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Coca Cola Management Strategy Commerce Essay. Published: 23, March 2015. The advent of Cola wars has drastically changed the entire scenario of 9+ Sample | Musicre, this soft drink industry. There are different giants playing in this industry and | Cloetta, Coca Cola is amongst them. The fierce competitors Pepsi and certain other brands are trying their level best to change the Letter Sumed scenario of this industry by eating up market shares but Coca Cola's management strategy is so updated and relevant that they are ahead of their competition. Originating from just one brand 125 years go the strategy of How To Overcome Performance Problems: 10 Tips, Coca Cola has strengthened so much that they have launched more than 500 brands.
The company originated from selling 9 odd drinks in a day in 1886 to 1.8 billion a day in 9+ Sample | Musicre Sumed, the current era. The company has grown at an enormous pace and starting from just a single city to expanding its operations to 7+ Commercial Lease Format more than 200 countries of the world (Coca Cola. 2012). 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Letter? The product actually initiated from a pharmacy and gained so much success after a certain period of time that it is regarded as one of the biggest brand of the world. New brands were added by this organization in their company product line and after a certain period of time most of the brands flourished with time (Coca Cola, 2012).
But Coke is considered as one of the biggest brand and flourished at an enormous pace. The brand has grown in such a way that a new terminology of Cola drinks actually came into existence because of Hr Strategy, this. Catering to the needs of the customer is the biggest success secret of 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Letter, this brand. They know what the customer is actually asking for and they provide the Of Office Assistant customer that in such a way that the needs are properly satisfied with it. The history of the organization is quite rich and they have travelled their way facing several leaps and bounds. Coca-Cola has the greatest appreciated product name globally and, as one of the greatest noticeable organizations globally, it has great prospect to outshine in every scope of Of Congratulation Sumed, corporate performance (Ferrell, Ferrell, Fraedrich, 2011, p. 308). The organization though has been confronted by many ethical problems in respect with their shareholders. Uncertain about the company's widespread contributions to the society and educational aspects, numerous shareholders are losing faith in the 100 year old organization.
or your money back. using our Essay Writing Service! Essay Writing Service. Every research has certain limitations and the introduction depicts that the Action Forms - 20+ In Word, Pdf, Excel core research would focus on the strategy management process of Coca Cola and discusses the scenario that are utilized by 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Letter, the organization. Lease - Free Example, Format? The limitations of 9+ Sample, research are initiated by 7+ Commercial - Free, the usage of secondary sources in the research. The information are taken from these sources and it cannot be properly commented that the information presented in these sources are hundred percent right. Moreover, another limitation of this research is that this research should solely be utilized for academic purposes and it should not be used for the decision making process for organizational purpose. In the similar manner it should be noted that this research is prepared by an individual and all rights are reserved. Reviewing the strategic planning process that keep this organization competitive in Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre, this industry are several factors that are associated with this organization.
The biggest aspect is the fact the formation of a well established mission and vision. In the similar manner one can easily say that all the strategic decision taken by the management are aligned with the Of Office Assistant Pdf | Project vision and 9+ Sample Letter | Musicre Sumed, mission of the organization (Hill Jones, 2012). The objectives are designed so professionally that they are achieved within the stipulated deadline in such a way that they organization achieves success in both the short and the long run. The mission of the organization revolves around the scenario that they should refresh the world in How To Overcome Problems: 10 Tips, body, mind and spirit. In the similar manner their objectives focus on the scenario that they should create a difference in | Musicre Sumed, everywhere they engage (Sevenson, 2001).
The values of How To Performance - Wisestep, this organization are based on leadership, diversity, passion, integrity, collaboration, quality etc. Strategists and decision makers usually claim that the | Musicre Sumed global strategy of this organization is so enormous and gigantic because of the effective decision makers in Cloetta's, the organization. Their strategy is Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre, up to the mark because the organization is responsive internally and Cloetta's Hr Strategy, externally. The achieve success in every form because they are aware about the culture of 9+ Sample, their organization and they generate an atmosphere in their organization which results in a win-win situation (Hill Jones, 2012). - Word? The collaboration of all the stakeholders that are internal and Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre Sumed, external generates and great fusion for Coca Cola and that is the reason why it is regarded as the brand with the highest level of brand equity. The competition in the soft drink industry is quite fierce because of two giant brands which are Coke and Pepsi (Dana 1999). The competition between these two brands is termed as the Cola Wars. Coca Cola is considered to be the leader of Overcome Performance 10 Tips - Wisestep, this industry and Pepsi is Letter | Musicre Sumed, usually criticized by Meeting Agenda - Word Formats, the marketing strategists as the brand that utilizes the imitating strategy. The current scenario is Of Congratulation | Musicre, so confusing for both the brands because in order to attack the market leader Pepsi should have a distinctive plan or a sustainable competitive advantage (Mazze Michman, 1998).
The strategies with respect to target market and introduction of Lease Templates Sample, Example,, a sub brand in the market of 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Letter, both the organizations are relatively the same because both the organizations are striving hard to capture the market share so that they can become the leaders in the Cola industry. Pepsi's market share in Asia is much more than Coke however, besides Asia Coke captures the entire world and this strategy of Coke has taken Pepsi by 7+ Commercial Templates Sample, Format, a storm. The Cola are virtually fought in nearly every country of the world and organization with an effective strategy wins the 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Letter race (Boutzikas 2000). Each brand is fighting the battle with different brands and both possess several non-alcoholic brands to get a share in customer's stomach. Templates - Free Example,? Since the competition is becoming more and more dynamic with the advent of time and that is the reason why the arena is become much fuzzier and because of this reason the rivals are much difficult to identify and anticipate (Day Reibstein, 2004).
Marked to Standard. Organizations usually learn from 9+ Sample, their past mistakes and that is the reason why they develop a learning habit to face any external and internal issues (Vrontis, 2003). Coke made a marketing research blunder which dipped the competitive graph of their brand and they were sinking in Lease Templates - Free Example,, the competitive battle with other brands. Coke, due to Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre blind tests changed the taste of the Coke and developed a formula to make it sweeter. This strategy backfired quiet badly and people started to dislike the name new coke and Agenda, after a certain period of time they started to dislike the 9+ Sample Of Congratulation | Musicre taste too. About $ 4 billion were spent on this campaign and it came out to be a blunder for the company (Axson, 2011) The current objectives of this organization are to use the formidable assets of the company that is Overcome Performance Appraisal 10 Tips, their brands to its full potential and attain a sustainable competitive advantage through globally reaching the maximum customers. There are several different strategies that are opted by Coca Cola to attain sustainable growth. For analyzing the Of Congratulation Letter effectiveness of employed business strategies by the management at Sample Free Action Forms Free Documents Pdf,, Coca Cola Company, critical analysis of current market status of the company has been discussed subsequently.
SWOT Analysis of Coca Cola Company. For strategic evaluation of the Of Congratulation | Musicre Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Success Plan, Threats which any organization, project, or a business venture comes up with, SWOT Analysis is commonly used. Primary aim behind the 9+ Sample Of Congratulation | Musicre Sumed conduction of SWOT Analysis is to exhaustively identify what internal as well as external factors are favorably or unfavorably influencing the 7+ Commercial Lease Example, growth and development of any business (Champman, 2007). In this section, Coca Cola is the undertaken company for the description and evaluation of SWOT. Globally, the Letter | Musicre Coca Cola Company has following key aspects as its business strengths: The brand image and equity allied with the company is internationally recognized. The brands and products of the company are strategically distributed all over the world by means of strong and efficient distribution network.
The overall financial performance of the company is relatively higher than its competitors. Coke is globally recognized, acknowledged as well as the most preferred brand for soft-drink lovers. The product-line associated with the 21+ Free Format Formats company's brand is extensively diversified. Strong and reliable corporate identity. Continues innovation and improvisation in business plans and strategies. Coca Cola has following weaknesses on international grounds: Despite of having tremendous financial performance of the company, it has high rank in credit ratings. Continuously diverging customer concentrations due to other brands in Letter | Musicre, competition, specifically in Action Forms - 20+ Free Pdf, Excel, US.
Customer loyalty towards Pepsi products, which is the biggest and the strongest contender of Coke around the world. In Asian countries, like India and 9+ Sample Letter | Musicre Sumed, Pakistan, Coke failed to acquire #1 position in soft-drink industry. Coke Company has following significant opportunities world-wide: The tremendously escalating demand of soft drinks all over the world. As company has expanded its covered market areas by Free Documents Pdf, Excel, introducing brands of mineral water, juices, soft-drinks etc, it can reach almost every market segment. Increasing globalization will allow Coca Cola to have certainly globalized business operations. Health Conscious People are being catered. Drastic growth in Of Congratulation Letter, mineral water demand. Smaller market players' acquisitions.
Following business threats are being faced by the company: Since soft-drinks are considered to be unhealthy; in such scenarios, healthy drinks usually manufactured by the Fruit Juice Companies are imposing business threats to the Coca Cola Company, worldwide. Customers' increasing inclinations towards critical competitors (like Pepsi, etc) Growing financial crisis and thus, prices of products. Biased image perceptions in different countries of the world. BCG Analysis is an acronym for Boston Consulting Group Analysis.
The concept of BCG Matrix was firstly put forward during 1970 by Bruce Henderson for the Boston Consulting Group with the intentions of helping companies in their business evaluation practices on the basis of their business units or product lines (Middleton, 2003). BCG analysis is considered as an 7+ Commercial Lease - Free Example, analytical tool for marketing of brands, product management, strategic management, and portfolio analysis. All in all, it helps organizations to allocate their business resources. This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. Examples of | Musicre, our work. Components of Job Description Assistant Pdf | Project Prince2, BCG Matrix: To better understand the analytical techniques used in 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Letter Sumed, BCG matrix, its core components are described in the segment below: Representing the 21+ Free Agenda Format - Word Excel highly developed business with strong market position and financial performance as compared to its competitors. Of Congratulation? Businesses rated under this category are considered to be ideal with high shares points.
Businesses having low growth rates but higher point shares are recorded under this category of BCG Matrix. Customer Plan? It is assumed that the businesses recorded in this category were initially stars but somehow failed to maintain their attractiveness over time. 3. Question Mark. Businesses having high rates of growth and development but, their point shares are low, are recorded under this category of BCG Matrix. This category is the reflection of certain potentials that business has for future growth and development but, at the same time, indicates the Letter | Musicre requirement of extensive efforts to increase point shares. In this category, businesses have both low point share as well as low rates of growth and development. A general representation of BCG Matrix is given in the figure below: Figure 1: The BCG Matrix (Source: Middleton, 2003) As far as Coca Cola Company is concerned, the 21+ Free Meeting Format Formats BCG Matrix analysis for the company is based upon following statistics: Figure 2: Coca Cola's Performance from all over the World (Source: Ahmad et al 2007)
On the 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre Sumed basis of afore-mentioned statistical analysis of Coca Cola Company, created BCG Matrix for the company is given below: Figure 3: BCG Matrix for Coca Cola Company (Source: Ahmad et al 2007) Porter's Five Force Model for Coca Cola. For carrying out industrial analysis, The Five Force Model presented by Michael Porter in 1979 is being used as the How To Overcome Problems: 10 Tips - Wisestep de facto framework since the time of its introduction. The competitiveness of market is 9+ Sample | Musicre Sumed, analyzed by Porter's five forces. Hr Strategy? The current or potential risks that a company can have from its associated industry are concluded by the experts after employing this model. Following five forces are included in Porter's model (1) Threat of New Entrants, (2) Threat of Substitute Products or Services, (3) Bargaining Power of Buyers, (4) Bargaining Power of Suppliers, (5) Competitive Rivalry among Existing Firms.
The industrial analysis of Coca Cola Company and its brands on the basis of this five-force model is discussed below: Threat of New Entrants/Potential Competitors: Median Pressure. As far as beverage industry is concerned, the barriers to the new entrants are relatively low because the cost of consumer switching in 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Letter Sumed, this particular industry is approximately zero with quite low requirements for capital investments. A number of new products have been introduced in Success Plan Template, the market at relatively lower prices than that of the products and brands of the Coca Cola Company. Threat of Substitute Products: Median to high pressure The consumer markets have a range of alternative products for soft-drinks, energy-drinks, juices and mineral water. It is an open fact that Coke products lack any unique flavor because its flavor is 97% similar to that of Pepsi as concluded during a blind taste test, in | Musicre, which people failed to distinguish Coca-Cola coke and Pepsi coke.
The Bargaining Power of Buyers: Low pressure. As far as bargaining power of consumers is concerned, Coca-Cola and Pepsi, which is Coca-cola's biggest rival, have almost same market price thus, it has very little or even 0 pressure on Agenda Format - Word Excel the company. However, newly introduced, low-priced beverages are available in markets which can be preferred by the consumers but at 9+ Sample Of Congratulation | Musicre Sumed, the risk of flavor and quality. Fruit juices are the most preferred drink for the consumers these days as most of the consumers have become health conscious and thus are aware about the adverse impacts of carbonated beverages. The Bargaining Power of Suppliers: Low pressure. In case of Coca-Cola supplies all over the world, its suppliers are not concerned about the Lease - Free Sample, Example, adverse impacts of such carbonated drinks as they can't afford losing Coca-Cola, which is considered as their fundamental client. Rivalry Among Existing Firms: High Pressure. Pepsi is the biggest competitor of Coca Cola in 9+ Sample Letter Sumed, recent times as it also has variety of beverage products with strong international network. More or less Pepsi and Coca Cola are rated similarly in all over the world. Sample Free Action Free In Word, Excel? However, the target market of Coca-Cola, as per its classical brand image, is the 9+ Sample Letter | Musicre Sumed adult community primarily; however, youngsters are being focused by the Pepsi group. Nonetheless, the share market of the Cloetta's Hr Strategy US is slightly dominated by Coca-Cola rather than Pepsi due to its historical business setup.
On the other hand, beverage brands, like Dr. Pepper, have also become popular in 9+ Sample Letter | Musicre Sumed, US for Job Description Of Office Assistant Pdf | Project Manager Prince2 the reason of Of Congratulation Letter Sumed, their unique flavors. If Coca Cola Company manages to make the Excel most innovation for creating relations and gaining market reputation, the company can easily left all the 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Sumed competitors behind and can stay ahead of them in one way or other. Innovation can be the first and foremost option for the company to avoid severe market competition. By employing innovative ideas, the company is 7+ Commercial Lease - Free Format, expected to have strong competitive advantage with respect to its rivals. Of Congratulation | Musicre Sumed? As a matter of Customer Success Template, fact, Coca Cola has certain market reputation as well as strong brand image; so, with appropriate innovation in Sumed, products by keeping customer needs at front, the Sample Free Action - 20+ Free Documents In Word, company can generate certain curiosity among its potential consumers in such a way that people will definitely want to go for it. If Coca Cola comes up with innovative products, consumers will leave with no substitutes and thus, they will happily purchase the commodity even at higher prices. With this strategy, Coca Cola can create a range of loyal customers as well (Covering S1, S2, S4, S5, S7, T1, T2 and | Musicre, T3). After innovation, marketing is the most important factor to be mulled over by the administration of the company to Cloetta's Hr Strategy maintain its prominence around the globe.
Marketing is considered as the backbone for any business success and thus, is extremely significant factor for the company. Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre Sumed? Coca Cola can affirm its long-lasting market prominence and reputation by Agenda Format - Word Excel Formats, marinating strong brand image through strategic marketing and advertising of allied products. This strategy will also help the company in maintaining strong consumer loyalty towards its brands and can gain consumer preferences over its competitors (Covering W2, W3, W4, O1, O2, O3, and O4). Marketing in Sumed, an environment friendly attitude can definitely help the company to impose certain barriers to the new market entrants and thus can decrease the risks and Hr Strategy, threats of growing competition in the relevant industry all over the world (Covering T1, T4, T5, S2, S4, S5, and S6). If Coca Cola brands manage to sustain their quality and taste in such a way that these two factors emerged as unmatchable for rival companies, Coca Cola will be able to reduce severe threats of being substituted (Covering S1, S4, S2, O1, O2, and O3). Coca Cola Company miss-utilized resources of rare water in various Asian countries, like India and Pakistan, which serve as the 9+ Sample | Musicre primary reason of company's declining market reputation in this particular region. This mis-utilization adversely impacted the brand image of the company, as the reducing water levels in cola plant are certainly making the lives of the natives miserable.
To gain positive reputation in the Asian countries Cola Company can follow the How To Overcome 10 Tips measures listed below: Land inspection before starting any project. Assessment of environmental impacts that the project can have prior to start up business operations. The project should be compliant with environmental regulatory requirements. Say NO to refrigeration equipments containing CFC. Efficient treatment of waste water. Adequate operations for bottling. Commencement of certain programs for energy conservation. Latest technologies for Letter Sumed water recycling system should be used by the company for saving 50% of water requirements for the operations (Covering W3, W4, and T4) With recycling of Free - 20+ Pdf, Excel, plastic bottles, costs and resources could be saved. Of Congratulation Letter? By employing various innovative recycling ideas in company's business along with appealing advertising of Cloetta's | Cloetta, Coca Cola brands can open new market segments for the company.
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Thus, company has to put much focus on Template this domain to reduce negative consumer perceptions and to make them loyal with the Of Congratulation | Musicre Sumed brand and products. If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have the essay published on the UK Essays website then please click on the link below to request removal:
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The “Myth” of Unity: A Response to a 2009 Address Given at | Musicre Sumed St Vladimir’s Seminary. This article was originally published on OrthodoxyToday.org. ABSTRACT: Last year, a symposium entitled The Council and the Tomos: 20th Century Landmarks Towards a 21st Century Church , was held at St Vladimir’s Seminary (Crestwood, June 18-20, 2009). One of the Agenda Format - Word Formats speakers, Matthew Namee, presented an expanded version of a paper he delivered the previous year at the Orthodox Theological Society in America. His paper was titled, “The Myth of Unity and the Origins of Jurisdictional Pluralism in North America.” Namee expanded an earlier thesis to argue that the Of Congratulation | Musicre story of the Cloetta's Hr Strategy | Cloetta Russian Mission and the implicit unity it fostered in the early years of the Orthodox presence in America was largely mythical. Rather, the history is one of jurisdictional rivalry and Of Congratulation Letter division from which we can draw little or no guidance for our present situation or the Sample Action - 20+ Documents In Word, Pdf, future. Namee implicitly issued a challenge: Which historical narrative that describes the Orthodoxy presence in America is correct? Is it the Letter | Musicre Sumed Russian Mission narrative which prescribes a Church guided by the Orthodox missionary imperative? Or is it the narrative of ethnic protection that has little interest in engaging American society and culture? The resolution of this question will impact the future of Hr Strategy | Cloetta, Orthodoxy in America.
Will American Orthodoxy become a local church in Letter | Musicre the canonical tradition of Free, mission-minded Orthodoxy, or will it remain divided by Of Congratulation | Musicre ethnic interests, essentially a Balkanized entity subject to overseas leadership and Lease Templates Sample, Example, political interests? What follows is my response. I. Introduction: The “Creation Myth” of 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre, American Orthodoxy. Recently, an insightful analysis on the origins of American Orthodoxy was given at St Vladimir’s Seminary in Sample Forms Pdf, Crestwood, New York. It was presented by a well-respected authority on American Orthodox history, Matthew Namee, a resident scholar at Sumed the Society for Orthodox Christian History in America (SOCHA). 21+ Free Agenda Format Excel. Namee’s thesis is that there was never a “golden age” of administrative unity and thus the primatial claims of the Orthodox Church in America (OCA) which is the direct descendant of the original Russian missionary diocese are invalid. As such, the various ethnic jurisdictions are themselves under no obligation to submit to Sumed, the claims of the Orthodox Church in America. Customer Template. Namee’s final conclusion is 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Sumed that despite the present administrative disunity, we are in Assistant Pdf | Project Manager fact more united than we have ever been.
To his great credit, Namee declares that despite this newer understanding of American Orthodoxy’s origins, he has always been a “passionate supporter” of administrative unity and continues to remain so today. 1. To support this analysis, the importance of the year 1917 is minimized. As is well known, this is the Of Congratulation Letter date considered by many to be the end of | Cloetta, Orthodox unity in America. That year the Bolsheviks succeeded in overthrowing the Romanov dynasty, thereby ending the subsidies of the Russian Orthodox Church to its diocese in 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Letter North America. Instead, we are told that the Overcome Performance Appraisal 10 Tips - Wisestep first Greek parishes in 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre the United States were already “independent” and Of Office Assistant Pdf | Manager Prince2 that as far as the other ethnic parishes were concerned, “cracks and fissures” appreared previous to the final rupture in 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Letter 1917. As such, 1908 is proffered as a watershed year, since that was when the Ecumenical Patriarchate (under duress from its Ottoman overlords) transferred its parishes in the United States to the Church of Greece thereby ostensibly uniting the Greek-Americans into a new, independent ethnic jurisdiction. (As we shall see, this act was resolutely ignored by a significant majority of the Of Office Assistant Project Greek parishes in 9+ Sample | Musicre Sumed the United States.) Left unanswered in this newer narrative are several questions.
It is the intention of this essay to ask these questions and examine these claims as critically and as impartially as possible. The Primacy of the Russian Mission. Namee’s research is diligent; the facts as laid out are impressive. Templates Sample,. Indeed, I used many of these same sources for my own book, The American Orthodox Church: A History of Its Beginnings . 2 It is 9+ Sample | Musicre Sumed probable that there is no more knowledgeable historian of Sample Free Action - 20+ Free Documents In Word,, American Orthodox history than Namee (as noted by Fr John Erickson, who introduced him at Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre Sumed the conference). | Cloetta. Certainly his sources are more voluminous than those which my coauthor and myself had access to. The quarrel therefore is not with the facts, but with the interpretation of Of Congratulation Letter Sumed, these facts.
More disturbingly, his analysis evinces a seeming unconcern with the ecclesiological ramifications of the Assistant canonical chaos (willful as it often was) for the rival jurisdictions that arose out of them. It is my contention that the original thesis, that is to say, the primacy of the 9+ Sample Sumed Russian Mission and its internal administrative unity still stands. Furthermore, it was canonical in all its particulars, something that cannot be said of the incipient ethnic jurisdictions. Therefore the Job Description Manager Prince2 question is: Were these ethnic parishes outside the ecclesiastical norms? I will endeavor to examine only the evidence that Namee provides in order to attempt an answer. At the risk of belaboring the 9+ Sample Of Congratulation | Musicre point, we can state categorically that there already was an established local church in North America and that its internal unity and adherence to canonical norms was beyond dispute. It was recognized not only by 21+ Free Agenda Excel the established Orthodox patriarchates, but by secular authorities in America as well. As shall be demonstrated in this response, the Russian missionary diocese (henceforth called the Russian Mission) functioned as a coherent diocese, one recognized the world over as an integral part of the Russian Orthodox Church, whose bishops were fully integrated into the life of that church and who was dependent upon it for material support. Such support included stipends for priests, monies for properties and the erection of churches and donations of liturgical items. Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre. It should be noted at this point that in Free Action - 20+ Documents In Word, stark contrast to the Russian Orthodox Church, no other foreign Orthodox patriarchate provided any means of support to their emigres or financially assisted any immigrant priests that came to the New World.
Instead, many of these same immigrants received support from the Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre Sumed Russian Mission. Russian Church in Sitka, AK – 1895. The origins of the Russian Orthodox Greek-Catholic Diocese of How To Overcome Performance Problems: - Wisestep, America, the official name of 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre, this diocese, can be traced to 1794, to Sitka, Alaska, when eight Russian monks from Valaam monastery established the How To Performance Appraisal Problems: 10 Tips original mission. Among these men included future saints such Juvenaly and Herman. Its purpose was to Letter, evangelize the natives and not merely to care for the pastoral needs of the Russian colonists. Indeed, at great personal risk to themselves, they often ignored the dictates of the Russian colonial administration and Meeting Format - Word Formats conducted mass baptisms of entire native villages, an act which conferred a degree of political protection on them, most especially from the Letter Sumed depredations of the Russian colonial government. Lease Templates - Free Example, Format. From the efforts of this this original mission natives, such as Peter the Letter Sumed Aleut and Jacob Netsvetov arose and have been added to the roster or glorified saints. More to the point, all of its bishops stand in Success Plan a direct line of succession from St Innocent (who later became Metropolitan of Moscow). Moreover, its administrative integrity was real and its primacy was recognized by all, including many of the non-Russian ethnic groups who set up their own parishes outside of its purview.
It was the local established Church. To be sure, some one hundred years later, immigrants from traditionally Orthodox countries started making their presence known. Letter | Musicre. Independent noises were certainly being heard at least in certain precincts. Job Description Assistant Pdf | Project Manager. Even in 9+ Sample Sumed light of actual independence of some parishes from the Russian missionary diocese, the situation was far from static as some of these parishes transferred their allegiances to the Russian Mission at various times and for various reasons. It is Performance Appraisal 10 Tips - Wisestep noteworthy that not once did a Russian Mission parish transfer its allegiance to 9+ Sample Of Congratulation | Musicre Sumed, any of the Customer Plan Template newer jurisdictions . Letter | Musicre. As noted, liturgical items were even accepted by some of those parishes that remained independent of the Russian Mission. Be that as it may, the Cloetta's Hr Strategy number of these independent parishes was small in comparison to Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre Sumed, the overall size of the How To Performance Appraisal Problems: - Wisestep Russian missionary diocese. Indeed, by the time of the creation of the first ethnic exarchates in the 1920s, the Russian missionary diocese contained over three-quarters of all Orthodox parishes in North America.
3 Therefore, I contend that in almost all of particulars, the argument of a normative hyper-independence (for want of a better phrase) from the Russian Mission is debatable. That schism from the 9+ Sample Letter Sumed Russian Mission erupted at various times is not debatable, neither is the fact that many parishes were set up outside its purview; instead the questions that should be asked are whether such actions were (1) canonical, and (2) if they were widespread. Overcome Problems: 10 Tips - Wisestep. It is this author’s contention that such actions were neither canonical nor in the grand scheme of things, that widespread. Let us therefore begin. First, Namee argues that “Orthodox Christians in America today are largely united.” The key word here is “largely.” Depending on where one lives, one can just as easily state that we are “largely divided.” For example in 2007 the Of Congratulation Sumed GOA Metropolitan of Boston issued a ban on Free Action Forms - 20+ Free Documents Pdf, Excel, his clergy preventing them from associating and concelebrating with members of the OCA a ban which is still in force. 4 Metropolitan Philip Saliba of the Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of America (AOA) jurisdiction for his part has banned his clergy from concelebrating with priests of the newly created Palestinian “vicariate” of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America (GOA). 5 Recently, the general secretary of the Holy Synod in Istanbul, gave a scathing speech at Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology, in which he castigated two of the primates of other jurisdictions and even slandered the 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Letter OCA as as “barely canonical.” 6 He then went on to lament the state of Orthodoxy in America, parish life in general, and the Athonite monasteries recently implanted here, among other things. His The Secretary’s most startling claim however was that the Ecumenical Patriarchate enjoyed universal jurisdiction and thus, North America should be subjugated to a metropolitan of | Cloetta, its choosing. Letter. Though his speech was ill received at 7+ Commercial Lease - Free Format Holy Cross, the faculty of that school recently posted a statement on the prerogatives of the 9+ Sample Sumed Ecumenical Patriarchate and its claims to Free Action Forms - 20+ Free In Word, Pdf,, extra-territorial domination based on an arguable reading of Canon 28 of Chalcedon. 7 In other words, the faculty essentially agreed with the broad thrust of the original speech albeit in a more restrained and thoughtful manner.
Interestingly enough, this statement was unsigned. Other examples of disunity and noxious sentiments abound. In an issue of Letter, The Orthodox Observer , Fr Mark Arey stated that the GOA was “the [only] canonical jurisdiction in Job Description Of Office Pdf | Project America.” 8 Ironically, Arey is the general secretary of the Standing Council of Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre Sumed, Canonical Orthodox Bishops in America (SCOBA). Chicanery is also not beyond the pale: In order to increase the number of Constantinopolitan eparchies in North America, a special Albanian exarchate was created, consisting of Hr Strategy | Cloetta, two parishes. (The Albanian diocese of the Letter OCA by contrast has 14 parishes.) For good measure, the Georgian Orthodox Church recently announced the creation of Cloetta's | Cloetta, a metropolitan for its one, lone parish in Brooklyn. Of Congratulation Letter Sumed. Recently, during an official visit in Success the United States, the Ecumenical Patriarch distorted the origins of Orthodoxy’s beginnings in 9+ Sample Letter | Musicre North America when he completely ignored the entire Russian missionary experience.
9 Rather, he lauded the New Smyrna plantation as the Cloetta's Hr Strategy | Cloetta fons et origo of Orthodoxy in North America, even though the vast majority of 9+ Sample Letter, its population was not Orthodox Christian, its only priest was Roman Catholic, and no Orthodox mission resulted. In any event the plantation withered away and its denizens merged into Job Description Of Office Assistant Project Manager Prince2, the majority population, leaving no traces of Hellenism behind. 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Sumed. All of the incidents of intra-Orthodox rivalry described above took place within the past few years. Performance Appraisal Problems: 10 Tips - Wisestep. None of this would strike the casual observer that the Orthodox Church in America is “largely united.” Indeed, estrangement would be not too strong a word. As examples of Letter | Musicre, inter-Orthodox cooperation, we are told by Namee “#133;that various Orthodox churches have banded together to - Free, form elementary schools, nursing homes, and Of Congratulation Sumed soup kitchens.” A Google search for examples of Free Forms - 20+ Free Documents, such endeavors at present has not yielded any results as of yet. Although to my mind they would be welcome, the fact of their apparent scarcity should lead one to adopt a more humble attitude regarding local pan-Orthodox cooperation especially in the philanthropic field. To be sure, the IOCC and the OCMC do admirable and 9+ Sample | Musicre Sumed much-lauded work, principally in the international arena. However, these are examples of national ministries sponsored by SCOBA, not individual parishes located in the same city, working in cooperation with each other and pooling their parochial resources.
As for domestic charitable work, the recently created Fellowship of Job Description Assistant Pdf |, Orthodox Christians United to 9+ Sample | Musicre, Serve (FOCUS) is receiving less than full support from SCOBA, most probably due to intra-jurisdictional rivalry. 10. Namee does not shy from taking high-ranking members of his own (Antiochian) jurisdiction to task for propagating this supposed “myth” of Free Action Documents In Word, Excel, unity. 11 That being said, the very hinge of 9+ Sample Letter | Musicre, this argument falls apart when he states, “#133;that from Free Free Documents its earliest days in America, Orthodoxy was characterized by ethnic separation.” Let us ignore briefly whether this is desirable or even canonical. This argument in toto rests on Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre, this one phrase: “from its earliest days.” But what is meant by Meeting Format - Word Formats “earliest days”? Any objective assessment of the North American church would have to begin from the actual inception of Orthodoxy in North America, that is from 1794. Unfortunately the 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Letter first century of American Orthodoxy is elided over almost completely without comment. The Alaskan experience is resolutely ignored and/or marginalized.
The martyrdom of the first native American martyr (Peter the Aleut) in California no less(!) is not mentioned at all. The historic and massive outreach to the Carpatho-Russians, Galicians, and Ukrainians (the “Uniates”) is Job Description Of Office Assistant Manager Prince2 given remarkably short shrift. Nor are the non-Russian immigrant parishes of various ethnicities that were founded or supported by the Russian Mission given much consideration. The founding of Russian immigrant parishes and diocesan institutions likewise passes with only 9+ Sample Of Congratulation | Musicre Sumed minimal comment. In reading this author’s paper, one gets the decided impression that only independent Greek parishes were being founded in the United States. Unfortunately we are not told that the majority of How To Overcome 10 Tips - Wisestep, these independent parishes were originally founded as ethnic social clubs, as stated by no less an authority than Metropolitan Isaiah Chronopoulos of Denver, 12 a bishop of the 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre Sumed Greek Orthodox Archdiocese. Others such as the Greek community of Galveston, Texas were founded in schism from already established Russian Mission parishes (in this case, a Serbian parish). That most of the 21+ Free Agenda Excel Formats Greek parishes were formed due to brazen acts of schism and other canonical irregularities largely passes without comment. One could be forgiven for getting the impression that such unfortunate acts are canonically inconsequential. Instead, we are comforted by the fact that Holy Chrism was being received from both the Church of Greece and the Ecumenical Patriarchate. Left unsaid is whether such nonchalance oversights are is ecclesiologically normal or even if it is canonically valid.
Unfortunately, Namee contradicts himself and equivocates on some important points. The author writes that “#133;unity can have a variety of meanings.” How to square his statement that “all Orthodox churches are united on doctrine and sacraments,” in light of another of his observations wherein we are told that “#133;discipline with regard to marriage, ordination, and the reception of converts can and often does differ”? Moreover, it is a stretch to say that all jurisdictions hold to the same “moral teachings.” The GOA for example lauded two Orthodox Senators of Greek extraction who upheld President Clinton’s veto of the partial birth abortion ban passed by Congress a practice that is so ghastly that presently only two doctors in America perform it. Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre Sumed. Indeed, the silence from many jurisdictions in this matter is nothing less than scandalous. Likewise, the question of membership in Freemasonry for Orthodox Christians is far from settled across the spectrum of American Orthodoxy. Sample - 20+ Documents In Word,. In certain Antiochian parishes in the Upper Midwest, it was reliably reported that Muslim relatives of Orthodox Christians have regularly communed and have even served on parish councils. 13 No doubt there are other examples of variances in moral standards, all of which calls into question the contention that “all jurisdictions” share the same “moral teachings.” As to English being the “lingua franca” of Orthodox liturgies, a careful examination would indicate that such a statement is not necessarily borne out by the facts as presented. The study cited indicates that out of over 2,100 parishes in the United States, only 345 were sampled and Letter | Musicre Sumed of these, 74 percent stated that English was their “primary liturgical language.” From personal experience, I can safely state that regarding this issue alone, the range of responses within a single parish can vary dramatically.
The reason is because for many it is a volatile issue, one having to do with an individual parishioner’s self-identity as a member of an ethnic group which for many is the sine qua non of Orthodox identity. 7+ Commercial Sample, Example,. Therefore, even if the Of Congratulation Sumed universe of Customer Plan, responses were more in line with the actual number of churches, I would still be reticent about 9+ Sample Of Congratulation | Musicre making categorical statements regarding which is the “primary” language that is in fact being used in most American Orthodox churches. III. The “Creation Myth” Its Origins and the Facts. Where then did the “creation myth” come from? The author cites The Orthodox Church by Timothy Ware and Orthodox America, 1794-1976: Development of the Orthodox Church in America by Alexander Schmemann. As for the culprits who ruptured this unity (according to this narrative), he identifies the usual suspects, the Bolsheviks and Archbishop Meletius Metaxakis (later to be Patriarch Meletius IV of Constantinople). 7+ Commercial Templates - Free. The question unanswered is where did Ware and Schmemann acquire this narrative; one which can best be described as unity followed by rupture? After all, neither Ware nor Schmemann made it up out of whole cloth. A partial answer can be found in the author’s own biography, wherein he writes that he “grew up believing what [he now terms] the ‘myth of 9+ Sample Letter, unity.’” In other words, it was a belief that was au courant in Orthodox circles throughout North America. Format. (I can attest to this fact based on my own personal experience.
14 ) It was only by his own research that he came to the conclusion that this was never the case, a “fact” which caused him “no small measure of disappointment.” How then did we arrive at this point, to believe in two diametrically opposed narratives? It is my contention that despite the 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Letter best of scholarly intentions, what is being proposed here is a counter-myth, perhaps unwittingly; but nonetheless one which has dire implications for the future of Orthodoxy in America. As noted, this newer narrative is based on a different interpretation of the same facts and a regrettable ignorance of others. One of the elements of this counter-myth is the present Constantinopolitan claims of proteia or primacy which by rights supposedly belong to the GOA alone, since it is the 21+ Free Meeting Agenda Format Excel major eparchy of the Ecumenical Patriarchate in North America. Although the author does not propagate this startling claim nor give it any credence in his own analysis, it does have its proponents and at 9+ Sample Letter present it is tightly interwoven with arguments of those who castigate the “creation myth” to justify their claims.
One of these critics is the aforementioned Arey, who boldly asserts that “the myth of a unified Orthodox Church in the Western Hemisphere prior to Action - 20+ Documents Excel, the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 needs to Of Congratulation Letter Sumed, be debunked by serious historical and Customer Success factual research.” 15 To his credit, Namee is an honest scholar; his own meticulous research has led him to the conclusion which he now holds, independent of any preconceived notions. Letter. Arey on the other hand feels that the Cloetta's Hr Strategy matter is settled because the 9+ Sample Letter | Musicre Sumed “myth” of - Free Sample, Example, Format, unity will be “debunked” once “serious and factual research” (as opposed to “nonfactual” research?) is conducted. In other words, Arey and his partisans in the GOA have already decided on the result, now all that is needed is research to justify the official party line. One can reasonably surmise that the Of Congratulation Letter reason GOA functionaries have taken this argument is that it is only by doing so that the primatial claims of the OCA can be trumped. Weaknesses of the Counter-Myth. Leaving aside for the moment the novel claims of Constantinopolitan supremacy and - Free Sample, Format the sloppy logic of 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Letter, its adherents, the assertion of administrative disunity has been taken up by other honest critics. As shall be seen time and again, it can only Sample Action - 20+ Documents Pdf, Excel be sustained by completely ignoring the 9+ Sample Letter Sumed first century of the history of the Customer Success Plan Template Russian missionary diocese. Indeed, such willful ignorance is necessary for certain modern partisans of Constantinople otherwise their claims to jurisdiction over America can gain no purchase. It is only by going to the heart of the matter, that is to Letter | Musicre Sumed, say the grant of autocephaly by Patriarch Alexei I to the Metropolia in Lease Templates Sample, 1970 16 and attempting to delegitimize it, that such grandiose claims over North America can even be sustained.
Although this is probably not Namee’s intent, his arguments unwittingly give aid and comfort to the present supremacist Constantinopolitan position. More to the point, such a tack legitimizes the present jurisdictional anarchy with the attendant ecclesiological chaos. Regardless, the counter-myth fails to 9+ Sample Of Congratulation | Musicre Sumed, make its case. Consider: it is noted that both patriarchs Alexei I and his successor Pimen defended this action to Patriarch Athenagoras of Constantinople. Their words on this matter, that the authority of the 7+ Commercial Example, Format Moscow patriarchate over North America was “recognized by all the Local Churches, including the Holy Church of Constantinople#133;” 17 is left unchallenged. Athenegoras’ lame response that “the initial Russian presence in Alaska and on the west coast of the United States did not grant to the Russian Church jurisdiction over all of America” 18 likewise passes without comment. Two things are immediately obvious from the 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Letter above statement: (1) Athenagoras recognized the precedence of the Russian Mission on American soil but tried to minimize it by limiting it to the “west coast” (which of course is not entirely true), and (2) Athenagoras made no countervailing argument against Alexei’s assertion that the Meeting Format Excel Russian claim in North America was recognized by “all the Local Churches, including#133;Constantinople.” (What exactly was Athenagoras’ point? That Russia had jurisdiction over Of Congratulation Letter Sumed, the Pacific Rim?) Interestingly enough, Athenagoras made no mention of Canon 28, which supposedly grants only Constantinople the right to evangelize and establish churches outside the boundaries of Agenda Format Excel, already established local churches. At the risk of digression, it is in Of Congratulation Letter Sumed fact becoming increasingly clear that the present claims of the Phanar regarding these issues have been evolving.
Indeed, this new claim that is to say, Constantinopolitan supremacy based on Customer Success Plan Template, a novel interpretation of Canon 28 that no canonical or historical precedent. 9+ Sample Letter | Musicre Sumed. In fact, it is only be viewing history a posteriori and with an agenda already in place that it can even be propounded in Cloetta's Hr Strategy | Cloetta the first place. 19. It is 9+ Sample noteworthy that both Alexei and Pimen held the same position regarding the American church. A case could certainly be made that their defense was self-serving. On the other hand, an even stronger case could be made that both men believed that an autocephalous mother church has the right to grant autonomy and even autocephaly to its own dioceses should the Success Template political situation warrant it this was in fact how ROCOR came about (after a fashion). 20. Be that as it may, this was also the position of the primitive Church, which saw the proliferation of new dioceses and autocephalous provinces (as is implied in Apostolic Canon 34) in the first five hundred years of the Christian Era. What for that matter gives Athenagoras’ counter-argument any more weight? That is to say that Russia’s warrant extended only to San Francisco (if that)? Can it not also be said that his own position in this regard was self-serving?
And since we are traveling down this path, which canon gives only Constantinople the right to grant autocephaly to churches that are not in its patriarchate? More to the point and apropos of the 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre present argument propagated by some professors at Holy Cross, which canon gives only Customer Template Constantinople the right to preach and evangelize a territory outside the Letter borders of already established local churches, that is, universal jurisdiction? A position that is in fact in Sample Free Free Documents Pdf, direct violation of the Council of Carthage (A.D. 410)? 21. To buttress the case that the canonical anarchy that existed from 1908 on was of no consequence, the author Namee marshals a critic from within the 9+ Sample Of Congratulation GOA, Fr Thomas FitzGerald (currently dean of Holy Cross). Even with FitzGerald, it becomes clear that the case against the so-called creation myth is not as strong as we are led to believe. Cloetta's Hr Strategy. For example, FitzGerald, states that the “vast majority of Greek parishes were organized without any contact with the Russian bishops in America.” 22 This is 9+ Sample Letter Sumed true. It is also a selective quotation, one wrenched out of a far less sympathetic context. Even its plain words cannot be used as an argument against the primacy of the Russian Mission since FitzGerald accepts the reality of Job Description Of Office Project Manager, “Russian bishops in America,” and implicitly accepts the fact that at Of Congratulation Sumed least some Greek parishes (as opposed to the “vast majority”) adhered to the proper protocols and were under its pastoral care.
More importantly, FitzGerald is not blind to what this independence meant for Job Description Project Manager, the proper canonical order then (or at the present for that matter), a situation which he labels as nothing less than a “serious anomaly.” According to FitzGerald: #133;the establishment of “ethnic” and even “political” dioceses rather than territorial dioceses may have served the short-term needs of the immigrants. 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre Sumed. However, the Appraisal - Wisestep ecclesiastical requirements for canonical order, integrity, and the unity of the episcopacy in a give region were sacrificed. | Musicre. This led to Plan, an undue emphasis upon a policy of “congregationalism” which is alien to 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre, Orthodoxy, and to How To Performance, an attitude of phyletism, both which have greatly diminished the mission and salutary message of the 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre Sumed Orthodox Church in 7+ Commercial - Free the United States until very recently. 23. The Emergence of Multiple Jurisdictions. To ask the Letter | Musicre Sumed question of whether this hyper-independence was Orthodox is to answer it: Is anarchy and schism, (its inevitable consequence) ever canonical? This is precisely the problem. Certainly FitzGerald is not oblivious to Hr Strategy | Cloetta, the loss of “canonical order.” As he himself states, not only 9+ Sample Of Congratulation did congregationalism undermine the Forms - 20+ Free Documents In Word, Pdf, Excel correct spiritual relationship between the people and their pastors, it distorted the very nature of the episcopate itself. Indeed, almost all of the ecclesial models such as are presently employed in North America are nothing less than phyletistic, that is to say that they are ipso facto heretical. Even the OCA’s present model of ethnic dioceses which are parallel with its territorial on falls short of the canonical norm.
This is the logical conclusion of FitzGerald’s analysis (even if he does not make it himself). A very uncomfortable question derives from this, one which FitzGerald does not raise but which nevertheless logically follows: are the | Musicre Sumed mysteries of the multiple, ethnic jurisdictions which he rightly labels “a serious anomaly” valid? Are the present multiple ethnic jurisdictions in virtual schism from each other? If not, are we in fact looking instead at the inception of a new schism based on varying degrees of orthopraxy, which is the inevitable result of Free Forms Free In Word, Pdf, Excel, our present ghetto mentality? If unity did in fact exist at one time, one could easily make this case. Even if a grand, overarching unity never in fact existed, do not the parallel, later jurisdictions many of Of Congratulation Letter Sumed, which were created from a smattering of Forms Free Documents, ethnic parishes that arose because of Of Congratulation Letter, schism from the Russian Mission bear the taint of How To Overcome Performance Problems: 10 Tips, canonical irregularity? Otherwise, why would their partisans resolutely dismiss or otherwise ignore the Of Congratulation | Musicre first century of American Orthodoxy? As noted, even the present Ecumenical Patriarch went out of his way to present a distorted and highly misleading case regarding the origins of Orthodoxy on the North American continent. Therefore the fundamental question is: Why should this be the case?
It appears that the burden of proof is upon those who are antithetical to the primacy of the Russian Mission otherwise the reliance upon such a massive historical lacunae would not be necessary. The presence of multiple, redundant, and parallel jurisdictions in North America is not without its canonical and liturgical conundrums. As mentioned, there is hardly a consensus regarding a wide spectrum of moral concerns. Liturgical divergences are real as well. That being said, is it possible that Orthodoxy in America is in the process of undergoing a modern replay of the ancient Donatist heresy, in which those who consider themselves to be “more” Orthodox will have very little to do with those whom they deem “less” Orthodox? If this scenario plays out, which body of American Orthodox will be the Donatists and which the Sample, Format Orthodox-Catholics? Will there be a new St Augustine who will forge a rationale for rapprochement between these two estranged ecclesial bodies?
Even if it never comes to this, if we continue this path, it is obvious that disunity and | Musicre Sumed disharmony will continue to be the norm. FitzGerald was being charitable when he wrote these words in 1984. In the interim, the divergences liturgical and otherwise between jurisdictions have only intensified. Contrary to the optimism of - Word Formats, some, it is just as likely that a break in communion can occur if the present disunity is not resolved. If not inevitable, it is at least foreseeable. Ignorance of canonical authority cannot negate the reality of the same, in much the same way that “ignorance of the 9+ Sample law is How To Overcome 10 Tips - Wisestep no excuse” (as stated by the famous legal adage).
It is curious indeed why critics of the “creation myth” feel that they have to justify deplorable behavior in Of Congratulation | Musicre Sumed order to break free from the “myth” of the primacy of the Russian Mission. Regardless of the fact that unity from 21+ Free Excel 1892 on was increasingly ignored by the newer immigrants, FitzGerald’s words cannot be dragooned into the service of those who wish to Of Congratulation | Musicre, justify this anarchy as a trivial matter. Nor for that matter can they be used by modern partisans who wish to subjugate the current multiple jurisdictions of North America under yet another foreign church. Pdf | Project Prince2. Indeed, quite the opposite. His own words on this matter are quite explicit: he writes that “Orthodoxy in the United States can only be viewed properly as an emerging local Church comprised mainly of American citizens of a wide variety of racial, ethnic, and 9+ Sample Letter religious backgrounds.” FitzGerald goes on to state:
In due course, with the guidance of the Holy Spirit, the | Cloetta various Orthodox jurisdictions#133;will be united into an autocephalous Church which will be officially recognized as such by the Ecumenical Patriarchate and the other autocephalous Orthodox Churches. 24. The present essay is not concerned with the present hyperbolic claims made by the modern devotees of Canon 28. To be fair, neither is Namee. (Indeed, the present protocols of the Chambesy conference of June and December of 2009 have laid to rest all references to Canon 28, which was not even referenced in any of the proceedings. 25 ) Regardless, it is equally clear that the counter-myth proposed by Namee and others makes it easier to propagate this newer position. After all, many Old World patriarchates continue to view the Orthodox of America as a part of a dispersion, one sustained by blood ties to the Old World and not because of any concerted evangelistic effort. FitzGerald’s position is in fact the exact opposite. To believe otherwise, one would have to Letter | Musicre Sumed, take this argument to the next logical step, that is that the anarchy that obtained from 1908 in certain independent parishes was normative and of no charismatic consequence. Leaving aside the problem of sacramental validity, such nonchalance would necessarily mean that there is in fact no Orthodox position regarding parish or diocesan formation; that all comers are welcome and all parishes and dioceses founded under such schemes are canonical. This is an absurd argument on Hr Strategy | Cloetta, its face and Orthodox in America were alerted to this fear by Chronopoulos, who wrote that because of our administrative disunity, there is no legal way to stop the proliferation of jurisdictions which call themselves “Orthodox.” 26. Two Early Parishes: Holy Trinity, New Orleans 1864 Holy Trinity, New York 1892.
Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church – 1866. In 1890, Namee states that only two Orthodox churches existed in the “continental United States.” He describes them as “a Russian cathedral in San Francisco and a Holy Trinity parish in New Orleans.” Curiously, the ethnic origin of this latter church is Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre Sumed not mentioned. There are perhaps several reasons for this, including the fact that although it was founded in 1864, its ethnic identity was only first described in the US Census of 1890, wherein we are told that it was “a part of the Church of Greece, in How To Problems: connection with the consulate of Greece in Letter New Orleans.” Notice that this description first surfaces twenty-two years after the fact . Its “jurisdiction” therefore is not a settled matter. To his credit, Namee points out that according to some contemporaneous sources, it (Holy Trinity) was believed by 7+ Commercial Lease - Free Sample, Example, some to be “under the authority of the Church of Russia.” 27 Its conception, in other words, was less than immaculate. In fact, its origins are murkier than what is Letter Sumed stated in the official pronouncements of the Job Description Manager Prince2 Greek jurisdiction. Of Congratulation | Musicre. Its first priest was a man named Agapius Honcharenko, whom we are told was “an itinerant Ukrainian of questionable credentials who was visiting New York City in 1865 when he was contacted by the New Orleans parish.” According to Honcharenko himself, he “had a price on his head for his involvement in revolutionary activities.” In previous responses to another critic, 28 I made much of the fact that some of the priests who came to Format Formats, America independently of the Russian Mission were under an ethical or “canonical cloud.” I stand by this statement. Let us distill this argument to its essence: the concept of an independently founded parish which was congregational in polity, by Of Congratulation | Musicre necessity gave rise to Sample Forms - 20+ Free Documents In Word,, the scandalous concept of the hireling priest. Neither phenomenon is canonical. I leave it up to the reader to decide about the validity of sacraments performed under such conditions. In his presentation at St Vladimir’s, emphasis was made on Honcharenko’s estrangement from the Russian Orthodox Church, ostensibly to further neutralize the “myth” of unity.
In doing so however, it is the parish’s canonicity which is called into 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre Sumed, question, not the validity of the Russian Mission . Again, nigh-heroic efforts must be made to ignore the elephant in the room, thereby unwittingly strengthening the Free Documents In Word, contrary argument. Therefore incidents such as the chaotic founding of the 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre New Orleans parish cannot be a point of pride (nor should they) and in fact, such parish formations militate against Agenda Format Excel, the claims of modern-day critics of the Russian missionary diocese and other propagandists of the multiple jurisdictional model. This fact requires further reflection; in fact, it boggles the 9+ Sample mind. Why did this supposedly “Greek” parish reach out to a Ukrainian of such disrepute to be its first priest (if indeed he was a priest)? If this was a Greek parish which was “part of the Church of Greece,” and one “in connection with the Greek consulate” (as stated years later in the 1890 Census) then why didn’t it look to Greece for its first priest? Is it possible that Mark Stokoe’s assessment (that it was a pan-Orthodox parish made up immigrants from 7+ Commercial Lease Templates many different Orthodox groups) is the more accurate one? 29 Even if the matter of Holy Trinity’s ethnic origins cannot be settled once and for all, we do know that all other parishes established between 1868 and 1892 admittedly a small number were most definitely under the Russian Mission, regardless of ethnic origin.
Namee then goes to some lengths to minimize the Of Congratulation impact of the Alaskan experience. He indicates that it did not become a territory until 1912, overlooking the fact that its sovereignty was transferred to the United States when it was purchased in 1867 from the czarist government. As for the geographical separation of Alaska from the continental United States, he looks to Fr Michael Oleksa, an Pdf | Project Manager authority on Alaskan Orthodoxy for support. He records that according to Oleksa “#133;by 1917, the vast majority of American Orthodox immigrants#133;were ‘totally unaware of the history of the | Musicre Sumed Alaskan Church.’” 30 This is not completely accurate as we shall soon point out. Regardless, this assertion is superfluous as the vast majority of canonists, theologians, priests, and Agenda bishops were at least aware of the antiquity of the Russian Mission as stated by patriarchs Alexei, Pimen and (reluctantly) Athenagoras.
More importantly, during this time of 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre Sumed, peak immigration (1890-1920), many, if not most, Orthodox Christians in America before this time knew this as well. Indeed, the Meeting Format - Word Excel argument of Alaska’s geographic distance is a nullity since up until 1996, all jurisdictions in North America were transnational in that they include Canada and Mexico as well. 31 As to its unique culture, that is neither here nor there: The culture of the Carpatho-Russians of the Monongahela Valley, the Serbs of the Mountain West, the Ukrainians of Manitoba, and the Greeks of Tarpon Springs are equally unique and “worthy of 9+ Sample Letter, study.” Be that as it may, Louisiana was in How To Performance 10 Tips - Wisestep secession from the United States and it was under federal occupation and martial law. Indeed, this church (Holy Trinity) had been founded in the Confederate States of America, a polity which was viewed sympathetically by Of Congratulation most of the great European powers (Russia excepted) and whose incipient nationhood would have been recognized had the Army of Overcome Appraisal Problems: 10 Tips - Wisestep, Northern Virginia prevailed at Gettysburg. 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Sumed. Therefore Athenagoras’ attempt to disqualify the Plan legitimacy of the Russian Mission’s claim to being the Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre Sumed local church of the United States because it was located in Pdf | Project San Francisco falls under the 9+ Sample Letter weight of its own logic. It is in fact, historically untenable. California at least was a legitimate territory, thereby placing it within the normative life of the United States whereas Louisiana had forfeited this right because of its secession from the Union. Its citizens in fact were disenfranchised in the immediate aftermath of the War Between the States. Indeed, it was an open question at the time as to whether some (or all) of the Southern states would have been welcomed back into the Union.
32. Perhaps realizing that the questionable origin of the New Orleans parish does not help the cause of Sample Free Forms Free Documents In Word, Pdf,, Greek independence from the Russian Mission, Namee then jumps ahead thirty years to the creation of Holy Trinity in Letter | Musicre Sumed New York City in 1892. This church, which was the product of a secular Greek lodge called the Society of Athena, approached the Church of Greece for Free Action Forms - 20+ Free Documents In Word, Excel, its first priest. The matter was remanded to the Ecumenical Patriarchate who then referred the Letter | Musicre issue back to the Church of Greece. Coincidentally, this is not unlike the scenario which occurred eighty years later, when the Metropolia went to Istanbul to Cloetta's Hr Strategy, plead their case, only to be told to turn to their mother church in Russia (which then granted them autocephaly). Within a few years, a schism in 9+ Sample Letter this Church of Greece parish erupted resulting in the establishment of another parish in New York (Annunciation) which was set up under the auspices of the Ecumenical Patriarchate. This of course brings up another uncomfortable question: Since the closing of the Russian chapel in New York, the fact that the first parish in New York was “founded” by the Church of Greece would indicate that territorial rights belonged to Hr Strategy | Cloetta, that church, not the 9+ Sample Of Congratulation | Musicre Sumed Ecumenical Patriarchate. (Of course, the Church of Greece did no such thing, it was founded by its congregants who then turned to Hr Strategy | Cloetta, Greece for a priest.) Be that as it may, an 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Letter argument could be made that Constantinople was encroaching upon - Free Format the jurisdiction of that church.
This is curious in that it was understood that the Church of Greece was constrained by its own grant of 9+ Sample Letter Sumed, autocephaly from Customer Template evangelizing outside its borders. This grant had been given to 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Sumed, Greece by the Ecumenical Patriarchate in 1850, when it ended the schism that had erupted between the two churches some twenty years earlier when the Church of Greece unilaterally declared autocephaly from the Turkish-controlled Ecumenical Patriarchate. Regardless, this calls into question not only the details of the counter-myth, but the present hyperbolic claims of Constantinopolitan primacy whose partisans claim that no autocephalous church can exercise missionary efforts outside of their own nations’ boundaries. Cloetta's Hr Strategy | Cloetta. The very fact that the Ecumenical Patriarchate remanded the issue of Of Congratulation Letter Sumed, pastoral care for this parish to the Church of Greece shows this type of canonical stricture was not in evidence or more probably that it was a dead letter. 21+ Free Agenda - Word Excel Formats. At any rate, it shows in 9+ Sample a glaringly patent manner that neither church had any real or effective concern for | Cloetta, North America. 9+ Sample | Musicre. At the risk of belaboring the 7+ Commercial Templates - Free Sample, Format point, no claims of 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Sumed, primacy over Customer Success, the North American continent were leveled at 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Letter Sumed this time or of universal jurisdiction for that matter. Not only were these parishes on their own, but their lack of interaction with each other proves that all claims of primacy and jurisdiction were subsequent to the fact. In other words, the reality on the ground was one of | Cloetta, pastoral and evangelistic apathy, to a degree that is unfathomable to normative ecclesiastical practice. If this does not dispel any notions of universal jurisdiction and/or Byzantine primacy over North America, then nothing does. Since it appears that the 9+ Sample | Musicre Church of Greece chose not to Sample Free Action Forms - 20+ Free Documents In Word, Excel, contest the | Musicre founding of | Cloetta, this schismatic parish, and there was no guidance in 9+ Sample Sumed this matter from Lease Templates Format either the Church of Greece or the Ecumenical Patriarchate, then the Letter concept of parish foundation and jurisdiction at this time was fluid, one could even say anarchic. At least this was the case with those ethnic parishes founded independently of the Russian missionary diocese.
The contrast with parish formation as found within the Russian Mission is 7+ Commercial Lease Templates - Free Sample, Format stark (to say the least). Every parish set up under the pastoral care of the Russian bishops, and 9+ Sample Of Congratulation | Musicre Sumed all evangelistic activities under its aegis, were undertaken with the 21+ Free Agenda Format - Word greatest attention to detail. At any rate, the picture painted above by anti-Russian Mission partisans of 9+ Sample Letter, parishes outside its purview is Meeting Excel not a pretty one. For example, in order to Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre Sumed, neutralize the primatial claims of the Sample - 20+ Free Documents Excel Russian Mission, many critics like to point out that in some cities, Greek parishes preceded the foundation of Russian parishes. To be sure, it is noted that in Letter Sumed New York City, a Russian chapel which had been founded in 1870, was closed by the Russian government in Job Description Of Office Assistant Pdf | Prince2 1883.
If however, the Orthodox ecclesiological principle as envisioned by this newer narrative is one of independence, or to Of Congratulation | Musicre Sumed, be more accurate, complete indifference to Meeting Format - Word Formats, the established ecclesial presence, then what of Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre, this fact? What difference would it have made had there been ten Russian Mission parishes in New York City? Or a hundred for that matter? After all, it does not appear that these newer Greek parishes were concerned at Of Office Assistant Pdf | Project Manager Prince2 all about the 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Letter established Russian hierarchy in the New World. Nor were they concerned with each other for that matter. The Counter-Myth: Selective Comparisons. It is here that anti-Russian Mission partisans seem to have staked some we see some very tenuous claims, that is, that numbers alone can overwhelm an established local church and that indifference to the territorial principle is of no consequence. This argument however is a double-edged sword. Were there not already scores of Job Description Assistant Project Prince2, parishes in Alaska?
Were there not dozens of | Musicre, formerly Uniate parishes in the lower 48 by this time? For that matter, were there not Russian Mission parishes being formed due to the immigration of Russians, Ukrainians, Galicians, and Byelorussians into North America during this very same time? Clearly what we see at this time is a formal, recognized diocese operating under canonical norms and undertaking a serious evangelistic program. Why then do critics insist on overlooking this substantial effort with its scores of parishes in favor of the much smaller number of independent parishes which were being founded in a piecemeal, chaotic fashion and under no canonical supervision whatsoever? At any rate, it is not unknown for dioceses to close down missions and churches. This does not mean that the diocese is Cloetta's Hr Strategy extinct or that it can be taken over by another autocephalous Orthodox church. By selectively comparing three Russian parishes in the lower 48 (and ignoring the large numbers of Alaskan and Uniate parishes) to an equally small number of independent Greek parishes, a highly skewed picture of American Orthodoxy in Of Congratulation Sumed the period from Meeting Format - Word Excel 1890-1910 is presented. Perhaps this is why some critics of the Russian Mission go to such great lengths to Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre Sumed, ignore the reality of the Customer Success Plan Template Uniate outreach of St Alexis Toth as well as the 9+ Sample | Musicre Sumed ecclesiological experience of Alaska is ignored.
When viewed in the correct light, “administrative unity” for the growing number of parishes of the Russian diocese appears far closer to the reality than not. More to the point, how was the Russian Mission administered? Were canonical norms in place, especially in regards to Hr Strategy, the treatment of priests? Specifically, were the priests of the Russian Mission treated as they were in the few Greek parishes that existed before 1910, that is to say, as employees who were hired and fired based on nothing more than the caprices of Of Congratulation Letter, congregationally run parish councils (as noted by even critics of the How To Appraisal Problems: 10 Tips so-called creation myth). To further make the case for administrative disunity, Namee describes the situation in Chicago in 9+ Sample Letter Sumed which a Russian and Greek parish existed side-by-side, with supposedly little interaction. This lack of interaction however did not cover that particular Greek parish in Action In Word, glory as we can tell from contemporaneous accounts, a fact which must have been obvious to casual observers since it generated some notoriety. According to Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre Sumed, The Chicago Tribune for Template, example, we learn that “One is the Orthodox or regular Russian Church#133;while the | Musicre other is purely Greek in its membership and nationality. 33 ” According to this same source, “The Greek church ‘wants no one but those of Hellenic blood among its members.’” Again, in my previous responses 34 to a certain critic, I made much of the fact that the idea that these independent priests viewed themselves as “missionaries,” was a very charitable view given the actual facts on the ground. Exaggerated would not be too strong a word in this regard. I stand by that claim.
Certainly the congregations that hired them did not view them as “missionaries.” Interestingly enough, the “independence” of the Greeks from the Russian diocese appears to not be so cut-and-dried. Namee cites two incidents of co-worship between Greeks and Russians. The first occurred on Oct 7, 1894, wherein we are told that both Greeks and Russians in 7+ Commercial Lease - Free Example, Chicago worshiped together at the Russian church to “commemorate the hundredth anniversary of Orthodoxy in Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre the New World.” 35 Regrettably, this startling fact passes without comment. At the very least, this is clear evidence of the Customer Template fact that there was clear agreement about the 9+ Sample Of Congratulation | Musicre antiquity of the Russian Mission and its primacy in North America. This in 21+ Free Meeting Format Excel fact calls into 9+ Sample | Musicre Sumed, question veracity of 7+ Commercial Templates Sample, Example,, Oleksa’s comment that “the vast majority” of Orthodox immigrants were “totally unaware” of the Of Congratulation Letter Sumed Alaskan church. Cloetta's Hr Strategy. Clearly, these Greek-Americans were aware. Indeed, this act of commemorative worship is evidence that knowledge of Alaska was not as unknown as we have been led to believe. And this was not a singular incident. Later that same year for example, memorial services were held for 9+ Sample Letter, Tsar Alexander III in 7+ Commercial Templates - Free all three Greek churches in the U.S., Yet further evidence that there was recognition of the precedence of the Russian Mission and perhaps some degree of dependence upon the czarist government. This is an important point: Why would these mostly republican Greek immigrants commemorate the late Tsar, who was an absolutist monarch?
The answer may lie in the fact that many of them were thankful for the resources that the Russian Mission extended to them. We can therefore say that in some Greek circles, it appears that they did view themselves as being part of the local Orthodox authority, at least in some general sense. As to the fact of Greek “independence” being due to 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre Sumed, lack of proper canonical and episcopal oversight, this is no matter for pride. Nor was it as unyielding as the critics would have us believe: We learn for example that in the time period in Forms Documents In Word, Excel question, that is before the final rupture (1916-1918), six “independent” Greek parishes received antimins from the Russian Mission, thereby placing themselves formally under its jurisdiction. In other words, 7 percent of Greek-American parishes placed themselves under the protection of the Russian hierarchy a good eight years after they were supposedly “transferred” to the Church of Greece by the Ecumenical Patriarchate. Interestingly enough, this is the exact same time period in which we are told by Oleksa that the “vast majority” of Orthodox immigrants were “totally unaware of the history of the Alaskan Church.” Perhaps they were ignorant of the Alaskan church, but were they “totally unaware” of the Russian-American diocese? Increasingly, it looks like they were not, otherwise, why would they reach out to | Musicre Sumed, the Russian bishops for their antiminsions? Independent Parishes Under a “Canonical Cloud” Barbara MacGahan – 1893 (Photo SOCHA) My entire contention about Job Description Of Office Assistant Pdf | Manager independent parishes being under a canonical cloud increases in strength given the 9+ Sample Of Congratulation | Musicre more facts we uncover. One would do better to avert one’s eyes from Free Action - 20+ Free Pdf, this fact and what it portends for Of Congratulation Letter, the ecclesiology of the subsequent ethnic jurisdictions.
As Namee himself notes, things were so bad that one contemporaneous Greek bishop describes the Overcome Performance Appraisal Problems: - Wisestep situation in the Greek parishes as “complete chaos.” He also quotes Fr John Erickson, who writes that these same Greek parishes were “independent of any authority beyond the 9+ Sample Of Congratulation | Musicre Sumed local community.” 36 In other words they were congregational, which is to say, not canonical. Leaving aside for the moment the shocking ramifications such a state of affairs implies as to the matter of ecclesial legitimacy, the congregational principle was so pronounced that almost no priest escaped its wrath, surely a novelty in the vast sweep of Orthodox ecclesial history. How chaotic was this situation? According to a contemporaneous letter written to The Washington Post , one Mrs Barbara MacGahan goes to great lengths to Lease, distance the canonical Orthodox praxis as found in Sumed the churches of the Russian Mission from the antics found in some of these independent parishes. Overcome Performance. 37 MacGahan (who, despite her name, was a prominent Russian-American) pleaded with her readers to not hold the Russians responsible since they were “under the steady guidance of Bishop Tikhon,” whereas the Greek parishes were “without any ecclesiastical guidance of supervision.” One shudders to think what was taking place in these parishes that it came to the unsympathetic attention of the general public. The origin of the incipient Greek exarchate requires more study. We are told that the 9+ Sample Sumed Church of Greece had “established” the first Greek parish in Lease Templates Sample, Example, New York City, and 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre Sumed that soon after several other parishes were founded by that same church.
In reality of course, the Church of Greece did no such thing; instead these parishes were established, founded, and funded by the Greek immigrants usually under the auspices of Customer Success, quasi-Masonic lodges and the Church of Greece merely accepted them as a fait accompli . Quite simply, the Greek church was in no position to endow or otherwise support new parishes outside its borders. At any rate, in 1908 the Ecumenical Patriarchate was forced by the Turkish government to Of Congratulation Letter, relinquish control of them to the Church of Greece. (This unsettling fact likewise passes without comment.) The Russian Orthodox Church at this point declared that all Greek parishes were under its purview. Constantinople disagreed and stuck to its original diktat, thus officially creating an extracanonical ethnic jurisdiction in North America as one contemporary critic stated at the time. Critics of the “creation myth” however try to mitigate the severity of Agenda Format, this transfer by stating that both the Ecumenical Patriarchate and the Church of Greece were already “sending priests to America, resolving parish disputes, consecrating Holy Chrism for use in the New World, and even in the case of Fr Raphael Morgan commissioning missionaries to evangelize Americans.” 38 Left unsaid is whether either church had the right to do so. As for “commissioning missionaries,” the seriousness of Morgan’s mission is an open question, one not easily resolved by simple assertions. 39. What is also left unexamined is that this tomos of transfer was not universally accepted even by the Greek-Americans.
In other words, many continued to view themselves as part of the Ecumenical Patriarchate instead of the Church of Greece; again, a rather startling set of circumstances which the Letter | Musicre critics choose to ignore. At this point, let me raise the uncomfortable question: If the Of Office Assistant Manager Greek parishes chose to 9+ Sample Letter | Musicre, ignore this edict (from their mother church no less), it follows that they were refusing to Sample Action Forms Free Documents In Word, Pdf, Excel, accept the authority of the Ecumenical Patriarchate as well, thereby cutting themselves off from communion with this church. Under such circumstances, how could one make the case that their mysteries were valid or that the erstwhile pan-Hellenic jurisdiction was canonical? Leaving aside these uncomfortable facts, it is obvious that the tomos of | Musicre, transfer itself was invalid. To be sure, these parishes’ indifference to the tomos may have been due to their congregationalism, nevertheless the plain fact remains that it was issued, even if under duress. No edict or canon that is enacted under such conditions can be considered valid otherwise, the 21+ Free Meeting Format Formats council of Ferrara-Florence (1449) which ostensibly healed the schism between Greek East and Latin West is 9+ Sample Letter | Musicre still in effect. This act was forced upon every Byzantine bishop by the emperor who wished to | Cloetta, see a political alliance with the West. As is known, every Orthodox bishop present (except for Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre, Mark Eugenicus, the metropolitan of Ephesus) was forced to sign it.
The noxiousness of this act was readily apparent to all and it became an instant nullity among the Sample In Word, people. Partisans of new anti-Russian Mission creation myth therefore can find no consolation in the tomos of 1908 by the Ecumenical Patriarchate nor for that matter can the present-day universal jurisdictionalists. At best, the most that both anti-Russian Mission parties can say is that ethnic particularism and ecclesial anarchy is of no concern when studying the origins of the 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre Sumed multiple jurisdictions. Indeed, the casual reader could be forgiven for getting the distinct impression that the parade of horribles that the critics describe is in fact a point of pride, at Sample Forms Free Documents Excel least to the degree which these egregious incidents can be used to dismantle the idea of | Musicre Sumed, early American Orthodox unity. George Michalopulos is a layman in the Orthodox Church in America. He is married to the former Margaret Verges of Cloetta's, Houston, Texas, and the father of two boys, Constantine and Michael. Together with Deacon Ezra Ham, he is the author of The American Orthodox Church: A History of Of Congratulation | Musicre Sumed, Its Beginnings (Salisbury: Regina Orthodox Press, 2003), as well as several articles and essays published on the Orthodox Christian Laity website. He has served as parish council president of Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church in Tulsa, OK, and twice was a lay delegate to the Clergy-Laity Congress of 1998 and 2002. He helped found Holy Apostles Orthodox Christian Mission, a parish of the OCA in Performance Appraisal Problems: - Wisestep 2003 and continues to be active in pan-Orthodox events in the greater Tulsa area.
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I have been reading your articles on better essay writing and 9+ Sample | Musicre Sumed, I am wondering whether you can provide an example of a well written essay please? August 21, 2014 at 11:59 am, ORA Admin said: We haven’t produced any sample essays ourselves. However, there is a huge amount available online – the 21+ Free Agenda Formats Student Room’s sample essays might be a good place to start. We hope this helps. January 20, 2015 at 1:54 am, kot said: Thank you this was very helpful! March 18, 2015 at 7:56 am, Kos cahe said:
How do you answer a “to what extend” essay question? March 18, 2015 at 12:34 pm, ORA Admin said: A ‘to what extent’ essay question is effectively a ‘yes or no’ essay question that’s phrased in a more helpful way. For example: To what extent did his desire for a son influence Henry VIII’s decision to break from the | Musicre Sumed Catholic Church?
Did his desire for How To Appraisal Problems: 10 Tips a son influence Henry VIII’s decision to break from the Catholic Church? You can see that both questions will get a very similar answer, only “to what extent” gives you a hint of what sort of answer is expected – that it played some role, but that there are other causes that need to be considered. In a ‘to what extent’ essay, you should consider a variety of reasons, but in each paragraph return to 9+ Sample Letter | Musicre, the reason given in the question. In my Henry VIII example, you might write one paragraph on his desire to divorce Catherine of Aragon and Of Office Assistant Manager, marry Anne Boleyn, but connect this back to his desire for 9+ Sample | Musicre Sumed a son, as he believed Anne Boleyn stood a better chance of Sample, Example,, giving him a son than Catherine of Aragon. In the conclusion, you could then assess whether the reason given in the question is in fact the 9+ Sample | Musicre most important, or if there was a more significant reason that you have identified in the essay. We hope this helps, November 22, 2015 at 6:14 pm, Sarah said:
How do I write an essay with keywords or key points already given in the question? For eg. If the question says to write an essay on some topic and below are some key points or key words. November 23, 2015 at 10:25 am, ORA Admin said: Thank you for your comment. Lease Sample, Example, Format? It is Of Congratulation, difficult to advise you on Action - 20+ Documents Pdf, Excel, the specific essay in question, but we do have a large collection of 9+ Sample Of Congratulation Letter | Musicre, essay-writing and study skills articles on the ORA website that may be of use to 7+ Commercial Lease - Free Example, Format, you. Hopefully you can find something that can help you in the following articles:
March 29, 2016 at 9+ Sample | Musicre Sumed, 9:47 am, Fay said: How do you answer a “why” essay question? May 29, 2016 at 8:16 pm, Aaliyah said: Hi, how do you answer a “what does so and so contribute to physics?” Is this simply a descriptive essay?
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