station, 2UE, as their morning talkback radio host, after successfully honing his broadcasting skills promoting his rugby team over many years. The signing with 2UE came about in a most interesting fashion. Extended Essay Grade Boundaries College Essay Unit? One Sunday, after Jones returned from winning the Bledisloe Cup, John Brennan, 2UE#146;s Sports Director at the time, telephoned Jones to advise that John Laws had just left the station and his time slot needed to be filled. Police Officer Letter Guide Genius. 25? Brennan asked if Jones would be interested in doing an audition.

Even though Jones had talked on air with Brennan many times, over the course of rugby tests, they had never met. Brennan said, #147;You were great on air during the tour. Extended Essay Grade College Writing Unit? Do you think you could come over and have a bit of a dry run?#148; #147;When?#148; Jones replied. Four hours later Jones was at Child Resume Sample | Sample Customer Service 2UE speaking to a fictitious audience about health policy and education. Two days later, 2UE executives arrived at Jones#146; place of work, the NSW Employers#146; Federation, to Extended Essay College Writing Unit take him to Police Cover Writing Guide Resume Genius. Best a local Chinese restaurant for lunch. 2UE offered Jones that morning programme, but co-hosting with a woman.

2UE felt he was too inexperienced to handle a prime time spot on his own. Jones had doubts about the offer and spoke to Brennan who advised Jones to accept the offer only if he was to be the sole host of the programme. Boundaries Essay Writing Unit? Two days later a deal was signed on a paper serviette for $130,000. Jones recollects, #147;I thought that was the gross domestic product of Australia, Malaysia, Great Britain and America put together. I just couldn#146;t believe it.

This is a dream, I thought. I went to air three days later while I was still heading up the NSW Employers#146; Federation . That#146;s how my radio career started, one continuous accident#148;. Three years into his role, in 1988 he moved to the earlier breakfast time slot of 5.30am to 9am. Jones has never been short on awards or energy. | Sample? From 1990 to 1993, and from 1995 to 1997, he was awarded by the radio industry, the prestigious award of Australian Radio Talk Personality of the Year. Essay Boundaries Ib - College Essay Writing? In 2002, Jones started having problems with his then employer, Southern Cross Broadcasting. He was said to be unhappy with their management style. It was by Officer Resume Best no means the first time that Jones has fallen out of favour with authority. John Singleton , the owner of the Macquarie Radio Network, had tried to Extended Essay Grade Essay Writing Unit lure many personalities to gain respectable ratings for 2GB.

He elected to Templates approach Jones, because Macquarie had been going #147;south#148;, since Singleton had bought it. Extended Boundaries Unit? Jones knows that there has been a heavy price to pay for his programme#146;s success. He has attracted his share of unkind media attention over the years, culminating in the recent #147;cash for Modeling Resume Sample | Sample, comment#148; inquiry by Extended Essay Boundaries Ib - College Essay Writing the Australian Broadcasting Authority . #147;That was a campaign which owed nothing to the truth#148;, Jones bitterly remembers. He maintains no-one with whom he had a contractual relationship, ever asked him to say anything for Auto Repair Invoice – Firmsinja.info, payment. Essay Essay Writing Unit? For all of Jones#146; success, he is not complacent. While a few may believe he has an over Free Calendar 2017 Template supply of confidence, there is Essay College Writing Unit also the normal trait of doubt.

Jones admits, #147;There is an Auto Invoice aspect of confidence to me, but there#146;s also a very big factor of self doubt. Buy that#146;s good. It#146;s good to be nervous. It#146;s good to have an element of Extended Grade Boundaries College Writing fear. It#146;s good to be frightened of failure, so long as it#146;s not unreasonable. It drives you forward. People only get into trouble when there is a dramatic gap between the tasks they are set and their capacity to perform them.

If your capacity is Resume Customer Service inferior to your expectation of yourself, then you are going to fail. I#146;ve always been quite good at matching what I can expect of myself with the task that I#146;ve set for myself. College? But I never think; where is this task going to take me? Because I#146;ve always believed if I do well today, I#146;m going to do well tomorrow; if I do the homework now, I#146;m going to pass tomorrow#146;s exam. And life is just one continuous examination#148;. In fact, Jones has an interesting attitude to Australians#146; viewpoints on successful people. #147;No-one ever says a decent word about John Howard. But that#146;s not unusual because no-one ever said a decent world about Keating, Hawke or the previous prime ministers. Calligraphy Wedding? Poor Shane Warne. He is a cricketer, yet the media expectation is that he should act like a United Nations diplomat#148;. This enigmatic man has always attracted gossip and discussion due to his flamboyant lifestyle and Essay Boundaries highly visible approach.

For Jones#146; admirers, his popularity remains undiminished through broadcasting tribunal investigations, adverse media stories and personal attacks. Success and controversy have always gone hand in hand for Grandparent Templates Templates, Alan Jones and he wouldn#146;t have it any other way.

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Free Information Technology essays. The experienced growth in the use of digital networks has led to the need for the design of Essay Ib - Writing Unit, new communication networks with higher capacity. The telecom industry is expected to All Colors! Address Template, continue to grow as demand increases for Extended Essay Writing Unit cable and high-speed internet in previously un-serviced locations and as local telephone companies upgrade their lines in response to increasing competitions. Broadband wireless sits at the confluence of All Colors! Calligraphy Address, two of the most remarkable growth stories of the telecommunications industry in recent years. Both wireless and broadband have on their own enjoyed rapid mass-market adoption. Extended Essay Grade Boundaries! Wireless mobile services grew from 11 million subscribers worldwide in 1990 to more than 200 billion in 2014.

During the same period, the Child Modeling Sample Customer Resume, Internet grew from being a curious academic tool to having about a billion users. Essay! This staggering growth of the Repair Invoice Template For Excel – Firmsinja.info, Internet is driving demand for higher-speed Internet-access services, leading to a parallel growth in Extended Ib - College Unit, broadband adoption. In less than a decade, broadband subscription worldwide has grown from Cover Writing Genius., virtually zero to over 200 million. Will combining the convenience of wireless with the rich performance of broadband be the Essay Grade Boundaries Ib -, next frontier for growth in Modeling Resume Sample | Sample, the industry? Can such a combination be technically and commercially viable? Can wireless deliver broadband applications and services that are of interest to the end users? Many industry observers believe so. Before we delve into broadband wireless, let us review the state of broadband access today. Digital subscriber line (DSL) technology, which delivers broadband over twisted-pair telephone wires, and cable modem technology, which delivers over coaxial cable TV plant, are the predominant mass-market broadband access technologies today.

Both of these technologies typically provide up to a few megabits per second of data to each user, and continuing advances are making several tens of megabits per second possible. Since their initial deployment in the late 1990s, these services have enjoyed considerable growth. Worldwide, this number is more than 200 million today and is projected to grow to more than 400 million by 2020. The availability of a wireless solution for broadband could potentially accelerate this growth. What are the applications that drive this growth?

Broadband users worldwide are finding that it dramatically changes how we share information, conduct business, and seek entertainment. Broadband access not only Extended Boundaries Essay, provides faster Web surfing and quicker file downloads but also enables several multimedia applications, such as real-time audio and video streaming, multimedia conferencing, and interactive gaming. Broadband connections are also being used for voice telephony using voice-over-Internet Protocol (VoIP) technology. More advanced broadband access systems, such as fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) and Auto Repair Invoice Template For Excel, very high data rate digital subscriber loop (VDSL), enable such applications as entertainment-quality video, including high-definition TV (HDTV) and Extended Essay Ib -, video on demand (VoD). As the broadband market continues to Grandparent, grow, several new applications are likely to emerge, and it is difficult to predict which ones will succeed in the future. So what is broadband wireless? Broadband wireless is about bringing the broadband experience to a wireless context, which offers users certain unique benefits and convenience. There are two fundamentally different types of broadband wireless services. The first type attempts to provide a set of services similar to that of the traditional fixed-line broadband but using wireless as the medium of transmission. This type, called fixed wireless broadband, can be thought of as a competitive alternative to DSL or cable modem. The second type of Extended Essay Boundaries College Writing, broadband wireless, called mobile broadband, offers the additional functionality of portability, nomadicity, and Calligraphy Address Wedding Envelope, mobility.

Mobile broadband attempts to bring broadband applications to new user experience scenarios and Extended Grade Boundaries Ib - Writing, hence can offer the end user a very different value proposition. Change All Colors! Calligraphy Envelope! WiMAX (worldwide interoperability for microwave access) technology is designed to accommodate both fixed and mobile broadband applications. In this chapter, we provide a brief overview of broadband wireless. The objective is to present the Essay Boundaries College Essay Writing Unit, background and context necessary for Certificates | Certificate Templates understanding WiMAX. 1.2 Evolution of Broadband Wireless. The history of broadband wireless as it relates to WiMAX can be traced back to the desire to find a competitive alternative to traditional wire line-access technologies.

Spurred by the deregulation of the telecom industry and Extended Essay Grade Ib - College Essay Writing Unit, the rapid growth of the Internet, several competitive carriers were motivated to find a wireless solution to bypass incumbent service providers. During the past decade or so, a number of wireless access systems have been developed, mostly by start-up companies motivated by the disruptive potential of wireless. These systems varied widely in their performance capabilities, protocols, frequency spectrum used, applications supported, and a host of other parameters. Some systems were commercially deployed only to Invoice Template, be decommissioned later. Successful deployments have so far been limited to a few niche applications and markets.

Clearly, broadband wireless has until now had a checkered record, in part because of the fragmentation of the industry due to the lack of Extended Boundaries Ib - College Essay Unit, a common standard. The emergence of WiMAX as an industry standard is Child Modeling | Sample Service, expected to change this situation. Given the Grade, wide variety of solutions developed and deployed for broadband wireless in the past, a full historical survey of these is beyond the scope of this section. Instead, we provide a brief review of Police Cover Writing Guide Genius., some of the broader patterns in this development. Essay Boundaries Essay Unit! WiMAX technology has evolved through four stages, albeit not fully distinct or clearly sequential: 1. Narrowband wireless local-loop systems, 2. First-generation line-of-sight (LOS) broadband systems, 3. Second-generation non-line-of-sight (NLOS) broadband systems, and.

4. Standards-based broadband wireless systems. 1.2.1 Narrowband Wireless Local-Loop Systems. Naturally, the first application for which a wireless alternative was developed and deployed was voice telephony. These systems, called wireless local-loop (WLL), were quite successful in developing countries such as China, India, Indonesia, Brazil, and Russia, whose high demand for basic telephone services could not be served using existing infrastructure. In fact, WLL systems based on the digital-enhanced cordless telephony (DECT) and code division multiple access (CDMA) standards continue to be deployed in these markets. In markets in which a robust local-loop infrastructure already existed for voice telephony, WLL systems had to offer additional value to be competitive.

Following the commercialization of the Child Modeling Sample Resume, Internet in 1993, the demand for Internet-access services began to surge, and many saw providing high-speed Internet-access as a way for wireless systems to Extended Boundaries College Essay Writing, differentiate them. For example, in Officer Resume, February 1997, ATT announced that it had developed a wireless access system for Extended Essay Grade Boundaries Ib - College the 1,900MHz PCS (personal communications services) band that could deliver two voice lines and a 128kbps data connection to subscribers. This system, developed under the code name ‘Project Angel,’ also had the distinction of being one of the first commercial wireless systems to use adaptive antenna technology. After field trials for a few years and a brief commercial offering, ATT discontinued the Grandparent | Certificate, service in Extended Boundaries Ib - Essay Unit, December 2001, citing cost run-ups and poor take-rate as reasons. During the Grandparent | Certificate, same time, several small start-up companies focused solely on providing Internet-access services using wireless. These wireless Internet service provider (WISP) companies typically deployed systems in the license-exempt 900MHz and 2.4GHz bands. Extended Grade Ib - Essay Unit! Most of these systems required antennas to be installed at the customer premises, either on rooftops or under the eaves of Change Calligraphy Wedding Envelope Template, their buildings. Deployments were limited mostly to select neighborhoods and small towns. Extended Essay! These early systems typically offered speeds up to a few hundred kilobits per second. Later evolutions of license-exempt systems were able to provide higher speeds. 1.2.2 First-Generation Broadband Systems.

As DSL and cable modems began to be deployed, wireless systems had to evolve to support much higher speeds to be competitive. Systems began to be developed for higher frequencies, such as the Template For Excel, 2.5GHz and 3.5GHz bands. Very high speed systems, called local multipoint distribution systems (LMDS), supporting up to several hundreds of megabits per second, were also developed in millimeter wave frequency bands, such as the 24GHz and 39GHz bands. LMDS based services were targeted at business users and in the late 1990s enjoyed rapid but short-lived success. Problems obtaining access to rooftops for installing antennas, coupled with its shorter range capabilities, squashed its growth. In the late 1990s, one of the Extended Essay Boundaries Ib - Unit, more important deployments of wireless broadband happened in the so-called multichannel multipoint distribution services (MMDS) band at 2.5GHz. The MMDS band was historically used to All Colors!, provide wireless cable broadcast video services, especially in rural areas where cable TV services were not available. The advent of satellite TV ruined the wireless cable business, and Extended Essay Grade Ib - College Writing, operators were looking for alternative ways to use this spectrum. A few operators began to offer one-way wireless Internet-access service, using telephone line as the return path.

In September 1998, the Resume Template In Word. Resume Templates Word Free Download, Federal Communications Commission (FCC) relaxed the rules of the MMDS band in Grade Boundaries, the United States to allow two-way communication services, sparking greater industry interest in the MMDS band. MCI WorldCom and Officer Cover Letter Writing Guide Best 25, Sprint each paid approximately $1 billion to purchase licenses to use the MMDS spectrum, and several companies started developing high-speed fixed wireless solutions for this band. The first generation of these fixed broadband wireless solutions was deployed using the same towers that served wireless cable subscribers. These towers were typically several hundred feet tall and enabled LOS coverage to distances up to 35 miles, using high-power transmitters. First-generation MMDS systems required that subscribers install at their premises outdoor antennas high enough and pointed toward the Extended Essay Grade Boundaries Ib - College Writing Unit, tower for a clear LOS transmission path. Officer Cover Letter Writing Resume Best 25! Sprint and MCI launched two-way wireless broadband services using first-generation MMDS systems in Extended Grade Boundaries Writing, a few markets in early 2000. The outdoor antenna and Award Templates, LOS requirements proved to be significant impediments. Essay Boundaries Ib - College Essay Writing Unit! Besides, since a fairly large area was being served by Free Calendar Template For Powerpoint, a single tower, the capacity of these systems was fairly limited.

Similar first-generation LOS systems were deployed internationally in the 3.5GHz band. 1.2.3 Second-Generation Broadband Systems. Second-generation broadband wireless systems were able to overcome the LOS issue and to Extended Ib - College Writing, provide more capacity. Template In Word. Word Download! This was done through the Extended Essay Boundaries College Writing, use of a cellular architecture and Award Certificates, implementation of Extended Boundaries Ib - Essay, advanced-signal processing techniques to improve the link and system performance under multipath conditions. Auto Repair Template For Excel – Firmsinja.info! Several start-up companies developed advanced proprietary solutions that provided significant performance gains over first-generation systems. Extended Ib - Essay Writing Unit! Most of these new systems could perform well under non-line-of-sight conditions, with customer-premise antennas typically mounted under the eaves or lower. Many solved the NLOS problem by Auto Repair Invoice Template For Excel, using such techniques as orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), code division multiple access (CDMA), and Extended Writing Unit, multiantenna processing. Some systems, such as those developed by Child Resume Sample Customer Service, SOMA Networks and Navini Networks, demonstrated satisfactory link performance over Extended Essay Grade Boundaries Ib - Essay Writing Unit, a few miles to desktop subscriber terminals without the need for an antenna mounted outside. A few megabits per Police Cover Resume Genius. second throughput over cell ranges of a few miles had become possible with second generation fixed wireless broadband systems. 1.2.4 Emergence of Standards-Based Technology. In 1998, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) formed a group called 802.16 to develop a standard for Extended Essay Grade Boundaries Ib - College Essay Unit what was called a wireless metropolitan area network, or wireless MAN.

Originally, this group focused on Template For Excel developing solutions in the 10GHz to 66GHz band, with the primary application being delivering high-speed connections to businesses that could not obtain fiber. These systems, like LMDS, were conceived as being able to tap into fiber rings and to distribute that bandwidth through a point-to-multipoint configuration to LOS businesses. The IEEE 802.16 group produced a standard that was approved in December 2001. This standard, Wireless MAN-SC, specified a physical layer that used single-carrier modulation techniques and a media access control (MAC) layer with a burst time division multiplexing (TDM) structure that supported both frequency division duplexing (FDD) and time division duplexing (TDD). After completing this standard, the Grade Ib - College Essay, group started work on extending and Child Sample | Sample Customer Service Resume, modifying it to Essay Boundaries Ib - College Essay, work in both licensed and license-exempt frequencies in the 2GHz to 11GHz range, which would enable NLOS deployments. This amendment, IEEE 802.16a, was completed in 2003, with OFDM schemes added as part of the physical layer for In Word. Free Download supporting deployment in multipath environments. By this time, OFDM had established itself as a method of choice for Extended College Essay dealing with multipath for broadband and Change Calligraphy Template, was already part of the revised IEEE 802.11 standards. Besides the OFDM physical layers, 802.16a also specified additional MAC-layer options, including support for orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA).

Further revisions to 802.16a were made and Extended Ib - Writing Unit, completed in Modeling | Sample Resume, 2004. This revised standard, IEEE 802.16-2004, replaces 802.16, 802.16a, and 802.16c with a single standard, which has also been adopted as the basis for HIPERMAN (high-performance metropolitan area network) by ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute). In 2003, the College Essay, 802.16 group began work on enhancements to the specifications to allow vehicular mobility applications. That revision, 802.16e, was completed in December 2005 and was published formally as IEEE 802.16e-2005. It specifies scalable OFDM for the physical layer and makes further modifications to the MAC layer to accommodate high-speed mobility. As it turns out, the IEEE 802.16 specifications are a collection of standards with a very broad scope. In order to accommodate the diverse needs of the industry, the standard incorporated a wide variety of Police Officer Cover Genius., options.

In order to develop interoperable solutions using the 802.16 family of standards, the Boundaries College Essay, scope of the standard had to be reduced by establishing consensus on what options of the Template Resume Word Free, standard to implement and test for interoperability. The IEEE developed the specifications but left to the industry the task of converting them into an interoperable standard that can be certified. The WiMAX Forum was formed to solve this problem and to promote solutions based on the IEEE 802.16 standards. The WiMAX Forum was modeled along the Boundaries Ib - College Essay, lines of the Wi-Fi Alliance, which has had remarkable success in promoting and providing interoperability testing for products based on the IEEE 802.11 family of standards. The WiMAX Forum enjoys broad participation from the Template In Word. Templates Word Free, entire cross-section of the industry, including semiconductor companies, equipment manufacturers, system integrators, and service providers. The forum has begun interoperability testing and announced its first certified product based on IEEE 802.16-2004 for fixed applications in Essay Ib - College Unit, January 2006. Products based on IEEE 802.18e-2005 are expected to be certified in early 2007. Many of the vendors that previously developed proprietary solutions have announced plans to migrate to fixed and/or mobile WiMAX. The arrival of WiMAX-certified products is Calendar 2017 Template For Powerpoint, a significant milestone in the history of Essay Ib - Writing, broadband wireless. 1.3 WiMAX versus 3G and Wi-Fi.

How does WiMAX compare with the Grandparent Award Templates | Certificate Templates, existing and emerging capabilities of 3G and Extended Essay Boundaries Ib - College Essay Writing Unit, Wi-Fi? The throughput capabilities of WiMAX depend on the channel bandwidth used. Unlike 3G systems, which have a fixed channel bandwidth, WiMAX defines a selectable channel bandwidth from 1.25MHz to 20MHz, which allows for Resume Templates Free Download a very flexible deployment. When deployed using the more likely 10MHz TDD (time division duplexing) channel, assuming a 3:1 downlink-to-uplink split and 2 ” 2 MIMO, WiMAX offers 46Mbps peak downlink throughput and 7Mbps uplink. The reliance of Wi-Fi and WiMAX on OFDM modulation, as opposed to CDMA as in 3G, allows them to support very high peak rates. Grade Ib - Writing! The need for spreading makes very high data rates more difficult in CDMA systems.

More important than peak data rate offered over Certificates Templates, an individual link is the Essay Ib - College Essay, average throughput and overall system capacity when deployed in a multicellular environment. From a capacity standpoint, the more pertinent measure of system performance is Invoice Template, spectral efficiency. The fact that WiMAX specifications accommodated multiple antennas right from the start gives it a boost in spectral efficiency. Essay Grade Boundaries Ib - College Essay Writing! In 3G systems, on the other hand, multiple-antenna support is being added in the form of revisions. Further, the OFDM physical layer used by WiMAX is more amenable to MIMO implementations than are CDMA systems from the standpoint of the required complexity for comparable gain. OFDM also makes it easier to exploit frequency diversity and Free 2017 Template For Powerpoint, multiuser diversity to improve capacity. Therefore, when compared to Extended Essay Grade Ib - College Essay Writing, 3G, WiMAX offers higher peak data rates, greater flexibility, and higher average throughput and Change All Colors! Calligraphy Address Wedding, system capacity. Another advantage of WiMAX is its ability to efficiently support more symmetric links’useful for fixed applications, such as T1 replacement’and support for flexible and dynamic adjustment of the downlink-to-uplink data rate ratios. Typically, 3G systems have a fixed asymmetric data rate ratio between downlink and uplink. What about in terms of Grade Ib - College Essay Writing Unit, supporting advanced IP applications, such as voice, video, and multimedia?

How do the technologies compare in terms of prioritizing traffic and controlling quality? The WiMAX media access control layer is built from the ground up to support a variety of traffic mixes, including real-time and non-real-time constant bit rate and variable bit rate traffic, prioritized data, and best-effort data. Such 3G solutions as HSDPA and 1x EV-DO were also designed for a variety of All Colors! Address Wedding, QoS levels. Perhaps the most important advantage for WiMAX may be the potential for lower cost owing to Extended Essay Grade Boundaries, its lightweight IP architecture. Using an IP architecture simplifies the core network’3G has a complex and separate core network for Officer Cover Guide Genius. 25 voice and data’and reduces the capital and operating expenses. Essay Boundaries Essay! IP also puts WiMAX on a performance/price curve that is more in line with general-purpose processors (Moore’s Law), thereby providing greater capital and operational efficiencies. IP also allows for easier integration with third-party application developers and makes convergence with other networks and applications easier. In terms of supporting roaming and high-speed vehicular mobility, WiMAX capabilities are somewhat unproven when compared to those of 3G. In 3G, mobility was an 2017 Template integral part of the design; WiMAX was designed as a fixed system, with mobility capabilities developed as an add-on feature. In summary, WiMAX occupies a somewhat middle ground between Wi-Fi and 3G technologies when compared in the key dimensions of data rate, coverage, QoS, mobility, and Extended Essay Grade Boundaries, price. Nowadays, life does not seem feasible without wireless networks in one or the other form.

Wireless is becoming the leader in communication choices among users. In the current era life is converging towards the cable less environment where the last mile connectivity can be easily achievable without the need of physical connections. 2017! So the Extended Grade Ib - College, field of wireless communication is continuously emerging one which is the Template, demand for the transfer of data with high speed and Extended Essay Boundaries Essay, with long coverage range. The claim for broadband mobile services continues to grow. Calendar Template! Usually, high-speed broadband solutions are based on wired-access technologies such as digital subscriber line (DSL). This type of solution is not easy to deploy in Boundaries Ib - Essay Writing Unit, remote rural areas, and furthermore it lacks support for terminal mobility.] Also the gradual development in Police Officer Cover Writing Resume Best 25, the use of wireless networks has led to Extended Essay Grade Ib - College Essay Writing Unit, the requirement for Change All Colors! Wedding Envelope Template the design of new modern communication networks with higher capacity and lower error rate. The telecommunication industry is also upgrading, with a requirement for a greater range of services, such as video conferences, or applications with multimedia contents. The increased dependence on computer networking and the internetwork has resulted in a larger demand for connections to be allotted any time, any place, leading to a increase in the requirements for greater capacity and ultimate reliable broadband wireless communication systems.

For this issue, new technologies with high throughput with less requirement of bandwidth have been designed. As a matter of fact the requirements on bandwidth and spectrum availability are endless. As a result, the designers working in the domain of wireless communication has to face the Essay Grade Boundaries College Essay Writing Unit, lots of difficulties to fulfill the requirement of bandwidth for the efficient and accurate transmission and reception. Moreover the All Colors! Calligraphy Wedding, problems of time varying nature of channel such as fading and Extended Grade College, multipath put the limitation on Change Calligraphy Wedding Template the performance of high data rate with good quality of Extended Essay, service. The demands for greater capacity, high reliability as well as accuracy are the Change Address Template, prime requisites for the forth coming generations of the wireless networking systems such as Wi-Fi, WiMAX, etc. 1.5 Objective of Thesis. How to deal with fading and Essay Ib - College, with interference is central aim to the design of Change All Colors! Address Wedding Envelope, wireless communication systems, and by taking the advantage of multi-path fading and improving the system capacity and bit rate of 4G modern wireless system will be the fundamental objective of this research work. The research work includes the performance analysis of following points: ‘ To study and to Extended Essay Essay Writing, analysis the performance of forthcoming future generation wireless networking technique i.e. WiMAX as the upcoming 4G standard for meeting the requirements of last mile end to end wireless network with greater system capacity with improved bit error rate. ‘ To analyze the features of antenna diversity techniques in wireless communication for nullifying the Police Officer Letter Writing Resume 25, limitations due to multipath fading by Extended Unit, simulating the system in terms of system throughput and bit error rate under MATLAB based environment.

‘ To simulate the complete WiMAX system by Calligraphy Address Template, implementing antenna diversity techniques and Essay Boundaries Writing Unit, Alamouti coding in it to fulfill the current demands of the modern wireless networks with the Change Wedding Envelope Template, anticipation of improvement in bit error rate thereby increment in system reliability. 1.6 Organization of Thesis. This research work examines the modeling, simulation and comparative analysis of WiMAX system along with the implementation of various antenna diversity techniques in it built with MATLAB. The whole thesis is Extended Grade Boundaries Essay, organized in 6 chapters. Chapter 1 deals the introduction of the broadband technology used in the WiMAX system. Chapter 2 deals the all related work by the previous researchers.

In this chapter we discuss the paper based on the previous work associated with the WiMAX system and Template Resume Templates, found problem in the WiMAX system. Chapter 3 deals the fundamentals of the WiMAX system. This chapter discusses the basics of the WiMAX system for modeling purpose. Chapter 4 deals the technology used in the WiMAX system. In these chapter diversity techniques is conceptually discussed. Also discuss the antenna diversity too. Chapter 5 is based on the chapter 3 to Essay Boundaries College Writing, 4. In this chapter a simulink model is generated with the result to analyzed the WiMAX physical layer for Calligraphy Address Template antenna diversity. Chapter 6 is the conclusion and future work of the thesis. In this section, a brief review of literature on Performance of Antenna Diversity Techniques, Alamouti Coding Scheme, WiMAX Broadband Wireless Access Technology, Mobile WiMAX Technology, IEEE 802.16 Standards, Efficient Wireless Channels and Extended Grade Boundaries College Unit, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Technique are reported and discussed. 2.2 Related work.

Abdulrahman Yarali, Saifur Rahman [6] describes the overview of the forthcoming most promising wireless system WiMAX-Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. Change Calligraphy Wedding! In this research paper the Essay Grade Boundaries College Essay Unit, basic WiMAX introduction, comparison with the existing wireless systems, types of IEEE standards as well as layered structure has been included. This paper presented a brief description of some of the major functions of a WiMAX network architecture currently being designed and specified in the network group. This paper is useful to analyze the All Colors! Template, basic architecture and Essay College Unit, supporting features of WiMAX for this research work. Mai Tran, George Zaggoulos, Andrew Nix and Angela Doufexi [7] describes the current demand of wireless communication system is to achieve highest capacity with lowest requirement of bandwidth and improved error rate. The mobile WiMAX is the wonderful invention which is fulfilling the latest demand.

This research paper presents the theoretical aspect of the mobile WiMAX system whose remarkable features are scalable OFDM and Advanced antenna techniques such as MIMO. Each and every parameter which are required to build and to Auto For Excel, model the WiMAX system such as channel coding, sampling frequency, sampling period, symbol duration of OFDM, modulation scheme, etc. Extended Grade Ib - Essay Writing Unit! have been discussed in this paper which are the useful matters to develop a simulation model of this research work. Liangshan Ma, Dongyan Jia [8] analyses both the competitive and cooperative relationships between WiMAX, WLAN and 3G from various aspects such as technical standards, current status and future trends, etc. WiMAX and WLAN are two most emerging IEEE standards for Calendar 2017 For Powerpoint providing efficient wireless networking whereas 3G is the most important mobile communication standard for providing highest speed along with maximum accuracy. Essay Boundaries College Essay Writing Unit! This paper represents the SWOT analysis with respect to market trend between these three technologies. This paper will be helpful to understand the role of one technique to cope up with other technologies. Abdulrahman Yarali Bwanga Mbula Ajay Tumula [9] identifies the Certificates | Certificate Templates, cost effective, flexible 4th generation standard of IEEE i.e.

WiMAX system which is becoming the perfect solution to meet the Extended College Essay Writing Unit, current demands of the future wireless networks thereby providing the tough competition to Calligraphy Address Template, the existing 3G standards. This paper includes the modeling of WiMAX layer by considering its physical layer as well as various parameters related to it which is the main utilization in this research work. The two variants of WiMAX system i.e. fixed WiMAX (IEEE 802.16d) and mobile WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e) have been included in the paper which helps to derive the characteristics of WiMAX system. From the aspect of WiMAX modeling, this paper is very useful in this research work. Sassan Ahmadi, Intel Corporation[10] presents the Essay Boundaries Writing Unit, thorough analysis of IEEE 802.16 architecture which is becoming the most popular 4G standard for the different mobile communication applications. The growing demand for mobile Internet and wireless multimedia applications has motivated the Free Download, development of broadband wireless access technologies in recent years.

Mobile WiMAX has enabled convergence of mobile and fixed broadband networks through a common wide-area radio-access technology and flexible network architecture. The theoretical aspect of WiMAX architecture and parameters of this paper at very minute level helps in this research work to understand the whole WiMAX system. Hicham Yehia and Hany Kamal [11] discusses the effect of interference in Essay Essay, the WiMAX network thereby analyzing the effect of the same on the capacity of the network. Due to Police Resume Genius. Best 25, imperfections at both the ends of the system i.e. at Essay Grade Boundaries Ib - College Essay Writing transmitter and at the receiver, the interference can occur which limits the system performance. At the transmitter due to inefficient filter response, spurious transmission can be encountered and at the receiver, due to insufficient selectivity, the Modeling Resume | Sample, interference will occur. The paper checks the effects of this kind of interference in the WiMAX system which is the main reason behind the degradation in the network capacity. Raj Jain, Chakchai So-In, And Abdel-Karim Al Tamimi [12] basically deals with the analysis of one to one layer of the WiMAX network which is the very important issue from the view point of Extended Essay Grade Boundaries Writing Unit, service providers and network developers. The paper includes the system level modeling at various levels such as physical layer modeling, MAC layer modeling, interference level modeling, frequency level modeling, etc so as to analyze many system level parameters. Grandparent Templates | Certificate Templates! The readings and observations generated at the abstract level are the Extended Essay Grade Ib - College Unit, very useful outcomes for this research work. Nedeljko Cvejic and Seppanen, Tapio [13] illustrate that for the efficient and fruitful wireless communication, the virtual channel i.e. radio channel of propagation should be modeled properly.

This paper estimates the efficiency of AWGN channel and Child Sample Service, Rayleigh channel under different scenarios. As per the nature of application, the type of Extended Ib - College Writing Unit, channel modeling should get selected. In this paper, the concentration is on Police Cover Letter Genius. 25 the modern digital video compression technique i.e. mp3 system where during watermarking, the impairment due to noise in the transmission would be analyzed by Extended Boundaries Ib - College Writing, modeling the channel as Rayleigh channel which is frequency selective channel not by AWGN channel. This paper justifies the utility and use of channel modeling in this research. Daniele Lo Iacono, Marco Ronchi, Luigi Della Torre, and Fabio Osnato[14] discuss that in today’s world, the main goal of any system is to achieve highest system capacity with lowest error rate which is not possible with single transmitter and Calendar Template For Powerpoint, single receiving antenna because it can’t overcome the Grade Ib - College Essay, effects of fading. For this particular reason, the current wireless communication trend is tilting towards the multiple transmitter and multiple receiver antenna systems i.e. MIMO technology in which the effect of multipath fading can be strongly eliminated. This research paper is based on the same fundamental by considering the effect and application of MIMO technique with the implementation of OFDM in wireless communication system. The methodology and results derived from the experiment of MIMO and OFDM are very useful deductions for this research work. Onsy Abdel Alim, Hiba S. Abdallah and Azza M. Elaskary [15] discusses two main issues.

The first one presents models for simulating OFDM WiMAX system in Simulink including channel estimation and equalization subsystems in MATLAB functions. Next, the effect of channel estimation error on the performance of MIMO VBLAST receivers in uncorrelated Rayleigh flat fading channels is Free, investigated. In the first part, WiMAX top level Simulink with all system details have been implemented for simulation purpose. Essay Grade College Writing Unit! In the second part, the Calendar 2017 For Powerpoint, performance of MIMO VBLAST ZF receivers over uncorrelated Rayleigh flat fading channels in the presence of channel estimation error is Grade Boundaries College Writing, investigated. This IEEE transaction is very much useful to derive the Police Officer Cover Best, simulation model of the Extended Grade Boundaries Writing Unit, WiMAX system along with the reference BER reading with MIMO implementation. Mohab Shalash, Tallal El Shabrawy and Waleed Diab [16] covers a thorough study of wideband frequency selective channels from the Auto Template – Firmsinja.info, perspective of multi-carrier modulation system. Wideband communications systems suffer from frequency selective channels. Accordingly, 3G/4G systems have endorsed the concept of multi-carrier modulation such as OFDM and MC-CDMA, where the Essay Unit, wideband channel is sub-divided into numerous subcarriers.

This research paper is useful to analyze the behavior of various wireless channels such as Rayleigh and Rician channel along with the basic parameters of it for modeling purpose. For 3G and Officer Writing Guide Resume, 4G systems how the different channels and Extended Essay Unit, their parameters are affecting the behavior of the whole system while modeling was the true strength of this paper for this research work point of view. Muhammad Nadeem Khan, Sabir Ghauri [17] discusses the model building of the WiMAX Physical layer using Simulink in MATLAB. This model is a useful tool for Free For Powerpoint performance evaluation of the WiMAX standards 802.16e under the various parameters like carrier frequency, frequency bands, bandwidth, radio technology etc which have been mentioned. For this research work, this IEEE transaction will be the mile stone. This paper is useful to find the most valuable information regarding the modeling of the WiMAX physical layer with the various aspects of Essay Grade Boundaries Ib - College Writing Unit, OFDM and MIMO.

For WIMAX System modeling, this research paper may come across the very minute detailing of each and every blocks of the WiMAX modeling along with the most precise readings. Vahid Tarokh, Nambi Seshadr and A. Resume Resume Word Free Download! R. Calderbank [18] basically includes the characterization of Essay Boundaries Ib - College Essay, wide band wireless channel for the future wireless technologies along with the feature of antenna diversity. In this paper the most practical approach of increasing the Child Modeling Resume Sample | Sample Customer Service Resume, capacity of the channel has been presented for modern wireless communication systems with the introduction of antenna diversity and space time codes i.e. Alamouti coding. Extended Ib - College Essay Writing Unit! This paper provides the base for this research work regarding the different antenna diversity techniques such as SIMO, MISO, MIMO along with the space time coding. Tao Jiang and Weidong Xiang [19] describes Multimedia Multicast and Broadcast service (MBS) over wireless links, such as mobile TV and IP radio broadcasting. As one of the most promising enabling technologies, mobile WiMAX can offer scalability in both radio access and network architecture, thus providing important flexibility in terms of All Colors! Calligraphy Address Template, network services and deployment options.

This paper presents the Extended Essay Grade Boundaries Ib - College Writing Unit, overview of network architecture of OFDM based WiMAX system. Also the enhanced features such as antenna diversity, multiple modulation schemes, etc which can be a part of Award Certificates | Certificate Templates, WiMAX system for improved network performance are the helpful contents for this research work. Kamran Etemad [20] discusses the brief of Mobile WiMAX technology with the layered architecture and evolution. Mobile WiMAX combines OFDMA and advanced MIMO schemes along with flexible bandwidth and fast link adaptation, creating a highly efficient air interface that exceeds the capacity of existing and evolving 3G radio access networks. This research paper is Extended Essay Boundaries Ib - Essay Unit, useful for the implementation of Template Resume, advanced antenna techniques and OFDMA in the physical layer of WiMAX to improve Quality of Service. Chengshan Xiao, Jingxian Wu, Sang-Yick Leong and Yahong Rosa Zheng [21] presents a new discrete-time channel model for MIMO systems over space-selective (or spatially correlated), time-selective (or time-varying), and frequency-selective Rayleigh fading channels, which are referred to as triply selective Rayleigh fading channels.

MIMO is the current trends in the modern cellular system towards achieving high data rate with low error rate. This paper is helpful in deriving the performance analysis of MIMO system with Rayleigh channel for Essay the research work. Here in this the discrete time channel model has been developed which evaluates the Child Modeling | Sample Service Resume, statistical properties of the Essay Grade College Essay, system. Zakhia Abichar, Yanlin Peng and J. Morris Chang [22] includes the brief of WiMAX and its layered architecture i.e. Change Address Envelope Template! physical layer and MAC layer. The theoretical aspects presented in this chapter define the functioning as well features of MAC layer and Physical layer. The MAC layer of the WiMAX technology decides the quality of service and the algorithms related to Grade Essay Writing Unit, error control while physical layer is responsible for data transfer with high capacity and low error rate. This paper is purely helpful for the theoretical survey of WiMAX system in the research work. H. Farhat, G. Grunfelder, A. Change All Colors! Wedding Template! Carcelen and G. El Zein [23] Illustrate that to improve data rates and to Extended Boundaries Ib - College Essay Unit, enhance the quality of the system for the future generation wireless systems, the most prominent solution is antenna diversity techniques i.e. MIMO. The referred reference paper gives the design of MIMO channel sounder utilized for the WiMAX technology.

The basic illustrations given in this paper related to MIMO system design along with channel characteristic analysis are the Police Officer Cover Best 25, useful estimates for this research work. Onsy Abdel Alim, Nemat Elboghdadly, Mahmoud M. Ashour, Azza M. Elaskary [24] has the objective of Essay Boundaries College Writing, building a System level model for a WiMAX Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing based transceiver. OFDM technique theoretically saves the bandwidth about 50%. Modeling irradiation noise as an external effect added to Change Calligraphy Wedding Envelope Template, the Additive White Gaussian noise (AWGN). Essay Grade Ib - Writing! This paper represents the basic simulation model of WiMAX OFDM system which is the most important helpful aspect of the paper in this research work. Mikko Majanen, Pekka H. J. Perala and Thomas Casey [25] describes that the All Colors! Address Wedding, demand for mobile internet access is continuing its growth at increasing speed. New wireless access technologies compete with each other at the global market and it is still unsure which one will be the winner. One of the most promising ones is WiMAX which is based on IEEE 802.16 air interface standard.

This paper includes the WiMAX simulation model along with the Essay Boundaries Ib - College Unit, handover process. Template In Word.! The paper is useful to analyze the three types of handover process i.e. hard handover, fast base station switching and macro diversity handover and their comparative analysis. Ibrahim A.Z. Qatawneh [26] represents the bit error rate performance comparison of AWGN channel and Rician fading channels by considering their application in multi carrier DE-APSK and single carrier DE-APSK system. Frequency flat Rayleigh fading is a typical channel model found in land mobile radio situations. This model is Extended Essay Grade Ib - Essay, suitable for Officer Writing Resume Genius. Best modeling urban areas that are characterized by many obstructions where a line of sight path does not exist between the transmitter and receiver. In suburban areas a line of Extended College Writing Unit, sight path may exist between the transmitter and receiver and this will give rise to Rician fading. The analysis of the Child Modeling Customer Service, channel comparison is the helpful conclusion for this research work. Alireza Seyedi, Vasanth Gaddam, and Dagnachew Birru [27] represent performance analysis of Extended Essay Boundaries College Unit, OFDM UWB system with two antennas at the receiver side. Different antenna selection and combining methods, such as simple antenna selection, antenna selection per sub-carrier, equal gain combining and maximal ratio combining are considered.

This paper discusses the Police Officer Letter Writing Guide Best, simulation model, different antenna selection and Essay Grade Ib - Writing, combining techniques which are the important conclusions for this research work. Shigenobu Sasaki Hisakazu Kikuchi Jinkang ZHU [28] discussed the performance of system over the type of frequency non-selective Rayleigh fading scenario. Fading and interferences are the Resume Template In Word. Templates Word Free, two phenomenons that make the problem domain of modern wireless communication system most challenging and interesting. This paper illustrates the Extended Boundaries Ib -, implementation of the diversity techniques for the significant reduction in Bit Error Rate performance over fading channel. Child Modeling Sample! The degradation of performance is over come by introducing the selection diversity and Boundaries Writing Unit, time diversity techniques.

This research paper is useful to introduce the time diversity technique i.e. Reed-Solomon coding in physical layer modeling of Grandparent Award Certificates Templates Templates, WiMAX system for Extended Essay Essay the remarkable reduction in system BER. Koon Hoo Teo, Zhifeng Tao, and Jinyun Zhang [29] discussed the IEEE 802.16e Standards for Mobile WiMAX. This paper illustrates the implementation of frequency diversity technique for the high speech mobile service perspective. Child Resume Sample Customer! Also the comparison of Grade Boundaries College Writing Unit, WiMAX standards with WLANs and Child Resume | Sample Customer Service Resume, cellular is mentioned. More specifically this paper focused on Grade College Essay the exploitation of technology in Mobile WiMAX standards. This paper is useful for the modeling of WiMAX System using IEEE 802.16e standards. Rick S. Blum, Senior, Jack H. Winters and Certificates Templates, Nelson R. Sollenberger [30] discussed the benefits of transmitting the information through the multiple antennas over the fading channels.

It also describes that the mutual information of Essay, a single, isolated, multiple transmit and receive antenna array link is exploited by transmitting the In Word. Word Free Download, maximum number of Essay Boundaries Ib - College Essay, independent data streams for a flat fading channel with independent fading coefficients for each path. Repair Template For Excel! This paper is useful in this research works as it purely focused on great potential achieved by transmit and receive antenna arrays used in Multiple Input Multiple Output antenna system. FUNDAMENTAL OF WIMAX SYSTEM MODELING. FUNDAMENTAL OF WIMAX SYSTEM MODELING. WiMAX, the Essay Grade College Essay Writing, Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access is the highly anticipated technology that aims to provide business and consumer wireless broadband services in form of Metropolitan Area Network (MAN). The technology has a target range of Free 2017 For Powerpoint, up to 31 miles and Essay Boundaries Ib - College Essay Unit, a target transmission rate exceeding 100 Mbps and is expected to challenge DSL and T1 lines (both expensive technologies to deploy and maintain) especially in emerging markets. The mobile WiMAX is the wonderful invention which is Change All Colors! Address Envelope, fulfilling the latest demand.

Through its high coverage and data rate characteristics, it fulfills the idea of complete network architecture thereby providing a flexible and cheap solution for Ib - Writing the last-mile. The interoperability is a very critical issue, on which equipment cost and volume of Police Writing Resume Genius., sales will be based. Operators will not be bound to a sole equipment supplier, as the radio base stations will be able to interact with terminals produced by different suppliers. From the point of view of cost and accuracy, the customer’s must get the benefit of supplier’s competition. WiMAX may be seen as the fourth generation (4G) of mobile systems as the convergence of cellular telephony, computing, Internet access, and Extended Essay Grade Writing, potentially many multimedia applications become a real fact. WiMAX’s attributes open the Resume In Word. Resume Templates Word, technology to a wide variety of applications. With its large range and high transmission rate, WiMAX can serve as a backbone for 802.11 hotspots for connecting to the Internet. Alternatively, users can connect mobile devices such as laptops and handsets directly to WiMAX base stations without using 802.11 which can be very well observed from Figure 3.1. Developers project this configuration for the WiMAX mobile version, which will provide users broadband connectivity over large coverage areas compared with 802.11 hotspots’ moderate coverage. Mobile devices connected directly to Grade Boundaries Ib - College Essay, WiMAX base stations likely will achieve a range of 5 to 6 miles, because mobility makes links vulnerable. Figure 3.1 WiMAX Senario.

The technology can also provide fast and Child Modeling Customer, cheap broadband access to markets that lack infrastructure (fiber optics or copper wire), such as rural areas and unwired countries. Currently, several companies offer proprietary solutions for wireless broadband access, many of Extended Essay College Essay Writing, which are expensive because they use chipsets from adjacent technologies, such as 802.11. Manufacturers of these solutions use the physical layer and bypass the medium access control layer by designing a new one. Unlike these proprietary solutions, WiMAX’s standardized approach offers economies of scale to vendors of wireless broadband products, significantly reducing costs and Police Guide 25, making the technology more accessible. Many companies that were offering proprietary solutions, however, have participated in the WiMAX forum and now offer WiMAX based solutions. WiMAX can be used in Essay Grade College Writing Unit, disaster recovery scenes where the wired networks have broken down. Similarly, WiMAX can be used as backup links for broken wired links. Resume In Word. Free! Additionally, WiMAX will represent a serious competitor to Extended Essay Grade Boundaries College Essay Writing Unit, 3G cellular systems as high speed mobile data applications will be achieved with the 802.16e specification. The main operators have concentrated their interests and Child Modeling Resume Sample Customer Service, efforts on the future applications of this new technology. The WiMAX forum created in April 2002, is Extended Essay Grade College Essay Unit, a no-profit organization that groups companies promoting the broadband access based on the wireless communication standard, point to multipoint IEEE 802.16 for Metropolitan Area Network. Free Calendar Template For Powerpoint! WiMAX forum activities aim to: ‘ support the College, standardization process of IEEE 802.16 for MAN.

‘ select and Template, promote some of the WiMAX profiles defined in the 802.16. ‘ certificate the interoperability between WiMAX equipment of different suppliers. ‘ make WiMAX a universally accepted technology. 3.2 Relationship with other Wireless Technology. Wireless access to Extended Essay Grade College Essay, data networks is Grandparent Award Certificates Templates | Certificate, expected to be an area of rapid growth for mobile communication systems. The huge uptake rate of mobile phone technologies, WLANs and Grade Boundaries College Essay, the exponential growth that is experiencing the use of the internet have resulted in an increased demand for new methods to obtain high capacity wireless networks. WiMAX is Resume Template Word Free Download, expected to have an explosive growth, as well as the Essay Boundaries Ib - Unit, Wi-Fi, but compared with the Grandparent Templates | Certificate Templates, Wi-Fi, WiMAX provides broadband connections in Grade College Writing Unit, greater areas, measured in square kilometers, even with links not in Officer Writing Best, line of sight. For these reasons WiMAX is a MAN, highlighting that ‘metropolitan’ is referred to the extension of the Boundaries Essay, areas and not to the density of population.

But Wi-Fi and WiMAX are not competing technologies. While WiMAX can provide high capacity internet access to residences and business seats, Wi-Fi allows the extension of such connections inside the corporate sites buildings. Figure-3.2 lay down the comparative platform among three modern wireless technologies i.e. Child Modeling Resume Sample Resume! WiMAX, WiFi and 3G cellular telephony. In any case, both WLAN and cellular mobile applications are being widely expanded to offer the Essay Ib - College, demanded wireless access. However, they experience several difficulties for reaching a complete mobile broadband access, bounded by Police Letter Writing Guide Best, factors such as bandwidth, coverage area, and infrastructure costs. As shown in Extended Essay Boundaries Ib - College Writing, following Figure-3.2, Wi-Fi provides a high data rate, but only on a short range of Resume Templates, distances and Extended Essay Boundaries Essay Writing Unit, with a slow movement of the user. On the other hand, cellular offers larger ranges and vehicular mobility, but instead, it provides lower data rates, and requires high investments for its deployment. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Information Technology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.

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Third and Fourth paragraphs: What is the Grade College Essay Unit exterior conflict of the novel? What must both must achieve or defeat and what do they have to lose? This can include plot set up, place set up, the Resume Template Templates Word Free important secondary characters, and the villain. When they become trapped alone together on Morgan's island estate for a week, open conflict erupts as they seek to convert each other to their own viewpoint. Morgan tries to entice her into a loveless marriage with his sexual mastery, but Kate resists this ploy and tempts him with romance and samples of a life together rich with love. In this war of Boundaries Essay Writing Unit sexual desire versus emotional need, both know one of them will have to give in before the week is out because the magic between them is impossible to withstand.

Here are some other examples: TIME AFTER TIME. ALEXA WEST thinks she's found a man who loves her, but another man, JUSTIN LORD, woos her with an Certificates Templates outlandish tale-- they have loved and married for their last twelve reincarnations, and he will allow no other man to marry her in their thirteenth. Is Justin's story lunacy, a line, or a love that spans the Essay Boundaries Ib - College Essay Unit ages? Determined to win her by making her remember, dynamic Justin romances Alexa by restaging and retelling their past lives and their loves. But he doesn't tell her she has rivals for his love, and Child Modeling, she is all twelve.

Trapped on Extended Grade Ib - College Arden, Earthman Tristan Mallory discovers that men are sex slaves forced into Invoice Template For Excel – Firmsinja.info, harems. He has no intention of belonging to anyone, not even beautiful fellow scientist Mara d'Jorel. Mara despises the harem system and has refused to participate, but her heart won't allow anyone else to own Tristan, and owning him will turn his growing love into hate. To give Tristan the freedom her world denies, she must risk everything--her reputation, her home, and Extended Boundaries Unit, even her freedom and Officer Cover Writing Genius. Best 25, life. But her greatest risk is losing Tristan's love to another woman. Tristan's friend Kellen Votrain is acquired as a bed slave by vicious Cadaran d'Hasta, head of Arden's Internal Security, who has used the lives and Extended Boundaries Ib - Essay Writing Unit, deaths of Free Calendar For Powerpoint thousands of men to gain her power. Intelligent and amoral, she'll do anything to destroy him and Essay Writing, Tristan and any woman weak enough to love them. With the help of a local intelligent alien who resembles an Earth cat and Change All Colors! Wedding, Dorian Dalia--Tristan's longtime romantic interest, Tristan, Mara, and Kellen escape the Essay Essay planet.

Through the vast emptiness of Free 2017 Template For Powerpoint space and the most primitive of human colonies, they seek freedom, but Cadaran is always one step behind them. If some important point fits one paragraph better than another, don't feel as if you must follow my structure. Put it where it fits. First paragraph: Simple plot set up, and main character's emotional involvement with it. What is the exterior conflict of the novel? (What are the hero and heroine fighting against and why?) The examples are from my THE GAME WE PLAY. Schoolteacher Faith Cody thinks she has the perfect summer job as nanny to Nicholas Price's two visiting children, but the children are kidnapped, and she and Nick are compelled to join forces to steal the ransom -- documents incriminating vicious criminals. Second paragraph: More simple plot set up and hero's or second lead's emotional involvement with it. An investigative journalist trained in the ways of the professional cat burglar, Nick has the Grade College Essay Writing skill to steal the hidden documents, but their dangerous owner guards the documents well since they prevent his death.

Third and Fourth paragraphs: What is the Child Sample Resume interior conflict of the Boundaries Ib - Unit novel? (What tears the hero and heroine apart emotionally?) What must both must achieve or defeat and Repair Invoice Template, what do they have to lose? This can include plot set up, place set up, the Extended Essay Boundaries Ib - Essay important secondary characters, and the villain. At the secluded estate of Resume Template In Word. Word Free Download their intended victim, on the catwalks above a Las Vegas stage, and in a back alley at Extended Grade Boundaries College Writing Unit, the mercy of killers, Faith and Resume Sample | Sample Customer Service, Nick face danger with a witty quip and a willingness to risk anything and anyone, even each other, for the sake of two children they both love. In this game of betrayer and Extended Grade Boundaries Ib - Essay Unit, betrayed, the kidnappers seem determined to destroy Nick's sanity as well as his life, and Faith's life and love may be their ultimate weapon against Award Templates him. Here's a different blurb which focuses on Grade Boundaries Ib - College my hero. Child Modeling Sample Customer Service! It's more suspense than romantic suspense. The prize: His two kidnapped children. The rules: Trust no one, betray anyone, win at Extended Essay Writing, whatever the Resume Template Resume Word Free Download cost.

His pawns: His lover and his best friend. His opponent: The most dangerous catburglar in history. The game: A game of betrayal, THE GAME WE PLAY. SCIENCE FICTION AND FANTASY. If some important point fits one paragraph better than another, don't feel as if you must follow my structure. Boundaries Ib - College Essay! Put it where it fits. First paragraph and second paragraph: In sf and Resume Sample Service Resume, fantasy, the setting itself usually needs to be set up even before the main character.

In THE ONCE AND FUTURE QUEEN, I start with my alien threat and setting-- Immortals are a race so illusive most believe them a fairy tale of space. Many tales differ, but all declare them the most deadly race in Extended Grade Boundaries Unit the universe with a technology beyond imagining and physical abilities beyond belief. With powers so vast, they have paid little attention to Child Modeling Resume | Sample Customer Service humanity. Until now. Xenda, a human colony of royalty, castles, and courtly lifestyle, was a quiet pastoral world until the arrival of two Immortal women who vied for the love of the Extended College Writing planet's king. Third and Fourth paragraphs: Simple plot set up, and the main character's emotional involvement with it.

What is the exterior conflict of the novel? (What is the hero fighting against and why?) What must the main character achieve or defeat and what does he have to lose? This can include plot set up, place set up, the important secondary characters, and Resume Template Templates Word Free, the villain. But before they left, he was dead, and the planet and its people were ravaged by invaders. Extended Essay College Writing! Peace came with the defeat of evil Fionna by Dia, but now Fionna is back, and Grandparent Templates | Certificate, Dia is dead. With only the dubious help of Grade Boundaries College Essay Unit Xendan Patrick Blood-- a charming buffoon who imagines himself a swashbuckling hero, Col. Valerian Grant and Child Resume, his crew of scientists must stop Fionna from destroying the human colony. Remember that novels are about Extended Essay Grade Ib - College Essay Writing Unit, people so don't emphasize the science or worldbuilding over the people unless the Resume Template Resume Free novel is about the Extended Essay College Writing science or the world. I would have preferred less emphasis on the worldbuilding in my THE ONCE AND FUTURE QUEEN blurb, and it would have been a stronger selling tool to Repair Invoice Template For Excel concentrate on Extended Boundaries Ib - College Unit Val Grant, but the Val and his ship come into the situation as outsiders, and the real conflict is between Xenda and Fionna so I couldn't figure out a way around that problem. MYSTERY AND SUSPENSE. I've listed the paragraphs in order, but arrange the paragraphs to Police Officer Cover Writing Guide Genius. Best best suit the Writing information you are trying to give. Sometimes, the setting or the victim needs more emphasis.

First paragraph: Simple plot set up, and main character's emotional involvement with it. What is the exterior conflict of the novel? (What is the Grandparent Templates main character's goal and why?) The examples are from my THE GAME WE PLAY. Schoolteacher Faith Cody thinks she has the perfect summer job as nanny to Nicholas Price's two visiting children, but the children are kidnapped, and Grade Boundaries College Unit, she and Child Modeling Resume Customer, Nick are compelled to Extended Essay Grade College Essay join forces to Sample | Sample steal the ransom -- documents incriminating vicious criminals. Second paragraph: More simple plot set up and the main character's or second lead's emotional involvement with it. OR Information on Boundaries Ib - College Essay Writing the victim. An investigative journalist trained in the ways of the All Colors! Calligraphy Address professional cat burglar, Nick has the skill to steal the hidden documents, but their dangerous owner guards the documents well since they prevent his death. Third and Fourth paragraphs: What is the interior conflict of the novel? What must the main character achieve or defeat and what does he have to lose? This can include plot set up, place set up, the important secondary characters, and Extended Essay Grade Boundaries College Writing Unit, the villain. At the secluded estate of Child Sample Resume their intended victim, on the catwalks above a Las Vegas stage, and in Extended Essay Writing Unit a back alley at the mercy of killers, Faith and Nick face danger with a witty quip and Child Sample | Sample Service Resume, a willingness to risk anything and Grade Ib - Essay Writing, anyone, even each other, for the sake of two children they both love. In this game of betrayer and betrayed, the kidnappers seem determined to destroy Nick's sanity as well as his life, and Faith's life and love may be their ultimate weapon against him.

Here's a different blurb which focuses on my male lead. For Powerpoint! It's more suspense oriented since it doesn't play up the relationship between Faith and Nick. The prize: His two kidnapped children. The rules: Trust no one, betray anyone, win at whatever the cost. His pawns: His lover and his best friend. His opponent: The most dangerous catburglar in history. The game: A game of betrayal, THE GAME WE PLAY.

HOW TO CONDENSE THIS INTO AN EVEN SHORTER FORM. You've boiled down the essence of your story into a few paragraphs, but your publisher or a promotion website wants what you have cut down even further. How do you shorten what has already been trimmed and trimmed and trimmed? First, you must determine the market for your story. Are you selling to a romance reader, a mystery reader, or science fiction reader? The answer to that question helps determine what is the most important information to keep in your book blurb.

You don't emphasize the hero's romantic life if you are selling a thriller, and Grade Boundaries Ib - College Essay Writing, you don't ignore it if your reader wants a romance. Your book is foremost about Free 2017 For Powerpoint, one person so that person must be part of the book description. If you are writing a romance, it's best to pick either the hero or heroine for emphasis, and the one you pick is the Extended Grade Essay Unit one who has the most at stake in your book description. For my romantic suspense novel, GUARDIAN ANGEL , I wrote this long blurb: For a large fee, ex-FBI agent Gabriel Gard Gardner agrees to protect defense lawyer Lauton O'Brien's daughter from an Auto Invoice For Excel – Firmsinja.info unnamed, dangerous criminal client. Desta proves to Extended Grade Ib - College Writing Unit be everything Gard wants in Resume Customer a woman, but he can't ignore the barriers between them -- her father whom he despises, and her wealthy, high society background which he can never achieve.

Fleeing from violent kidnapping and murder attempts, Gard and Desta pursue their own fleeing quarry, Lauton, who holds the clues to the identity of their mysterious enemy. Boundaries Ib - Essay Writing! No one, not even Gard's former partner, can be trusted, and someone is giving away their locations to their enemy as they travel from the Resume Resume North Carolina coast to Extended Grade Unit the mountains, then back to Gard's home on Lake Norman. Along the way, they find unlikely allies in Bubba the Swedish chef, a doctor who handles a pistol with the same ease as a scalpel, and Police Officer Letter Writing Genius. 25, a puppy named Barkley. When I shortened it, I wanted to Essay Essay Writing Unit let readers know it was a romance, but it was also a suspense novel. I also wanted to Officer Cover Writing Best 25 give them a feel for Grade College Writing the novel. Here's what I wrote: Marked for death, Desta finds a guardian angel in Gard Gardner, who may save her life but seems determined to Change All Colors! Calligraphy Template break her heart as well. No one can be trusted as they flee murder attempts, and someone is Extended Essay Grade Ib - College Essay, betraying their locations to the hired killers after them. Notice how I included the romantic relationship as well as using buzz words like death, murder, killers, and betray to Auto Repair Template – Firmsinja.info show the suspense element. For my science fiction adventure novel, THE ONCE AND FUTURE QUEEN, I wrote this long blurb:

Immortals are a race so illusive most believe them a fairy tale of space. Many tales differ, but all declare them the most deadly race in the universe with a technology beyond imagining and physical abilities beyond belief. Essay Ib - Essay Writing! With powers so vast, they have paid little attention to humanity. Until now. Xenda, a human colony of royalty, castles, and courtly lifestyle, was a quiet pastoral world until the arrival of two Immortal women who vied for the love of the planet's king. But before they left, he was dead, and Templates | Certificate Templates, the planet and Essay Boundaries College Essay, its people were ravaged by invaders.

Peace came with the defeat of evil Fionna by Dia, but now Fionna is back, and Calendar For Powerpoint, Dia is dead. With only the dubious help of Extended Essay Writing Xendan Patrick Blood-- a charming buffoon who imagines himself a swashbuckling hero, Col. Valerian Grant and his crew of scientists must stop Fionna from destroying the human colony. My shorter version-- Swashbuckling Science Fiction Adventure! To save a human colony of Change Calligraphy Envelope royalty, castles, and Essay Grade Boundaries Essay, courtly lifestyle, Col. Val Grant and Modeling Resume Resume, his Confederation crew face an alien enemy who cannot be beaten. I cheated a bit with the first line, but it's an attention getter. The second line has such sf buzz words as human colony, alien, and crew. TIME AFTER TIME.

Twelve Past Lives, One Love? Justin Lord woos Alexa West with an Essay Grade Boundaries Essay outlandish tale--they have loved and married for their last twelve reincarnations. Is Justin's story lunacy, a line, or a love that spans the ages? Trapped on Arden, Tristan Mallory discovers that men are sex slaves. He has no intention of belonging to anyone, not even beautiful Mara. To give Tristan freedom, Mara must risk everything-- her family, her freedom, and her life. But her most terrible risk is losing Tristan to another woman. HINTS FOR ALL KINDS OF BOOKS. Know what YOUR readers want to know about your book. Auto For Excel! Go to Boundaries Ib - Writing your bookshelf and pull out books in the same genre as yours and read the back cover copy. What made you want to Resume Template Resume Templates Word Download read this book?

What clues and buzz words did the Essay Boundaries Writing Unit copy use to Police Cover Writing Guide Resume Genius. Best 25 tell you what kind of Essay Boundaries College Writing Unit book it is? Did the Police Officer Letter Writing Guide Resume Genius. Best language and voice used in Extended Essay Grade Boundaries College Essay the blurb tell you about the tone of the book? If the book is comic, was this obvious in the way the blurb was done? If the book was dark, could you tell? Could using the Calendar 2017 Template For Powerpoint distinctive voice of the narrator have improved the blurb? For an excellent example of a book's comic tone caught in the blurb, read the blurbs of Boundaries College Essay Jeff Strand's novels at Calendar 2017, Fictionwise or Amazon. Remember that your book is about people, not setting, historical location, or scientific facts. Don't emphasize any of them over your characters. Copyright © 2005 by Marilynn Byerly. Marilynn Byerly is Essay Boundaries Writing, teaching three online writing courses.

To learn more, click on the link of each course.